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Although associations have been made between defecatory dysfunction and advanced stages of pelvic organ prolapse erectile dysfunction treatment san diego buy sildalist canada, a causal relationship remains to erectile dysfunction pills online purchase sildalist master card be established erectile dysfunction books order discount sildalist online. Controversy remains as to erectile dysfunction va disability compensation generic sildalist 120 mg amex whether anatomic herniation is the cause of these symptoms or the effect of underlying colonic dysfunction impotent rage random encounter order 120mg sildalist fast delivery, chronic constipation, and straining. Descending perineum syndrome is defined as descent of the perineum (at the level of the anal verge) beyond the ischial tuberosities during Valsalva. Excessive perineal descent was first described in the colorectal literature by Parks et al. It occurs as a result of inferior detachment of the rectovaginal septum from the perineal body. As the condition progresses, the patient can develop pudendal neuropathy from stretch injury. Perineal descent has been associated with a variety of defecatory disorders, including constipation, fecal incontinence, rectal pain, solitary rectal ulcer syndrome, rectocele, and enterocele (40). Rectal Intussusception Rectal intussusception or intrarectal prolapse is the circumferential prolapse of the upper rectal wall into the rectal ampulla but not through the anal verge. The most common symptoms are obstructive, including incomplete emptying, manual disimpaction, splinting, pain with defecation, and bleeding. Other symptoms include fecal incontinence, decreased urge to defecate, inability to distinguish between gas and feces, and mucus discharge with pruritus ani. Bleeding often originates from a solitary rectal ulcer or localized proctitis of the involved bowel segment (41). Intussusception is seen in as many as one-third of women with defecatory dysfunction and other symptoms, such as constipation, rectal pain, and fecal incontinence (42). Irritable bowel syndrome has distinct diagnostic criteria, including the exclusion of structural or metabolic abnormalities. These patients often have other gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and psychological illness, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, fibromyalgia, headache, backache, chronic pelvic pain, sexual dysfunction, lower urinary tract dysfunction, depression, and anxiety. Stressful life events seem to correlate with the onset and exacerbation of symptoms. The constipation variant is most commonly associated with defecatory dysfunction, whereas the diarrhea variant causes fecal incontinence. The pain or spastic variant causes predominantly abdominal discomfort but can also be associated with both defecatory dysfunction and fecal incontinence. Onset associated with a change in form (appearance) of stool aCriterion fulfilled for the last 3 months with symptom onset at least 6 months prior to diagnosis. In pathophysiology research and clinical trials, a pain/discomfort frequency of at least 2 days a week during the screening evaluation is recommended for subject eligibility. Must include two or more of the following: Straining during at least 25% of defecations Lumpy or hard stools in at least 25% of defecations Sensation of incomplete evacuation for at least 25% of defecations Sensation of anorectal obstruction/blockage for at least 25% of defecations Manual maneuvers to facilitate at least 25% of defecations. Functional Defecation Disorders Functional defecation disorders are divided into dyssynergic defecation and inadequate defecatory propulsion (colonic inertia). The patient must satisfy diagnostic criteria for functional constipation (Table 28. During repeated attempts to defecate must have at least two of the following: Evidence of impaired evacuation, based on balloon expulsion test or imaging Inappropriate contraction of the pelvic floor muscles. Colonic Inertia/Slow-Transit Constipation Severe constipation, defined as fewer than three stools per week and refractory to therapy, is relatively rare; however, these patients frequently suffer from motility disorders such as global motility disorder and colonic inertia. Colonic inertia or slow transit constipation is defined as the delayed passage of radiopaque markers through the proximal colon without retropulsion of markers from the left colon and in the absence of systemic or obstructive disorders. Patients with this disorder have impaired phasic colonic motor activity and diminished gastrocolic reflexes (48,49). Studies on the role of laxatives, absorption, hormones, psychological abnormalities, and endogenous opioids have been inconclusive. Current literature suggests a possible neurologic or smooth muscle disorder (49,50). Fecal Incontinence Sphincter Disruption In young women, obstetric injury is the most common cause of fecal incontinence. The mechanism of injury can be from anatomic disruption of the anal sphincter complex, pelvic floor denervation, or a combination of the two conditions. The risk factors for anal sphincter laceration are primiparity, high birth weight, forceps delivery, and episiotomy (51–53). Recent work suggests that women with anal sphincter injuries have slower labor, without the normal deceleration phase, and with late descent of the fetal head (54). Although there are limited long-term prospective studies demonstrating the natural history of anal sphincter injury, pelvic floor neuropathy, and the progression of these conditions to fecal incontinence, current literature supports the relationship of early-onset symptoms to sphincter damage and delayed-onset symptoms to neuropathy (55). This relationship would account for the large discrepancy in the prevalence of fecal incontinence between younger men and women that decreases as the population ages (56). Whereas the incidence of clinically documented third and fourth-degree anal sphincter tears is between 0. Forceps-assisted vaginal delivery significantly increases this risk, but the data on vacuum-assisted delivery are less conclusive (52,59,60). Elective cesarean delivery, in contrast with emergency cesarean delivery, was believed to prevent anal incontinence, but recent studies argue against any protective effect with cesarean delivery, irrespective of timing (46,51,53,59,61,62). A recent Cochrane review concludes that there is insufficient evidence to support primary elective cesarean delivery for the purpose of preserving fecal continence (63). Midline episiotomy is strongly linked to sphincter damage and fecal incontinence (52,64). A Cochrane review supports the restrictive use of both midline and mediolateral episiotomy due to less posterior perineal trauma, less suturing, and fewer healing complications. There were no differences in severe trauma, pain, dyspareunia, or urinary incontinence, but there was an increase in anterior perineal trauma with restrictive use (65). An important finding in another study was that one-half of patients who underwent immediate repair of a third-degree laceration had symptoms of anal incontinence, and 85% had persistent sphincter defects on endoanal ultrasonography (66). Surgical Trauma Iatrogenic injury follows obstetric trauma as the second most common cause of direct sphincter damage. Surgical procedures that have been associated with fecal incontinence include anal fistula repair, anal sphincterotomy, hemorrhoidectomy, and anal dilation. Rectovaginal or anovaginal fistulas can develop after obstetric injury, operative complications during pelvic surgery, and inflammatory bowel disease exacerbations. Fistulas cause fecal incontinence, and the degree of postoperative dysfunction depends on the location of the fistula and the amount of sphincter that is disrupted during the surgical repair. It also depends on the preoperative level of sphincter function and pudendal nerve function. Anal sphincterotomy to treat painful anal fissures can lead to incontinence by disruption of rectal sensory innervation and anal cushions and transection of the anal sphincter (67,68). Hemorrhoidectomy often results in minor soiling as a result of resection of the anal cushions, which act as the final mucosal barrier. Similar to sphincterotomy, rectal sensory innervation can be disrupted, and injury to the internal sphincter can occur during sharp dissection (68,69). Sphincter Denervation Idiopathic (primary neurogenic) fecal incontinence results from denervation of both the anal sphincter and pelvic floor muscles. Denervation injury related to obstetric trauma accounts for approximately three of four cases