By: Edward T. F. Wei PhD
For example cholesterol know your numbers cheap 10 mg zetia amex, under Dextrose Injection cholesterol juice fasting order zetia 10mg, the various ways to ensure that the correct quantities following is stated: It contains not less than 95 cholesterol levels versus age order zetia mastercard. Similar ranges and issues exist cholesterol ratio more important buy 10 mg zetia with mastercard, 40 mL for small-volume range of 1 to 100 mL cholesterol ratio nederlands purchase 10 mg zetia free shipping, for example, for injections of calcium gluconate, 300 mL for large-volume range of 100 to 1000 magnesium sulfate, and potassium chloride. Compound Thus, compounding personnel shall keep a daily ing personnel should consult Weights and Bal record of the above-described accuracy assess ances? In addition, the same volume of Sterile Wa view shall occur at least at weekly intervals to ter for Injection used to assess volumetric accu avoid potentially clinically significant cumulative Copyright 2008 the United States Pharmacopeial Convention All Rights Reserved. The used additive con be visually examined for the presence of particu tainers and, for those additives for which the entire late matter and not administered or dispensed container was not expended, the syringes used to when such matter is observed. The prescription or measure the additive should be quarantined with ders, written compounding procedure, preparation the final products until the final product check is records, and expended materials used to make completed. Pref ingredients, aseptic mixing and sterilization, pack erably, a person other than the compounder can aging, labeling, and expected physical appearance verify that correct volumes of correct ingredients before they are administered or dispensed. These or both for evidence of visible particulates or other volume accuracy checks and the following addi foreign matter. The Membrane Filtration method is the method of Identity and Strength Verification of choice where feasible (e. In the absence are aqueous solutions in which hydrolysis of dis of a bacterial endotoxins limit in the official mono solved ingredients is the most common chemical Copyright 2008 the United States Pharmacopeial Convention All Rights Reserved. Such lifetime stability exposure is Criteria and Beyond-Use Dating under Pharma represented in the mean kinetic temperature calcu ceutical Compounding?Nonsterile Preparations lation (see Pharmaceutical Calculations in Pre-? Drug hydrolysis In addition, compounding personnel may refer to rates increase exponentially with arithmetic tem applicable publications to obtain relevant stability, perature increase; thus, exposure of a beta-lactam compatibility, and degradation information regard antibiotic solution for 1 day at controlled room ing the drug or its congeners. When assigning a temperature (see General Notices and Require beyond-use date, compounding personnel should ments) will have an equivalent effect on the extent consult and apply drug-specific and general stabil of hydrolysis of approximately 3 to 5 days in cold ity documentation and literature where available, temperatures (see General Notices and and they should consider the nature of the drug Requirements. Expiration tration of ingredients, fill volume, container type dates for the chemical and stability of manufac and material) and the characteristics of the prod tured sterile products are determined from results ucts from which stability data or information is to of rigorous analytical and performance testing, and be extrapolated. The greater the doubt of the accu they are specific for a particular formulation in its racy of theoretically predicted beyond-use dating, container and at stated exposure conditions of illu the greater the need to determine dating periods mination and temperature. Preparation-specific, experimentally deter to warm temperatures (see General Notices and mined stability data evaluation protocols are pref Requirements) unless the compounding facility has erable to published stability information. Additionally, compounding personnel shall ing the appropriate education, training, and super note the storage temperature when placing the vision of compounding personnel assigned to these product into or removing the product from the functions. The compounding facility should assist storage unit in order to monitor any temperature in the education and training of noncompounding aberrations. Suitable temperature recording personnel responsible for carrying out any aspect devices may include a calibrated continuous of these functions. If the Where noncompounding personnel are assigned compounding facility uses a continuous tasks involving any of these responsibilities, the temperature recording device, compounding policies and procedures encompassing those tasks personnel shall verify at least once daily that the should be developed by compounding supervisors. Activities or concerns that should storage space to reflect accurately its true be addressed as the compounding facility