By: Luoping Zhang PhD, MS
In research contexts women's health menstrual issues buy generic anastrozole, ad hoc networks enable motor vehicles to breast cancer yoga mat buy anastrozole 1mg visa communicate directly with each other about emergent situations and driving conditions (Zongjian et al pregnancy zoloft order anastrozole 1mg mastercard. That is womens health 6 week running plan buy anastrozole with mastercard, the machine extracts objects such as humans menopause rage discount anastrozole 1 mg, cyclists, road signs, other vehicles, lanes, and other relevant factors from the video data and has been programmed to identify and interpret the images in a way that is understandable to a human. However, for all the laudable goals, including improving driving safety, errors remain and sometimes those errors are fatal. As reported in the press, the woman killed in spring 2018 as she walked her bicycle across the street was sensed by the onboard devices, but the software incorrectly classified her as an object for which braking was unnecessary. It was also reported that the “backup” driver of this autonomous vehicle was distracted, watching video on a cell phone (Laris, 2018). Reaching back to the 1960 quote, above, from Licklider, it is important to note that the title of his article was “Man-Computer Symbiosis. For clinicians to effectively manage this symbiosis, they must (1) understand their own weaknesses. This is offered through a chat bot, which not only exercises natural language interpretation and generation but also logical reasoning to perform the scheduling. The field of quantitative analytics was born in response to the computerization of the major trading exchanges. One of the early “automated” trading strategies, portfolio insurance, is widely believed to have either caused or exacerbated the 1987 stock market crash (Bookstaber, 2007). The failure of Long-Term Capital Management offers another cautionary example (Lowenstein, 2011). This fund pursued highly leveraged arbitrage trades, where the pricing and leverage were algorithmically determined. Unexpected events caused the fund to fail spectacularly, requiring an almost $5 billion bailout from various financial institutions. Large distribution channels such as Netflix and Amazon leverage machine learning algorithms for content recommendation to drive sales and engagement (Yu, 2019). These systems initially relied on algorithms such as collaborative filters to identify customers similar to others in terms of what media they consumed and enjoyed. More recently, deep learning techniques have been found superior for this task (Plummer, 2017). An interesting development has been that early techniques relied on metadata (descriptive features of media) in order to generate recommendations. For instance, computer vision is used now to index film to identify faces, brands, and locations, which are coupled with human tags to create rich metadata (Yu, 2019). Then, it compares this structured representation of the song to others that have been successful in order to identify similarity, and hence the new song’s likelihood of also becoming a hit. The general complaint that all the music on the radio “sounds the same” may be based in part on the need to conform to the styles “approved” by the algorithms. Google initially released software called Deep Dream, which was able to create art in the style of famous artists, such as Vincent van Gogh (Mordvintsev et al. This technique is now used in many cell phone apps, such as Prisma Photo Editor3, as “filters” to enhance personal photography. The deepfake technique can be used to create videos of people saying and doing things that they never did, by swapping their faces, bodies, and other features onto videos of people who did say or do what is portrayed in the video. The potential effect of such technology, when coupled with the virality of social networks, for the dissemination of false content is terrifying. Predictive policing has captured the public imagination, potentially due to popular representations in science fiction films such as Minority Report (Perry et al. State-of-the-art predictive policing technology identifies areas and times of increased risk of crime rather than identifying the victim or perpetrator (Kim et al. However, implementations of these technologies can propagate racial, gender, and other kinds of profiling when based on historically biased datasets (see Chapter 1) (Caliskan et al. Under research are efforts to identify theft, diversion, and abuse from all manner of dispensing devices. Note that many of these applications are also controversial for privacy concerns and surveillance capacity and scope, in addition to their potential to propagate racial, gender, and sexual orientation biases (see Chapter 1). Large gaps remain in the goal of aligning population and cultural expectations and preferences with the regulation and legislation of privacy, which is a subject covered in more detail in Chapter 7. One might provocatively claim that there is a planet in our solar system (probably) populated exclusively by robots, and that one of those robots is artificially intelligent. Turing proposed that the question of a machine’s ability to think is not constructive, and instead one ought to test whether or not a machine can perform as well as a human in conversation. For instance, to play chess, the computer must somehow hold the current state of the board, the rules of the game, and the desired outcome in its memory. A key observation is that these representations are often layered; stated differently, an effective representation comprises a hierarchy of abstractions. Consider chess again, the base representation is the field and players, the next layer may be particular formations of pieces, the next evolving set plays, and so on. NevilleNeil writes, We have had nearly 50 years of human/computer competition in the game of chess but does that mean any of those computers are intelligentfi The first is that chess is not a test of intelligence; it is the test of a particular skill—of playing chess. The second reason is that thinking chess was a test of intelligence was based