of idiopathic fecal incontinence and is the most common overall cause of fecal incontinence (70,71). Obstetric Trauma the two proposed mechanisms of pudendal neuropathy are stretch injury during the second stage of labor and compression of the nerve as it exits Alcock’s canal (70). Established risk factors for pelvic floor neuropathy include multiparity, high birth weight, forceps delivery, prolonged active second stage, and third degree laceration (72,73). Several studies have shown increased pudendal nerve terminal motor latencies following vaginal delivery, especially after sphincter laceration (53,71,74). Others will have evidence of injury several years later, which may represent the cumulative effects of subsequent deliveries (71,75). However, fecal incontinence will develop in only a fraction of patients with neuropathy (73). Descending Perineum Syndrome As noted previously, prolonged straining for any reason could cause descending perineum syndrome. This syndrome is defined as descent of the perineum beyond the ischial tuberosities during Valsalva (38,39). This diagnosis is supported by findings of elongation of the pudendal nerve, prolonged pudendal nerve motor terminal latency, and decreased anal sensation in women with perineal descent (76–78). As pudendal neuropathy progresses, it ultimately leads to fecal incontinence (40,79). The criteria essentially exclude systemic and anatomic abnormalities; however, minor abnormalities of sphincter innervation or structure are permitted. Recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material in an individual with a developmental age of at least 4 years and one or more of the following: Abnormal functioning of normally innervated and structurally intact muscles Minor abnormalities of sphincter structure and/or innervation Normal or disordered bowel habits. Exclusion of all of the following Abnormal innervation caused by lesion(s) within the brain. Irritable Bowel Syndrome the diarrhea variant of irritable bowel syndrome is often associated with fecal incontinence as well as disordered defecation. Pitfalls for the Pelvic Floor Surgeon It sometimes is easy to overlook or misinterpret signs and symptoms of constipation and defecatory dysfunction. Any acute change in bowel habits must be evaluated thoroughly, and malignancy must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Persistent symptoms after an empiric trial of medical therapy should prompt further evaluation, including colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy. It is also possible to mistakenly attribute symptoms of defecatory dysfunction and constipation to pelvic organ prolapse when prolapse is actually the result of an underlying bowel disorder. In this case, surgical treatment of prolapse will have little lasting benefit if the underlying bowel disorder remains untreated. History and Physical Examination History A thorough history and physical examination are critical to the evaluation of fecal incontinence and defecatory dysfunction. The history of present illness should focus on the bowel habits, including frequency and consistency of bowel movements (hard vs. Determining the duration and severity of symptoms, as well as exacerbating factors, is important for understanding the impact on quality of life. Patients should be questioned about straining with bowel movements, symptoms of incomplete emptying, and splinting of the perianal region, perineal body, or posterior vaginal wall to assist with evacuation. Patients should also be asked about the need to perform digital disimpaction because they are unlikely to volunteer this information. With respect to fecal incontinence, information should be obtained about leakage with solids, liquid, and flatus and the ability to discriminate between these different types of stool (sampling). Similar to urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence can be stress related, urge related, or unconscious. Questions about alternating diarrhea and constipation, mucus or blood in the stools, constitutional symptoms, and changes in stool caliber can help the investigator uncover systemic and functional etiologies.

It is instructive erectile dysfunction and zantac order sildalist paypal, however erectile dysfunction medicine from dabur order sildalist 120mgmg mastercard, to drugs for erectile dysfunction list purchase 120 mg sildalist with mastercard attempt to erectile dysfunction treatment san diego sildalist 120mg overnight delivery guess what it means and then seek the patient’s perspective erectile dysfunction treatment brisbane purchase cheap sildalist on line. For example, when offered a new drug for ovarian cancer, a patient might prefer to decline the treatment because the side effects may not be acceptable, even when there may be a reasonable chance that her life may be slightly prolonged. Conversely, the physician may not believe that further treatment is justified but the patient finds joy and fulfillment in entering a phase I clinical trial because it adds meaning to her life to give information to others about the possibilities of a new treatment. Informing patients of the experiences of others who had alternative treatments may help in their decision making, but it is never a substitute for the individual patient’s decisions. Professional Relations Conflict of Interest All professionals have multiple interests that affect their decisions. Contractual and covenantal relationships between physician and patient are intertwined and complicated by health care payers and colleagues, which create considerable pressure. Rennie described that pressure eloquently: “Instead of receiving more respect (for more responsibility), physicians feel they are being increasingly questioned, challenged, and sued. Looking after a patient seems less and less a compact between two people and more a match in which increasing numbers of spectators claim the right to interfere and referee” (30). One response to this environment is for the physician to attempt to protect his or her efforts by assuming that the physician–patient relationship is only contractual in nature. This allocation of responsibility and authority to the contract precludes the need for the ethical covenant between the physician and patient. For example, a pre-existing contract, insurance, a relationship with a particular hospital system, or a managed-care plan may discourage referral to a specialist, removing the physician’s responsibility. All health care professionals will experience this tension between a covenantal or contractual relationship. A reasonable consideration of that relationship is “one that allows clients as much freedom as possible to determine how their lives are affected as is reasonably warranted on the basis of their ability to make decisions” (31). Health Care Payers An insurance coverage plan may demand that physicians assume the role of gatekeeper and administrator. Patients can be penalized for a lack of knowledge about their future desires or needs and the lack of alternatives to address the changes in those needs. Patients are equally penalized when they develop costly medical conditions that would not be covered if they moved from plan to plan. It is an untenable position for physicians because they often cannot change the conditions or structure of the plan but are forced to be the administrators of it. In an effort to improve physician compliance with and interest in decreasing costs, intense financial conflicts of interest can be brought to bear on physicians by health care plans or health care systems. If a physician’s profile on costs or referral is too high, he or she might be excluded from the plan, thus decreasing his or her ability to earn a living or to provide care to certain patients with whom a relationship has developed. Conversely, a physician may receive a greater salary or bonus if the plan makes more money. The ability to earn a living and to see patients in the future is dependent on maintaining relationships with various plans and other physicians. These conflicts are substantially different from those of fee-for-service plans, although the ultimate effect on the patient can be the same. In fee-for-service plans, financial gain conflicts of interest have the potential to result in failure to refer a patient or to restrict referral to those cases in which the financial gain is derived by return referral of other patients (35). Patients who have poor insurance coverage may be referred differentially from those who have better coverage. Patients may be unaware of these underlying conflicts of interest, a situation that elevates conflict of interest to an ethical problem. A patient has a right