fulfills temperature. Although compounding personnel routinely perform many of the tasks associated with these functions, some tasks, such as transport, handling, and placement into storage, may be fulfilled by noncompounding personnel who are not under the Copyright 2008 the United States Pharmacopeial Convention All Rights Reserved. Pharmaceutical Compounding?Sterile Preparations 43 direct administrative control of the compounding potential breakage and contamination. Examples of special requirements of these compounding facility has a direct interest. The per agents also include exposure-reducing strategies formance of the noncompounding personnel is such as the use of Luer lock syringes and connec monitored for compliance to established policies tions, syringe caps, the capping of container ports, and procedures. In cal shaking that might occur during pneumatic spections shall confirm compliance with appropri tube transport or undue exposure to heat or light ate storage conditions, separation of drugs and must be addressed on a preparation-specific basis. This program includes the bility should be confirmed from either relevant and assessment and documentation of procedural reliable sources or direct testing. Compounding person the home, including all special requirements nel shall periodically review the delivery perform related to same. Handle, contain, and dispose of wastes, such cording, or filing, and evaluating reports of ad as needles, syringes, devices, biohazardous verse events and of the quality of preparation spills or residuals, and infectious substances. All maintaining and improving the quality of systems specified competencies in the patient or caregiver and the provision of patient care. Post-training verbal counseling can also be tions and dispensing of products as described used periodically, as appropriate, to reinforce 13 the use of additional resources, such as the Accreditation Manual training and to ensure continuing correct and com for Home Care from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, may prove helpful in the development of plete fulfillment of responsibilities. Pharmaceutical Compounding?Sterile Preparations 47 in this chapter, including environmental test 6. Description of specific monitoring and evalu In developing a specific plan, focus is on estab ation activities; lishing objective, measurable indicators for moni 4. Specification of how results are to be reported toring activities and processes that are deemed and evaluated; high risk, high volume, or problem prone. Sterilization Methods Verify that methods achieve sterility while maintaining appropriate strength, purity, quality, and packaging integrity. The effectiveness of dry heat sterilization shall be verified using appropriate biological indicators and other confirmation. Depyrogenation by Dry Heat Dry heat depyrogenation shall be used to render glassware or containers, such as vials free from pyrogens as well as viable microbes. Pressure Differential Monitoring A pressure gauge or velocity meter shall be installed to monitor the pressure differential or airflow between the buffer area and ante area and the ante-area and the general environment outside the compounding area. Environmental Viable Airborne Particle Testing Program?Sampling Plan An appropriate environmental sampling plan shall be developed for airborne viable particles based on a risk assessment of compounding activities performed. Viable Air Sampling Evaluation of airborne microorganisms using volumetric collection methods in the controlled air environments shall be performed by properly trained individuals for all compounding risk levels. Air Sampling Devices the instructions in the manufacturers user manual for verification and use of electric air samplers that actively collect volumes of air for evaluation shall be followed. Air Sampling Frequency and Process Air sampling shall be performed at least semiannually. Counts from air monitoring need to be transformed into cfu/cubic meter of air and evaluated for adverse trends. Action Levels, Documentation and Data Evaluation Sampling data shall be collected and reviewed on a periodic basis as a means of evaluating the overall control of the compounding environment. Work surfaces shall be constructed of smooth, impervious materials, such as stainless steel or molded plastic, so that they are easily cleaned and disinfected. Cleaning and Disinfecting the Sterile Compounding Areas Trained personnel write detailed procedures including cleansers, disinfectants, and non-shedding wipe and mop materials. Items shall be removed from all areas to be cleaned and surfaces shall be cleaned by removing loose material and residue from spills. Garbing and Gloving Competency Evaluation Compounding personnel shall be visually observed during the process of performing hand hygiene and garbing procedures. Gloved Fingertip Sampling Immediately after the compounder completes the hand hygiene and garbing procedure, the evaluator shall collect a gloved fingertip and thumb sample from both hands of the compounder