on a false cultural premise that brilliant chess players were brilliant minds, more gifted than those around them. Yes, many intelligent people excel at chess, but chess, or any other single skill, does not denote intelligence. A camera-based computer vision system has raw data of pixels: a block of numbers representing color. From there, the computer vision system will build a hierarchy of abstractions, such as edges, solids, shapes, objects, pedestrian, automobile, or road sign. The key advance of deep learning systems is that they are able to perform this hierarchical abstraction automatically, whereas previous systems relied on the composition of multiple independent parts. These capture reality, represent and reason over it, and then affect reality, respectively. The operations in question are linear algebra operations such as matrix multiplication. IoThis the movement to collect sensor data from all manner of physical devices and make them available on the Internet. Examples abound including lightbulbs, doors, cameras, and cars; theoretically anything that can be manufactured might be included. In the emergent Internet of Medical Things, patientgenerated physiological measurements. It will be crucial that we “understand the limitations of these technologies to avoid inappropriate reliance on them for diagnostic purposes” (Deep Blue, 2019; Freedson et al. Cloud computing abstracts computation by separating the computer services from the proximate need for a physical computer. Large technology companies such as Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and others have assembled vast warehouses filled with computers. These companies sell access to their computers and, more specifically, the services they perform over the Internet, such as databases, queues, and translation. In this new landscape, a user requiring a computer service can obtain that service without owning the computer. The major advantage of this is that it relieves the user of the need to obtain and manage costly and complex infrastructure. Thus, small and relatively technologically unsophisticated users, including individuals and companies, may benefit from advanced technology. Cloud computing also creates challenges in multinational data storage and other international law complexities, some of which are briefly discussed in Chapter 7. Reasoning and Learning Computers are recognized as superior machines for their rigorous logic and expansive calculation capabilities, but the point at which formal logic becomes “thinking” or “intelligence” has proven difficult to pinpoint (Turing, 1950). Expert systems that have been successful in military and industrial settings have captured the imagination of the public with the Deep Blue versus Kasparov chess matches. More recently, Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo defeated Lee Sedol at the game Go, using deep learning methods (Wikipedia, 2019a). Programs such as deep learning, reinforcement learning, gradient boosting, and many others comprise the set of machine learning algorithms. The programmer also provides a set of data and describes a task, such as images of cats and dogs and the task to distinguish the two. The computer then executes the machine learning algorithm upon the provided data, creating a new, derivative program specific to the task at hand. The machine learning process described above comprises two phases, training and application. A machine learning algorithm can alternatively continue to supplement the original training data with data and performance encountered in application and then retrain itself with the augmented set. All static models in health care degrade in performance over time as characteristics of the environment and targets change, and this is one of the fundamental distinctions between industrial and health care processes (addressed in more detail in Chapter 6). However, adaptive learning algorithms are one of the family of methods that can adapt to this constantly changing environment, but they create special challenges for regulation, because there is no fixed artifact to certify or approve. Although it is possible to certify that an adaptive algorithm performs to specifications at any given moment and that the algorithm by which it learns is sound, it is an open question as to whether or not the future states of an adaptive algorithm can be known to perform at the same or better specification—that is, whether or not it can be declared safe. For further discussion of these in the regulatory and legislative context, see Chapter 7. Reinforcement Learning Understood best in the setting of video games, where the goal is to finish with the most points, reinforcement learning examines each step and rewards positive choices that the player makes based on the resulting proximity to a target end state. Each additional move performed affects the subsequent behavior of the automated player, known as the agent in reinforcement learning semantics. The agent may learn to avoid certain locations to prevent falls or crashes, touch tokens, or dodge arrows to maximize its score. Reinforcement learning with positive rewards and negative repercussions is how robot vacuum cleaners learn about walls, stairs, and even furniture that moves from time to time (Jonsson, 2019). The machine should be able to segment, identify, and track objects in still and moving images. For example, some automobile camera systems continuously monitor for speed limit signs, extract that information, and display it on the dashboard. More advanced systems can identify other vehicles, pedestrians, and local geographic features. As noted above, combining similar computer vision systems with reasoning systems is necessary for the general problem of autonomous driving. Textual chatbots that assist humans in tasks such as purchases and queries is one active frontier. Today, spoken words are mainly encountered in the consumer realm in virtual assistants such as Alexa, Siri, Cortana, and others, such as those embedded in cars. While full conversations are currently beyond the state of the art, simple intent or questionand-answer tasks are now commercially available.
The effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on the lipoprotein profiles of postmenopausal women with mild to breast cancer month buy anastrozole 1mg with mastercard moderate hypercholesterolaemia menstruation 3 weeks post dc order anastrozole 1 mg on line. Isoflavones and postmenopausal bone health; a viable alternative to breast cancer metastasis cheap 1mg anastrozole with mastercard estrogen therapyfi Evaluation of soy phytoestrogens for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial buy women's health big book of exercises order anastrozole 1mg fast delivery. Systemic absorption of micronised progesterone from Progest cream in post menopausal women womens health 8 week challenge discount 1mg anastrozole. Estrogen plus progestins and the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: the W omen’s Health Initiative Memory Study: a randomised controlled trial. The patient’s perception symptoms of menopause and may be used with minimal of severity of their symptoms should guide treatment, not risk by some women. Response can take several months (and benefit) is acceptable to both patient and doctor. Most of the major trials have tested conjugated equine oestrogens alone or with fi Previous breast cancer medroxyyprogesterone acetate. These symptoms usually decrease over time, but lowering the dose of the hormones may reduce these effects. Ovarian cancer Oestrogen only treatment Endometrial cancer (if uterus present) Vasomotor symptoms. Diabetes Table 2: Recommended treatment regimens “Use the lowest effective dose, for the shortest duration possible” Women beginning treatment 0. Women who have had a hysterectomy Oestrogen only Women with a uterus Add progestogen to protect endometrium (tablets or intrauterine system). Kliovance), or progestogen doses can be extrapolated from these regimens and progestogen only pills containing norethisterone or levonorgestrel can be used. The intrauterine system (Mirena) may be a good option for perimenopausal women as it also offers contraception. Perimenopausal or recent menopause Combined sequential treatment (oestrogen daily with progestogen 10 – 14 days per month). For women still menstruating, oestrogen should be started on the first day of menstrual bleed and progestogen given 14 days later, withdrawal bleeding should then start at the time that the next period would be expected. Postmenopausal for greater than one Combined continuous treatment (oestrogen and progestogen daily). May cause year (over two years since last menstrual irregular bleeding in first 6 – 12 months of use. Other investigations stroke and cardiovascular disease is thought to be similar should be done as indicated. Attempted withdrawal suggest that any alternative therapies are effective for is appropriate after one or two years, to see if symptoms treating the symptoms of menopause. Transdermal wild yam creams are promoted as a natural Dr Helen Roberts offers a best practice tip: If after a source of progesterone. Women little effect on menopause symptoms and should not be with long term debilitating symptoms will need to balance used in place of progestogen treatment. The absolute risk of stroke was lower for women under 60 or in whom menopause had occurred Coronary Heart Disease: There is conflicting evidence within the previous five years. Oestrogen the development of coronary artery plaque but would have only treatment 1. It is not known if the risk is different for women, however evidence is inconsistent. There is limited observational data that oestrogen use for more than 15 years may be associated with increased risk Ovarian cancer: Although evidence is conflicting, it has of breast cancer. Effects of wild yam extract on menopausal symptoms, lipids and sex hormones in 14. The model had a life-time horizon with cycle lengths of one year and contained the following disease states: hip fracture, vertebral fracture, wrist fracture, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke and venous thromboembolic events. An intervention was modelled by its impact on the disease risks during and after stopping treatment. Recent statesweats and atrophy-related symptoms of the urogenital ments from the International Menopause Society 1 tract. Cost-effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms menopausal symptoms. Since an intervention is modelled by its impact on the disease risks during therapy and possibly also after stopping treatment, a remaining therapeutic effect during Methods an offset period of time was added to the model. For example, a remaining effect on fracture risk after stopping Cost-effectiveness analysis treatment was modelled as a linear decline in the effect for a given offset time. Although made from the perspective of the National Health Service, some point estimates were of borderline significance or no only including direct costs. The evaluation was carried significance, these estimates were used in the model to out on two independent patient groups (50 years of age) obtain a conservative scenario for the base case (Table 1). A five-year offset time for fractures was assumed, consistent with recent analyses of osteoporotic treatments. The model was a Markov cohort simulation model that used tunnel techniques Event Estrogen Estrogen plus (TreeAge Pro 2005 user manual) to implement a memory progestin of one previous event into the Markov cohort structure. This effect was not remaining effect on breast cancer while the other disease significant when specified by cancer type. For breast events in the model had a three-year offset time (declincancer, the effect remained at the same level after three ing effect). Therefore, two additional the risks and mortality of disease event were derived from sensitivity analyses were conducted for women with an inpatient registers and published literature (listed in intact uterus. Table 2 Sources of input data Item Value Source Disease risks (per 1000) Hip fracture 0. Cost-effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms It was assumed that the risk and mortality of a specific methodology, multipliers were used instead