to know what her plan covers, to whom she is being referred and why, and the credentials of those to whom she is referred. The reality is that health care providers make many decisions under the pressure of multiple conflicts of interest. Focusing clearly on the priority of the patient’s best interest and responsibly rejecting choices that compromise the patient’s needs are ethical requirements. Institutions, third-party payers, and legislatures avoid accountability for revealing conflicts of interest to those to whom they offer services. The restrictions of health care plans are never placed in a position as equally prominent as the coverage. The coverage choices can be quite arbitrary, and there is rarely an easily accessible and usable system for challenging them. Whole health systems or options may or may not be covered, but their presence or absence is obscured in the information given to patients. The social and financial conflicts of interest of these payers can directly affect the setting and nature of the relationship between physician and patient. To deal with ambiguous and sometimes capricious decision making, revelation of the conflicts of interest and accountability for choices should be demanded by physicians and patients (37). There were clearly documented abuses, but the same legislation would negatively affect rural clinics and laboratories whose sole source of financial support is rural physicians. Regardless of the laws, it is ethically required that financial conflicts of interest are revealed to patients (38,39). Another abuse of the physician–patient relationship caused by financial conflicts of interest is fraudulent Medicare and Medicaid billings. Indictments under these laws are felonies, with potential fines, jail sentences, and loss of the license to practice medicine. Physicians should be aware of the legal ramifications of their referral and billing practices (40–42). Harassment the goal of medicine is excellence in the care of patients and, often, research and education that will advance the practice of medicine. Every office and institution should have an assessment strategy to ensure that the work environment is conducive to focusing on work and learning and not hostile to individuals. Every office and institution must have written policies on discrimination and sexual harassment that detail inappropriate behavior and state specific steps to be taken to correct an inappropriate situation and make sure they are widely accessible and available. The goal is to ensure appropriate reporting and procedures for taking appropriate action and protecting victims, educating or rehabilitating an offender, and preventing the reoccurrence of the behavior. The legal sanction for this right is encoded in both statutory law through the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U. Charges of sexual harassment can be raised as a result of unwelcome sexual conduct or a hostile workplace. Employees are not the only ones to experience sexual or other harassment, learners such as medical students or nursing students can experience it and have a high reported prevalence of it (43). Stress Management There is little doubt that the day-to-day stress of practicing medicine is significant. Stress takes a toll on cardiac function and on the practice of medicine and life outside of medicine (46,47). Responding to stress through drug or alcohol abuse increases overall health and marital problems and decreases effectiveness in practice. In a long-term prospective study of medical students, individuals with high-risk. Adequate sleep, reasonable working hours, exercise, and nutritional balance are directly related to decreases in psychological distress (49). Simple relaxation training is shown to decrease gastroesophageal reflux in response to stress (50). The pace that physicians maintain has a seductive quality that can easily mask the need for stress reduction by means of good health practices, exercise, and relaxation training. The answer to increased stress is not to work harder and extract the time for this from the relaxing and enjoyable pursuits that exist outside medicine. The outcome of that strategy (in terms of optimal psychological and physical functioning) is in neither the physician’s nor the patient’s best interest. Both the welfare of the patient and the welfare of the physician are enhanced by a planned strategy of good health practices and relaxation. By providing such leadership, physicians can contribute to a better work and health care environment for everyone. Society and Medicine Justice Some of the ethical and legal problems in the practice of gynecology relate to the fair and equitable distribution of burdens and benefits. There are various methods of proposed distribution: Equal shares (everyone has the same number of health care dollars per year) Need (only those people who need health care get the dollars) Queuing (the first in line for a transplant gets it) Merit (those with more serious illnesses receive special benefits) Contribution (those who have paid more into their health care fund get more health care) Each of these principles could be appropriate as a measure of just allocation of health care dollars, but each will affect individual patients in different ways. The principles of justice apply only when the resource is desired or beneficial and to some extent scarce (51). The traditional approach to medicine was for practitioners to accept the intense focus on the individual patient. The current changes in medicine will alter the focus from the patient to a population: “in the emerging medicine, the presenting patient, more than ever before, will be a representative of a class, and the science that makes possible the care of the patient will refer prominently to the population from which that patient comes” (52). Physicians increasingly are bound by accumulating outcomes data (population statistics) to modify the treatment of an individual in view of the larger population statistics. If, for example, the outcome of radical ovarian cancer debulking is only 20% successful in a patient with a certain set of medical problems, that debulking may be offered instead to someone who has an 85% chance of success. Theoretically, the former individual might have a successful debulking and the procedure might fail in the latter, but population statistics were used to allocate this scarce resource. The benefit was measured by statistics that predict success, not by other forms of justice allocation by need, queuing, merit, or contribution. This approach represents a major change in the traditional dedication of health care solely to the benefits of individual patients. With scarce resources, the overall benefits for all patients are considered in conjunction with the individual benefits for one patient. There was always an inequity in the distribution of health care access and resources. This inequity is not seen by many health care providers who do not care for those patients who are unable to gain access, such as those who lack transportation or live in rural areas or where limits are imposed by lack of health care providers, time, and financial resources. Minorities are less likely to see private physicians or specialists with clear impacts on outcomes of care, regardless of their income or source of health care funding (53–58). Health care providers must shift the paradigm from the absolute “do everything possible for this patient” to the proportionate “do everything reasonable for all patients” (19). To reform the health care system requires judicial, legislative, and business mandates, and attention to the other social components that can pose obstacles to efforts to expand health care beyond a focus on individual patients. Health Care Reform the tension between understanding health as an inherently individual matter (in which the receipt of health care is critical to individual well-being) and as a communal resource (in which distribution of well-being throughout society is the goal) underpins much of the political and social debate surrounding health care reform (56). The questions of health care reform are twofold: 1) What is the proper balance between individual and collective goodfi Because much of health care reform requires balancing competing goals, legislation to achieve reform should specifically address how this balance can be achieved. The role of government should be as follows: • Regulating access of individuals to health care. Even with the present changes in health care structure in the United States, health care payers, not individual providers, often make decisions regarding both the amount and distribution of resources.