onto appropriate agar plates by lightly pressing each finger tip into the agar. Incubation Period At the end of the designated sampling period, the agar plates are recovered, covers secured, inverted and incubated at a temperature and for a time period conducive to multiplication of microorganisms. Aseptic Manipulation Competency Evaluation All compounding personnel shall have their aseptic technique and related practice competency evaluated initially during the media-fill test procedure and subsequent annual or semiannual media-fill test procedures on the Sample Form for Assessing Aseptic Technique and Related Practices of Compounding Personnel. Cleaning and Disinfecting Competency Evaluation Compounding personnel and other personnel responsible for cleaning shall be visually observed during the process of performing cleaning and disinfecting procedures during initial personnel training on cleaning procedures, changes in cleaning staff and at the completion of any Media-Fill Test Procedure. Action Levels, Documentation, and Data Evaluation Environmental sampling data shall be collected and reviewed on a routine basis as a means of evaluating the overall control of the compounding environment. Sample Form for Assessing Hand Hygiene and Garbing Related Practices of Compounding Personnel Printed name and position/title of person assessed: Name of facility or location: Hand Hygiene and Garbing Practices: the qualified evaluator will mark (? Is aware of the line of demarcation separating clean and dirty sides and observes required activities. Dons shoe covers or designated clean-area shoes one at a time, placing the covered or designated shoe on clean side of the line of demarcation, as appropriate. Performs hand hygiene procedure by wetting hands and forearms and washing using soap and warm water for at least 30 seconds. Selects the appropriate sized gown examining for any holes, tears, or other defects. Disinfects hands again using a waterless alcohol-based surgical hand scrub with persistent activity and allows hands to dry thoroughly. Removes gown and discards it, or hangs it on hook if it is to be reused within the same work day. Removes shoe covers or shoe one at a time, ensuring that uncovered foot is placed on the dirty side of the line of demarcation and performs hand hygiene again. Signature of Person Assessed Printed Name Date Signature of Qualified Evaluator Printed Name Date Copyright 2008 the United States Pharmacopeial Convention All Rights Reserved. Sample Form for Assessing Aseptic Technique and Related Practices of Compounding Personnel Printed name and position/title of person assessed: Name of facility or location: Aseptic Technique, Safety, and Quality Assurance Practices: the qualified evaluator will mark (? Disposes of sharps and waste according to institutional policy or recognized guidelines. Sample Form for Assessing Cleaning and Disinfection Procedures Printed name and position/title of person assessed: Name of facility or location: Cleaning and Disinfection Practices: the qualified evaluator will mark (? Daily Tasks: Prepares correct concentration of disinfectant solution according to manufacturer?s instructions. Uses appropriately labeled container for the type of surface to be cleaned (floor, wall, production bins, etc. Mops floors, using the mop labeled ?floors?, starting at the wall opposite the room entry door; mops floor surface in even strokes toward the operator. In the ante-area, cleans sink and all contact surfaces; cleans floor with a disinfectant solution or uses microfiber cleaning system. Prepares a disinfectant solution as stated in daily tasks that is appropriate for the surfaces to be cleaned. Cleans buffer area and ante-area ceiling, walls, and storage shelving with a disinfectant solution and a mop or uses a microfiber cleaning system. Cleans all buffer area totes and storage shelves by removing contents and using a germicidal detergent soaked lint free wipe, cleans the inside surfaces of the tote and then the entire exterior surfaces of the tote. Cleans all buffer area carts by removing contents and using germicidal detergent soaked lint free wipe, cleans all carts starting with the top shelf and top of post, working down to wheels. Cleans buffer area chairs, the interior and exterior of trash bins, and storage bins using disinfectant solution soaked lint free wipe. Documents all cleaning activities as to who performed such activities with date and time noted. Signature of Person Assessed Printed Name Date Signature of Qualified Evaluator Printed Name Date (Official June 1, 2008) Copyright 2008 the United States Pharmacopeial Convention All Rights Reserved. The evidence for accuracy of diagnostic selective nerve root blocks is limited; Address Correspondence: whereas for lumbar provocation discography, it is fair. The evidence for cervical provocation discography is limited; whereas the evidence for diagnostic cervical facet joint nerve blocks is good with a criterion standard of 75% or greater relief with controlled diagnostic blocks.