of a fixed disease event was not affected by previously occurring reduction. However, the excess mortality after a base case, the mean quality-of-life loss from the study, vertebral or hip fracture cannot be entirely ascribed to the i. The impact of different levels of fracture event itself because of the high frequency of quality-of-life reduction was extensively investigated in 36 coexisting morbidity. Consistent with these findings, we Costs assumed that 30% of the observed excess mortality after Only direct costs were included in the model and all costs a hip or vertebral fracture was causally associated with were expressed in Euro prices of 2006. Wrist fracture was assumed not to be 34,39 the costs were infiated using national infiation rates. The direct costs of an event can be divided into acute In all the estimated functions, the mortality rate costs, which occur in the first year following the event, decreased for each year that passed after the event. The the long-term trend was extrapolated from the decreasing range for the first-year costs and the sources for all cost trend found in the mortality function. However, some calcuwhen many years have passed, the estimated mortality lations and assumptions are given below. Therefore, if the estimated mortality were not associated with any long-term costs. Where risk was lower than population mortality, the population long-term costs were missing, i. The quality-of-life estimates were used to derive multiIt should be noted, however, that these cost estimates pliers for each disease (Table 1). There is, however, a lack of quality-of-life data, especially with regard to non-skeletal events and Results some assumptions had to be made in the model. Cost-effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms days of extra life. The exception Figure 1 Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios at different was the disutility associated with menopausal symptoms. Assuming a limit for cost-effectiveness of fi30,000, the threshold for quality-ofTable 3 Cost (fi) per quality-adjusted life years gained for life gain for women with intact uterus was 0. The Accepted: 15 October 2008 difference can also be explained by smaller differences in the cost of care of different disease events. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997;104:1191–5 Some of the data used in the model were based on 4 Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus assumptions that introduce uncertainty to the results. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the available data across the countries included in this Million Women Study. Previous publiequine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: cations60,61 have indicated a long-offset time on fractures the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 2005;21:433–41 11 Lekander I, Borgstrom F, Strom O, Zethraeus N, Kanis J. Estrogen this was the only data available that were adjusted plus progestin and colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. Venous thrombosis and contrials are the best available today and for this reason were jugated equine estrogen in women without a uterus. Estrogen plus progestin conducted where possible to investigate the impact and risk of venous thrombosis. Effects of conjugated equine estrogens on breast cancer and mammography Acknowledgments: the study was supported by an screening in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. A Reassessment of the Competing interest: All authors have conducted consultancy Cost-effectiveness of Hormone Replacement Therapy in Sweden – work for Wyeth. All authors have conducted health economic Results Based on the Women’s Health Initiative Randomised Controlled 24 Menopause International Vol. Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance at the 42 Kind P, Dolan P, Gudex C, Williams A. Costs and quality of effectiveness of alendronate for the treatment of male osteolife associated with osteoporosis-related fractures in Sweden. Long-term cost and 3 years after stopping randomized treatment with estrogen and effect on quality of life of osteoporosis-related fractures in progestin. Epidemiology of fractures in 15,000 adults: the infiuence of age Cost-effectiveness of fracture prevention in established osteoand gender. Osteoporos Int 2000;11:669–74 related quality of life in different states of breast cancer. Predicting the Rheumatology (Oxford) 2007;46:460–6 impact of population level risk reduction in cardiovascular disease 53 Hutton J, Brown R, Borowitz M, Abrams K, Rothman M, and stroke an acute hospital admission rates over a 5-year period: Shakespeare A. Public Health 2006;120:1140–8 of chemotherapy in recurrent metastatic breast cancer. Cost of treating advanced and pulmonary embolism: a 25-year population-based study. Int J Cardiol 2005;100:229–40 35 Inpatient and death register 1998–2001, data on file. Public Health 1991;105:443–6 Hormone replacement therapy in a risk-benefit perspective. Excess 9 European countries – an economic evaluation based on the mortality after hospitalisation for vertebral fracture.
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Ebola virus disease directive #4 regarding waste management for designated hospitals and all paramedic services [Internet] breast cancer 49ers buy cheap anastrozole 1 mg. Epidemiology of colonisation of patients and environment with vancomycin-resistant enterococci women's health best body meal plan reviews buy genuine anastrozole on-line. Chlorhexidine gluconate to pregnancy xray shirt cheap 1 mg anastrozole overnight delivery cleanse patients in a medical intensive care unit: the effectiveness of source control to breast cancer ribbon quality 1mg anastrozole reduce the bioburden of vancomycin-resistant enterococci menstrual depression discount anastrozole 1mg with amex. Acinetobacter baumannii: association between environmental contamination of patient rooms and occupant status. Hand-touch contact assessment of hightouch and mutual-touch surfaces among healthcare workers, patients, and visitors. 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