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Long term conserving treatment with or without radiotherapy in follow-up of women with ductal carcinoma in situ ductal carcinoma-in-situ: ten-year results of treated with breast-conserving surgery: the effect of European Organisation for Research and Treatment age impotent rage random encounter order sildalist with paypal. J Clin Oncol 2006 characteristics in patients with ductal carcinoma in Jul 20; 24(21):3381-7 impotence is the buy generic sildalist 120mg line. The width as a determinant of local control with and significance of the Van Nuys prognostic index in the without radiation therapy for ductal carcinoma in situ management of ductal carcinoma in situ erectile dysfunction drugs least side effects generic sildalist 120 mg visa. Breast Noninvasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: the conserving therapy for ductal carcinoma in situ: a 20 relevance of histologic categorization erectile dysfunction protocol review article discount sildalist 120mg. Ductal prognostic significance of multiple morphologic carcinoma in situ of the breast from a population features and biologic markers in ductal carcinoma in defined cohort: an evaluation of new situ of the breast: a study of a large cohort of patients histopathological classification systems erectile dysfunction exercises treatment buy sildalist 120 mg cheap. European Organization for Research and Treatment Br J Cancer 2005 Nov 14; 93(10):1122-7. Ductal on the risk of ipsilateral breast carcinoma recurrence carcinoma in situ of the breast - among factors and contralateral breast carcinoma development in predicting for recurrence, distance from the nipple is patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with important. Prospective with breast-conserving surgery and radiation: the study of wide excision alone for ductal carcinoma in University of Texas M. Correlation of invasive breast carcinoma among women diagnosed clinical and pathologic features with outcome in with ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in situ, 1988-2001. J Am Coll Surg 2007 May; polarisation and mitotic frequency prognostic factors 204(5):1074-8; discussion 8-80. Eur J Cancer 2003 Aug; the Van Nuys Prognostic Index in ductal carcinoma 39(12):1704-10. Relationship between hormone receptor status and Application of the van nuys prognostic index in a tumour size, grade and comedo necrosis in ductal retrospective series of 367 ductal carcinomas in situ carcinoma in situ. Breast Cancer breast cancers among women with ductal carcinoma Res Treat 2000 May; 61(2):151-9. Duct of the breast-relationship to ipsilateral local carcinoma in situ: 227 cases without microinvasion. Ann Surg markers that predict clinical recurrence in ductal Oncol 1997 Dec; 4(8):644-9. Ann Surg Oncol 2000 Oct; in situ of the breast in Israeli women treated by 7(9):656-64. J Am Coll Surg 1995 Jun; type and marker expression of the primary tumour 180(6):683-8. Am J Surg Pathol Conservative management of intraductal carcinoma 2000 Aug; 24(8):1058-67. Am J Surg 2003 Oct; aspects of the tissue microarray technique in a 186(4):337-43. Histopathology 2008 Dec; Prognostic classification of breast ductal carcinoma 53(6):642-9. Factors importance of complete excision in the prevention of associated with local recurrence of local recurrence of ductal carcinoma in situ. Concurrent treated with conservative surgery with or without lobular neoplasia increases the risk of ipsilateral radiation therapy: patterns of failure and 10-year breast cancer recurrence in patients with ductal results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys geographic, temporal, and demographic patterns of 2006 Aug 1; 65(5):1397-403. Racial attempt to independently verify the utility of the Van disparities in breast cancer survival: an analysis by Nuys Prognostic Index for ductal carcinoma in situ. Is sentinel Mammographic density and breast cancer after ductal node biopsy necessary in conservatively treated carcinoma in situ. Local recurrences after conservative treatment treatment of intraductal breast cancer: National of ductal carcinoma-in-situ of the breast without Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-24 radiotherapy: the effect of age. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers the influence of young age and positive family Prev 2006 Jun; 15(6):1159-69. Green tea, black carcinoma in situ treated by excision with or without tea and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of radiation therapy or by mastectomy. The effects of green Margin width as the sole determinant of local tea consumption on incidence of breast cancer and recurrence after breast conservation in patients with recurrence of breast cancer: a systematic review and ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Meta Study of conventional whole breast irradiation versus analysis of soy intake and breast cancer risk. J Natl partial breast irradiation for women with stage 0, I, or Cancer Inst 2006 Apr 5; 98(7):459-71. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2006 Dec; radiation therapy for the treatment of intraductal 52(6):428-36. The librarian searched for epidemiologic studies and eliminated reviews, case reports, comments, or letters. She first limited the results to 2007-2009, then limited to 2008-2008 to see the difference in retrieval (340 vs. Lancet 1997 May 24; Epithelium in Relation to Predicted Breast Cancer 349(9064):1505-10. J Am Coll Surg 2001 Sep; Studies and Epidemiologic Data Show Interactions 193(3):297-302. Body fatness during childhood and adolescence and eligible outcomes incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal 19. Letrozole improves disease-free survival vs outcomes tamoxifen in adjuvant treatment of early breast 20. Oncology (Williston Park) 2005 Mar; of Incident Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal 19(3):277, 360. Mammographic Patterns as a Predictive Biomarker outcomes of Breast Cancer Risk: Effect of Tamoxifen - 10. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Breast Cancer Risk: A outcomes Review - Cui and Rohan 15 (8): 1427 - Cancer 11. Diet and alcohol consumption in relation to p53 Polymorphisms: Association with Breast Cancer mutations in breast tumors - Freudenheim et al. Effect of Physical Activity on Women at Increased Risk of Breast Cancer: Results from the E3N B-1 Cohort Study - Tehard et al. Sampling of Relation to p53 Expression in Breast Cancer among grossly benign breast reexcisions: a Young Women - Gammon et al. Differential cancer are alive 10 years later, and better treatments expression of E-cadherin in lobular and ductal are emerging. Harv Womens Health Watch 2008 neoplasms of the breast and its biologic and Oct; 16(2):1-3. Not eligible lesion discrimination using statistical analysis and outcomes shape measures on magnetic resonance imagery. Longitudinal Trends in Mammographic Percent carcinoma in situ in Hispanic, American Indian, and Density and Breast Cancer Risk - Vachon et al. Gene 1 Promoter Does Not Predict Cytologic Carcinoma of the breast in a sickle cell disease Atypia or Correlate with Surrogate. High excision necessary for atypical ductal hyperplasia of frequency of coexistence of columnar cell lesions, the breast diagnosed by Mammotomefi Am J Surg lobular neoplasia, and low grade ductal carcinoma 2000 Oct; 180(4):313-5. Am J Surg Pathol 2007 Mar; hybridization assessment of chromosome 8 copy 31(3):417-26. 