Antagonizes action and reverses symptoms of magnesium toxicity to improve neuromuscular function average cholesterol during pregnancy order zetia 10mg overnight delivery. In the presence of renal disease or failure cholesterol test over the counter order zetia 10 mg without prescription, dialysis may be needed to lower serum levels cholesterol values purchase cheapest zetia and zetia. Retrieved June 2013 from Needleman cholesterol lowering foods to eat order 10mg zetia mastercard, J cholesterol measurement purchase zetia 10 mg with visa, Buerhaus, P, Mattke, S, et al: Nurse staffing levels and the http://www. Prepared by LeFever Kee, J: Laboratory and diagnostic tests with nursing implications, University of Minnesota, 2006b. J Cardiovasc Paul, R, and Elder, L: the miniature guide to critical thinking concepts Nurs 18(5):360–368, 2003. Retrieved Craft, J: Eplerenone (Inspra), a new aldosterone antagonist for the treat May 2013 from http://www. Scriven, M, and Paul, R: Critical thinking as defined by the National Crowther, M, and McCourt, K: Get the edge on deep vein thrombosis. Am Nurse Today lines: Developed in collaboration with the International Society for 1(1):44–50, 2006. American College of Cardiology Presen rotrophic factor and cardiovascular risk factors and prognosis in angina tation. Daly, J, Elliot, D, Cameron-Traub, E, et al: Health status, perceptions of Kahn, K, and Jones, M: Ranolazine in the management of chronic stable coping and social support immediately after discharge of survivors of angina. Stroke 37:562–571, Gylys, K, and Gold, M: Acute coronary syndromes—New developments 2006. Prescriptions for Excellence in Health Care Spring specific issues related to cardiovascular disease. Retrieved March 2013 from Woods, A, and Moshang, J: Lowering risks of diabetes, hypertension, and http://www. Wolters Kluwer; Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins, Philadelphia, for inpatient hospital procedures, 1997–2009, 2012. Rasavong, C: Reliability and validity for Homans sign for the detection Schumann, L: Respiratory function and alterations in gas exchange. Retrieved February 2013 from Bausewein, C, Farquhar, M, Booth, S, et al: Measurement of breathless http://www. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, outcome of mechanical ventilation weaning trials: Burns Wean Philadelphia, 2003. N Engl J tion and outpatient visits, hospitalization, and mortality in elderly Med 345:1890–1900, 2001. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 128:829–832, dine oral rinse decreases ventilator associated pneumonia in surgical 2002. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy can cause pain; research could Hashibe, M, Boffetta, P, Zaridze, D, et al: Evidence for an important role improve its detection and treatment. Am J Nurs 106(3, suppl):39–47, of alcohol and aldehyde-metabolizing genes in cancers of the upper 2006. Semin Intervent Radiol 28(1):39–47, Pruitt, B, and Jacobs, M: Best-practice interventions: How can you prevent 2011. Chest 29(1 Suppl):255– of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A clinical 275, 2006. Infect Control Hosp Roman, M, Weinstein, A, and Macaluso, S: Primary spontaneous pneu Epidemiol Mar, 33(3):250–256, 2012. Am Fam Physician 73:442–450, ventilation at 23 long-term care hospitals: A multicenter outcomes 2006. Retrieved for the use of nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of tuber February 2013 from http://www. Retrieved Elias, A, and Baldini, E: Patient information: Small cell lung cancer February 2013 from http://www. Retrieved December 2012 from GlaxoSmithKline: Medication guide: Serevent Diskus (salmetrol xinafoate http://www. Retrieved February 2013 from Ferri, F: Ferris best test: A practical guide to clinical laboratory medicine http://www3. Oxford University Press, New Kleinschmidt, P: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema York, 2006. Retrieved February 2013 from surgical nursing: Critical thinking for collaborative care, ed 5. Retrieved February 2013 from National Multiple Sclerosis Society: Recommendations regarding corti http://emedicine. Lippincott, cancertopics/factsheet/Sites-Types/head-and-neck#r2 Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2006. Pagana, K, and Pagana, T: Mosbys diagnostic and laboratory test refer Retrieved December 2012 from http://www. Retrieved hypothetically related to dysfunction in the supporting sytems of December 2012 from the brain. Retrieved February 2013 from handbook of laboratory tests with nursing implications, ed 2. Retrieved from the Cochrane Library, February 2013, from Balague, F, and Dudler, J: An overview of conservative treatment for lower http://onlinelibrary. J Trauma Nurs 15(4):185–189, Plasmapheresis in neurologic disorders: Report of the Therapeutics 2008. Nursing de Kruijk, J, Leffers, P, Menheere, P, et al: Prediction of post-traumatic Made Incredibly Easy! Dryden, T, Baskwill, A, and Preyde, M: Massage therapy for the or Reddy, L, and Santoni, C: Heads up on cerebral bleeds. Nursing Made Incredi Gray, M: Urinary retention: Management in the