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Comparative of three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging allelotype of in situ and invasive human breast with precise histopathological map concerning cancer: high frequency of microsatellite instability carcinoma extension in the breast. J Pathol 1997 marker of chemosensitivity in invasive ductal breast Apr; 181(4):374-80. Not eligible neoadjuvant treatment with anastrozole on tumour target population histology in postmenopausal women with large 89. J Ark Med Soc 1990 heterozygosity and microsatellite instability in Jan; 86(8):320-1. Not eligible target biopsy reporting categories-An internal validation population in a series of 3054 consecutive lesions. Not eligible target population with osseous metaplasia: an electron microscopic 108. Tubular chemotherapy on circulating steroid hormone levels carcinoma of the breast: a histologic subtype in postoperative premenopausal breast cancer indicative of breast-conserving therapy. Preoperative Carcinoma of the breast and heart transplantation: a assessment of tumor angiogenesis by vascular case report. J Surg Oncol assisted breast biopsy on digital stereotaxic table of 1997 Dec; 66(4):257-63. Eur Radiol 2002 Mar; 12(3):638 histology of fibrocystic disease of the female breast. Pathol Res Pract 1981 Jul; 172(1 pathology reporting in excisional biopsies of breast 2):109-29. Simulated metastatic carcinoma after ductal carcinoma in situ with and without invasion. Retinoic acid ductal carcinoma in situ of breast: ultrastructural receptor and retinoid X receptor in ductal carcinoma and light microscopical study. J Clin Pathol 1986 in situ and intraductal proliferative lesions of the Dec; 39(12):1355-9. Clin Cancer Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2 in Res 2002 Mar; 8(3):794-801. Not eligible target ductal carcinoma in situ and intraductal proliferative population lesions of the human breast. Fine-needle unexcised positive surgical margins after aspiration of clinically suspicious palpable breast lumpectomy, radiotherapy and chemoendocrine masses with histopathologic correlation. The effect of collagen receptor in breast carcinoma, facilitating exemestane on serum lipid profile in invasion and metastasis. Jpn J Cancer Res 1993 Jul; postmenopausal women with metastatic breast 84(7):726-33. Atypical ductal eligible target population hyperplasia at margin of breast biopsy-is re 135. Annals of Surgical Oncology mammography: a new technique for visualizing 2008 Mar; 15(3):843-7. Is Not eligible target population radiotherapy needed after breast conservation for 124.

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Isotretinoin was slightly bet noid plasma levels erectile dysfunction caused by performance anxiety buy sildalist 120mg on-line, which remained in the range ter tolerated than tretinoin 0 erectile dysfunction radiation treatment buy sildalist australia. Several reports indicated that percutaneous Several case reports exist that report fetal con systemic absorption is negligible after topical genital abnormalities that can also be seen in reti application of isotretinoin 0 impotence sentence examples buy discount sildalist 120mg on line. Safety and efficacy in studies are either positive or data are also lack children below the age of 12 have not been ing erectile dysfunction treatments diabetes quality sildalist 120 mg. Its methoxyphenyl adamantyl side chain renders the substance stable to impotence 36 purchase cheap sildalist online oxygen and light [28] even after mixture with benzoyl 57. A meta-analysis of five well-controlled trials [29 ] Isotretinoin is the 13-cis isomer of tretinoin and involving more than 900 patients demonstrated is available in topical formulations (0. Furthermore, adapalene is the first topical reti Both studies demonstrated a significantly greater noid whose chemicophysical properties allow a reduction of infiammatory lesion counts of the fixed combination with benzoyl peroxide in a combination therapy compared to the antibiotic stable galenic formulation, which was demon alone at week 8 and 12 (Table 57. These results parative trials, adapalene was shown to be signifi have been further confirmed in two large clinical cantly less irritating than tretinoin 0. Although the legal situation allows to prescribe adapalene with benzoyl peroxide 4 % gel, erythromycin if the potential benefit outweighs the risks, 3 %/benzoyl peroxide 5 % gel, and clindamy avoidance of adapalene during early pregnancy cin phosphate lotion. Excretion via breast milk has tions was better than monotherapy in reducing not been studied and safety and efficacy in chil noninfiammatory lesions, but the triple combi dren below the age of 12 have not been nation with erythromycin/benzoyl peroxide sig established. Another triple combination of tazarotene Topical tazarotene, approved for acne treatment 0. Thirty-one of formulations, providing significantly greater 189 initial recruited subjects completed a reductions in overall disease severity, noninfiam 6-month combination therapy without signifi matory lesion count, and infiammatory lesion cant adverse events, of which 70 % maintained count, with similar tolerability slightly in favor of a >75 % improvement from baseline. In a 57 Topical Retinoids 431 study comparing the cumulative irritation scores 57. Furthermore, irritation potential of facilitated by development of the third-generation tazarotene cream 0. The irritative potential of tazarotene to minimize side effects of more irritating sub can be reduced by short-contact application stances, such as tazarotene. The cream is generally better tol individual adjustment and patient instruction are erated than the gel. It is essential to ited, and the systemic bioavailability of tazaro explain the patients the time and duration of tene (measured as tazarotenic acid) is low, expected side effects, such as mild irritative der approximately 1 % after single and multiple topi matitis, and to advise them how to prevent and cal applications to healthy skin. Tazarotene is designated pregnancy cate When prescribing a topical retinoid, the fol gory X, prohibiting its use during pregnancy lowing points should be considered for patient and breastfeeding. Women of childbearing counseling: potential should use adequate birth-control • Excessive washing with soaps should be measures when topical tazarotene is used. As yet, reports of pregnan after shaving, and aggressive adstringents or cies in tazarotene-treated patients did not ethanol-containing aftershaves or toners report any abnormalities. The preparation was also effective in the sticks or petrolatum can prevent and alleviate prevention and treatment of acne scarring and symptoms of retinoid-dermatitis [20 ]. Two random ized, double-blind, controlled trials of 2219 subjects treatment continuation. Clinical safety and effi therapies, often a rapid improvement can be cacy studies of a novel formulation combining 1. Mechanisms of the comedolytic and tion with benzoyl peroxide 6% cleanser for the treat anti-infiammatory properties of topical retinoids. An ultrastructural Comparison of clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide, treti study of the effects of topical tretinoin on microcom noin plus clindamycin, and the combination of edones. Control of micro clindamycin in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a ran comedone formation throughout a maintenance treat domized, blinded study. Potential anti-infiammatory effects of effect of a moisturizing cream as adjunctive treatment topical retinoids and retinoid analogues. Minor malformations characteristic tretinoin containing polyolprepolymer-2, a new topi of the retinoic acid embryopathy and other birth out cal tretinoin delivery system: a summary of preclini comes in children of women exposed to topical treti cal and clinical investigations. Double-blind, vehicle-controlled, treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized open-label multicenter comparison of two 0. Treatment of acne vul pare a gel containing a combination of isotretinoin garis with topically applied erythromycin and treti (0. A safe and effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris: comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of adapalene a multicenter, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study. Optimizing the use of taz adapalene-benzoyl peroxide combination gel in the arotene for the treatment of facial acne vulgaris treatment of acne. Tazarotene versus tazarotene plus clindamy peroxide, a unique fixed-dose combination topical gel cin/benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of acne vulgaris: for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a transatlantic, ran a multicenter, double-blind, randomized parallel-group domized, double-blind, controlled study in 1670 trial. Long-term safety and efficacy of a colic acid (diacneal) for mild to moderate acne vul unique fixed-dose combination gel of adapalene 0. Ottaviani monotherapy or in combination with Laboratory of Cutaneous Physiopathology, San Gallicano Dermatological Institute, other antiacne agents leading, in most via San Gallicano 25/A, Rome 00144, Italy cases, to an overall improving efficacy. The interest in the possible therapeu completely understood and still under investigation, tic applications came out in the 1980s when stud several biological properties of azelaic acid, demon ies on the pathogenesis of Pityriasis versicolor, strated both in vitro and in vivo, could account for showed that in vitro dicarboxylic acids are com this activity. Properties of azelaic acid directed petitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, a key enzyme for against the etiopathogenesis of acne include (a) the melanogenesis, leading to the use of dicarboxylic antimicrobial effect on several aerobic and anaerobic acids, and in particular azelaic acid, in the treat microorganism, including Propionibacterium acnes; ment of hyperpigmentary disorders. The benefi (b) the cytostatic action observed on proliferative cial effects of the topical application of a 20 % keratinocytes which can inhibit follicular hyperkera azelaic acid cream was proven in benign hyper tosis; (c) the inhibition of the 5-alpha-reductase pigmented disorders such as melasma and postin activity, possibly responsible for reduction in sebum fiammatory melanosis and effectiveness was also secretion; and (d) the interference with the infiam reported in some cases of lentigo maligna and matory process. The coincidental findings of formulation in 15 % gel formulation has contributed improvement in acne lesions in subjects with to the enhancement of clinical efficacy, leading to melasma led to new investigations on azelaic further consider azelaic acid as a valid therapeutic acid’s properties and possible applications in option for the treatment of mild to moderate acne acne [3]. The antimicrobial activity is corre acid specifically inhibits, in vitro, the synthesis of lated to the inhibition of protein synthesis and seems cytoplasmic proteins correlated to the terminal to be dose and pH dependent and associated with steps of keratinization and, in vivo, results in a the ability of azelaic acid to interfere with trans decrease in the number and size of keratohyalin membrane pH gradient [5]. The reduction of intra granules and a normalization in filaggrin expres follicular P. The reduction in the epithelial hyper triglycerides from the action of bacterial lipases [6]. Ottaviani effect is not relevant [6, 10, 14], whereas in recent act against both infiammatory and noninfiamma studies an average reduction in the sebum produc tory lesions, with a reduction in papules and come tion of about 14–15 % on the forehead, chin and dones of about 70 % and 56 %, respectively, after 3 cheek after 3 months of treatment has been reported months of treatment [20]. The sebostatic effect could be due to the capa infiamed lesions has been reported in another con bility of the diacid to act as a competitive inhibitor trolled trial after 1 month, whereas 2 months were of 5-alpha-reductase [7, 8], the enzyme that con necessary for comedones, associated with a signifi verts testosterone in 5-dihydrotestosterone, respon cant decrease in follicular P. However, the results have been obtained with the 15 % gel formu effectiveness of azelaic acid in controlling sebogen lation, confirming the effectiveness of this treatment esis needs further investigations to be proven. After 6 months of treatment, the efficacy of 20 % azelaic acid cream was comparable to other topical antiacne agents 58. Similarly, patients treated for 4 or 5 months achieved good to excellent results as the anti-infiammatory activity of azelaic acid has well as those treated with topical antibiotics such as been demonstrated in several clinical studies, with 2 % erythromycin [24]. Moreover, azelaic acid pro the same reduction of infiammatory acne lesions duced clinical results comparable to those of oral compared to topical benzoyl peroxide or tetracycline, with a slower time-response in case of clindamycin [4, 16], and an approximately similar deep infiamed lesions; however, at the end of 4 efficacy with oral tetracycline [14 ]. No participate in the infiammatory process, some bacterial resistance has been associated with azelaic papers have evaluated their involvement in the acid treatment. It has been reported that Azelaic acid has no recognized interaction patients with infiammatory acne generate higher with other drugs; therefore, the combination with levels of hydrogen peroxide generation by neutro other antiacne treatments can lead to a better effi phils, as compared to comedonal acne patients cacy. In particular, for severe acne, the associa and healthy subjects, suggesting a role in the tion with an oral antibiotic, such as minocycline, induction of manifestations and in the damage of resulted in a highly effective treatment, compa the follicular epithelium. Maintenance ther tion could improve the evolution of the lesions apy with azelaic acid prolongs the recurrence-free [17]. An overall improvement similar to hydroxyradicals generated by different mecha that obtained with 0. Moreover the diacid is neither toxic nor phototoxic, it is not terato genic, and no contact sensitization has been 58. Recently, in order to introduce some ameliora Clinical efficacy of azelaic acid has been demon tion in the delivery of the compound, a new gel strated by several studies. Vehicle controlled trials formulation with a lower nominal concentration of showed the ability of the 20 % cream to efficiently azelaic acid has been developed. The single-phase 58 Azelaic Acid 439 water-based gel contains 15 % micronized parti chain lenght (C8-C13) dicarboxylic acids. The low azelaic acid on cultures of lymphoma and leucemia lipid content (3 %) results in a lower stickiness of derived cell lines, normal restino and stimulated lym the formulation, and the high water percentage phocytes and 3T3 fibroblasts. Two randomized, multicen excretion rate and keratinization pattern in human tric, controlled trials proved that the efficacy of the skin: an in vivo and in vitro study. National and international clinical expe zoyl peroxide and 1 % clindamycin, with a similar riences with azelaic acid cream in the treatment of reduction of infiamed lesions and a local irritation comedo acne. Pharmacology and In conclusion, based on the experimental data toxicology of azelaic acid. Topical can be considered among the therapeutic reper azelaic acid and the treatment of acne: a clinical and toire in the treatment of patients with mild to laboratory comparison with oral tetracycline. Relationship between sebostatic activity, tolerability and effi clinical course of the disease of acne. Treatment of lentigo maligna with sible cause for its efficacy in treating pathogenetically azelaic acid. The effect of azelaic acid on laic acid and glycolic acid combination therapy com cutaneous bacteria. New treatments and therapeutic strate overview of results from European clinical trials and gies for acne. Comparison of azelaic acid cream plus oral minocycline with oral Emerging Acne Treatments 5 9 Anthony V. Manipulation of other retinoid metabolism enzymes and chromatin remodeling agents may also offer benefit. Phytosphingosine also potentiates the activity of conventional treatments such as benzoyl peroxide. These agents have or third generation such as adapalene and tazaro been called retinoic acid metabolism breakdown tene. These in the basal keratinocytes when the retinoid sta approaches may prove to be useful for the treat tus is high. Ligand (15 %) have recently also been shown to be effective binding causes the receptors to undergo a confor [16]. Acetylation of lysine residues in the octadecenedioic acid-containing agar plates were N-terminal of histones opens up the chromatin inoculated with P. Octadecenedioic effects on keratinocytes have already been proven acid was found to be very effective against [15]. The study population sive as others have found increased sebogenesis in consisted of mild to moderate acne sufferers cell culture. Antiacne clinical instance, describe the stimulatory effects of linoleic efficacy was determined using the “Leeds Scale” acid on sebogenesis and its interactions between and by counting acne lesions. These changes were statistically to acne patients produced an almost 25 % reduction significant to baseline (p< 0. As a first and a reporter gene with the luciferase/luciferine study this new acid is a promising treatment for system was performed. Using human chest sebaceous glands as Treatment of Acne 7-day cultured whole organs, Downie et al [18]. However, esis and reduced the synthesis of the sebum-specific some of these sphingoid bases occur freely in 59 Emerging Acne Treatments 445 the non-amidated form. The most common compounds were separated from each other in a member of this group found in nature is (2S, two-chamber dispenser.

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The Royal Marsden breast cancer prevention 107 trial assigned 2 erectile dysfunction treatment options natural buy sildalist online,494 healthy women to erectile dysfunction drugs class order discount sildalist oral tamoxifen (20mg/day) or placebo for 8 years erectile dysfunction injection dosage buy discount sildalist 120 mg line. However erectile dysfunction doctor dallas buy cheap sildalist 120 mg online, the study also found with both treatments the risk of invasive breast cancer decreased by half erectile dysfunction doctors in alexandria va buy cheap sildalist 120mgmg on-line. It is well recognized that mammography does not have perfect sensitivity or specificity. As a result, there are ongoing efforts to improve the sensitivity and specificity of screening modalities, particularly for women at high risk of developing breast cancer. One characteristic that is associated with poorer sensitivity of mammography is dense breast tissue. While current guidelines do not recommend screening ultrasound for detection of breast cancer, there is some literature suggesting that ultrasound alone or in combination with mammography might be superior in this case. However, the 155 proportion of false-positive results with ultrasound was higher than with mammography. Evidence from screening studies in women with radiographically dense breasts suggested that 156 157,158 0. Two studies reported that the specificity of ultrasound is lower in younger 154,155 women than older women. In addition to screening mammography, ultrasound can accurately distinguish some solid lesions as benign, reducing the rates of unnecessary 159,160 biopsy. The American Cancer Society Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening found limited clinical evidence for effectiveness or equivalence of ultrasound to screen-film 155 mammography for screening for breast cancer. Finally, the European Group for Breast Cancer Screening consensus statement stated the value of diagnostic ultrasound for targeted examination of both palpable and impalpable breast 31 168 abnormalities with no evidence to support screening ultrasound in asymptomatic women. Understanding this effect and how best to prevent all forms of breast cancer deserves further attention. Surgical decisionmaking generally takes the following factors into account: 181-196165,166,197 multicentric disease, tumor size, and contralateral disease. We excluded studies when a later publication from the same institution included patients from an 181,236 237-240 earlier study. Despite these similarities, variability in the definition of multicentric disease limits comparisons across studies. For example, Hollingsworth defined multicentric disease as a separate focus of cancer more than 231 5. Thus, pathological examination can overestimate or underestimate tumor sizes, depending on the plane of section. Definitions of error were not consistent between studies (+/ 5mm to 10mm), and some studies did not explicitly define what they considered to be an error. The studies reported descriptive information and did not use strategies to reduce bias. The majority of the studies included middle aged women (median age 50-60 years); few 237,255,270 259 specifically focused on younger (median age <50) or older (median age >60) patients. Common selection criteria listed by many authors include palpable mass, radiographic mass, large size, mastectomy treatment, high 248,264,274 nuclear grade, and suspicion for invasive breast cancer. For our final analysis, we excluded several studies for the following reasons: 68 1) A later publication from the same institution included patients from an earlier 236 237-240 study. No studies reported chemotherapy use; 16 reported regional recurrence and 44 report distant recurrence. Even clinically, this is rarely fully explored and not clearly helpful with decisionmaking. Ernster also reports that breast cancer mortality declined significantly between 1978-1983 and 1984-1989 (10 year mortality at 10 years 3. Estimates of 5 or 10-year recurrence rates are remarkably unstable across studies ranging from 2. When both 5 and 10-year outcomes are reported for the same cohort, it is interesting to note that in some cases, such as Vicini, there is relatively little increased risk in years 5-10 298 beyond what was experienced in the first 5 years. In other cases, however, there is a large difference in risk between 5 and 10 years. This raises questions about whether risk of recurrence is stable over time, whether it increases or decreases. When combined with invasive contralateral breast cancer, 299-303 incidence rises to up to 8 percent after 10 years. While somewhat beyond the scope of this report, several small studies provide some evidence of survival after local recurrence. Solin reports on the experience of 42 cases with local 305 recurrence and estimated an actuarial 5-year breast cancer mortality rate of about 16 percent. Thus, while survivable, local recurrence is serious and preventing local recurrence is clearly preferable. There was, however, considerable variability across studies in terms of how margins were defined or classified. For 325,326 example, some studies classified margins as ‘free’ or ‘involved’ while others use more 327,328 329 precise measures such as <1mm. We excluded one study because we could not reproduce their significance estimates or conclusions. We synthesized the evidence separately from observational studies of better quality that reported multivariate adjusted estimates of the association between patient outcomes and margin 297,298,308-310,312,313,315,316,318-321,330 status (14 studies) (Table 11). The majority of such studies reported a positive significant association between positive margins and recurrence. Other studies reported a nonsignificant increase in the odds of local recurrence in women with involved 316 margins after lumpectomy with or without adjuvant radio or chemotherapy and increased risk of local recurrence in women with close or involved margins after lumpectomy or 315 mastectomy. Margins of 10mm or more were associated with the largest reduction (98 percent) in the risk of local recurrence, while no differences were seen using a cut off of 2 or 4mm. Estimates generally classified tumors less 320 than 20mm as ‘small’ though some defined small as <5mm. A single study examined the association between tumor size and distant metastases and failed to find a significant 334 350 association. The association between tumor grade and patient outcomes was reported in 39 295,296,306,307,309-313,315-317,320,321,323,325,327,329,330,335,339-343,345,347-349,351,353-361 studies (Table 13). Two studies, each with less than 300 women, examined the association between tumor grade and mortality. The association was of similar magnitude but not statistically significant for women treated with lumpectomy alone. A multi-institution observational study from the United States and Europe of 172 women treated with lumpectomy plus radiation failed to find a significant association between 325 crude odds of death and tumor grade. No study 345,347,356 found an increased risk of contralateral cancer associated with tumor grade. While several studies failed to find statistically significant associations between intermediate and low 296,310,312,347 322 grade tumors, Kerlikowske found significant increased risk of recurrence for grade 2 versus grade 1 tumors in a cohort of 1,036 women treated with lumpectomy alone. Overall, the studies suggest that the difference between grades 2 and 1 may be less important than the difference 363 between grade 3 and grades 2 and 1. Of note, Li found no 347 association between pathologic grade and contralateral invasive cancers. Li found women with comedo necrosis were at 347 slightly reduced risk of contralateral invasive recurrence. Comparisons between other architectural groups are rarely reported and are somewhat 295 inconsistent. One observational study examined the association between mortality or distant 325 metastases and the presence of necrosis and did not find a significant association (Table 16). Two observational studies examined the association between contralateral cancer and the 337,345 presence of necrosis and did not find a significant association. Three observational studies 301,348,358 showed a positive tendency between necrosis and worse rates of any recurrence but only 301 329,337,364 one found a significant association. The association was not significant 369 348 after mastectomy or skin-sparing mastectomy, inconsistent in direction and significance 306,311,360,369,370 after lumpectomy plus radiation, and in studies that combined all treatment 312,315,316,329,335,339,345 together in analysis. The Van Nuys Index is scored from 4-12 based on four different predictors of local breast recurrence: tumor size, width of negative margin, pathologic classification, and 371 patient age. The index measures post-surgical risk of events (since surgical margins comprise one-quarter of the score). The association between patient outcomes and Van Nuys risk category was examined in 15 317,336,341,343,349,350,352,358,371-377 observational studies (Table 17). Comparison of studies reporting Van Nuys Index is complicated because numerical scores are not consistently categorized across studies. Some studies included 376 age, grade, and tumor size but not surgical margins, calculated tumor size from mammographic 358 lesion, or modified cut offs for nuclear grade (low=1, intermediate=2, high=3) and margin 374 (>1mm score=2, fi1mm score=3). Women at the highest risk category of Van Nuys index (10-12) had 224 percent greater odds 350 of mortality than women in the 4 to 6 risk category. Few studies report the association between estrogen receptor status and mortality. They concluded that coexpression of Her2 and Her4 was associated with reduced recurrence compared with Her2 only tumors. The importance of Her2 positivity is highlighted by a study by Bijker which found a kappa of. The studies did not classify calcifications based on their form, such as fine/granule, etc. It is less clear whether the age-related disadvantage is attenuated when comparing middle aged and older women. For example, Innos reported similar recurrence rates between women between 50 and 65 and those 364 over 65. Likewise, Li found recurrence rates for women between 50-59 and 60-69 or 70+ to be 80 347 307 298,318,370 296 equivalent. In 347 contrast, Li found increased risk of contralateral invasive cancer to be higher in older women. All-cause mortality, however, is consistently lower in younger women than older 80,389 women. Consistent with the increased risk of recurrence in younger women, three studies found pre 309,322,333 menopausal women to face higher risk of recurrence than post-menopausal women. These findings point to differences in tumor characteristics such as size, grade, and necrosis as important explanatory factors for the observed poorer outcomes among African American versus white women. The findings also underscore the importance of tumor characteristics that remain after controlling for treatment. Patient outcomes for Asians or Asian-Pacific Islanders were compared to whites in five 322,347,364,376,389 articles. The small number of cases included in the analysis limits the interpretability of these Native American comparisons. They did not classify mammographic density in the same way, which somewhat limits comparability.

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