acute care setting. Hilton, L: Weve got your back: Recovery from spinal cord injuries starts Schmidt, H, Heimann, B, Djukic, M, et al: Neuropsychological sequelae with the first hours of critical care. Orthopaedic Nursing Lawes, R: Uncovering the layers of meningitis and encephalitis. Retrieved January 2013 from Cruz-Flores, S, and Chaisam, T: Stroke anticoagulation and prophylaxis, http://guideline. Retrieved January 2013 American Stroke Association: Impact of stroke: Stroke statistics, 2012. Retrieved January 2012 Glaucoma Research Foundation: Treating glaucoma, various pages, n. Retrieved January 2013 from meningitis, arboviral (includes Californa serogroup, Eastern equine, http://emedicine. Retrieved January 2013 from Miami Childrens Hospital: In-depth reports: Seizure/Epilepsy, 2010. Retrieved January 2013 from Escott-Stump, S (eds): Krauses food and nutrition therapy, ed 12. In the ScienceDaily, Rush University Medical Center: Cost effectiveness of Phoenix, pp 26–33, A publication of the United States Ostomy spinal surgery analyzed, December 29, 2008. Retrieved March 2013 from of gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in cirrhosis. Practical for management of pediatric moderate/severe inflammatory bowel Gastroenterol (June):63–74, 2004. Retrieved March 2013 from http://www Ringhofer, J: Meeting the needs of your ostomy patient. Retrieved March 2013 from dicitis is more favorable for patients with comorbidities, the elderly, http://www. Tan, J, File, T, Salata, R, et al: Expert guide to infectious diseases, ed 2, Retrieved March 2013 from 2008. Department of Health and Human Services: Deaths: Final data for March 2013 from 2009. Retrieved Books April 2013 from Bernal-Mizrachi, E, and Bernal-Mizrachi, C: Diabetes mellitus and related http://emedicine. Retrieved March 2013 from Lemone, P, and Burke, K: Medical surgical nursing: Critical thinking in http://digestive. Townsend, M: Psychiatric mental health nursing: Concepts of care in Crawford, A, and Harris, H: Thyroid imbalances: Dealing with disorderly evidence-based practice, ed 5. Obes Surg Centers of Excellence using the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal 18(11):1359–1363, 2008. Men in Favoretti, F, Ashton, D, Busetto, L, et al: the gastric band: First-choice Nurs 1(3):20–26, 2006. Nurs Pract Blackett, A, Gallagher, S, Dugan, S, et al: Caring for persons with bariatric 29(1):11–13, 2004. Int J Mens Health 11(1):36, free thyroxine concentration and atrial fibrillation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol portal hypertension: Variceal hemorrhage, ascites, and spontaneous 9(9):727–738, 2011. Am J Crit Care Resource Center Program: Management and treatment of patients with 9(5):318–324, 2000. Bariatr roid surgery: Prospective evaluation of intraoperative electrophysiolog Nurs Surg Patient Care 1(2):107–114, 2006. Gastroenterol Nurs Vairman, M, Nagibin, A, Hagag, P, et al: Subtotal and near total versus 26(4):150–154, 2003. Levy, P, Fried, M, Santini, F, et al: the comparative effects of bariatric sur Clin Liver Dis 10(4):19–40, 2006. The incidence of bariatric surgery has plateaued in the related protein gene polymorphism and anorexia nervosa. Nardi, M, Tognana, G, Schiavo, G, et al: Nutritional support in liver cir Electronic Resources rhosis. Retrieved Orbanic, S: Understanding bulimia, signs, symptoms and the human expe March 2013 from http://www. Retrieved March 2013 from Speranza, M, et al: Predictive value of alexithymia in patients with eating www. Retrieved March 2013 from National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders http://summaries. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations Retrieved March 2013 from http://emedicine. 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Injection of the offending antigen (or allergen) into the skin to induce a localized inflammatory reaction is called a delayed-hypersensitivity skin test cholesterol friendly foods zetia 10mg amex. Most newborn mammals are unable to produce an effective immune response and depend for protection upon antibody transferred from the mother during the first few days or weeks of life cholesterol levels child purchase zetia in india. Antibody of the IgG class crosses the placenta and temporarily protects the newborn cholesterol journal articles purchase zetia 10 mg amex. In addition cholesterol definition science order zetia 10mg with mastercard, colostrum can provide IgM and IgG antibody definition of cholesterol test cheap 10 mg zetia fast delivery, followed by IgA in the milk. At the other end of the age spectrum, the elderly are often more susceptible to infection because of a general decline in immune function. Although total immunoglobulin levels and the number of T and B cells in the blood do not change perceptively with age, several T cell responses are significantly lower. The reason may be that the thymus, which plays a key role in T cell maturation and prolifera tion, gradually involutes after puberty. Antibody responses to a number of test antigens also decline in older individuals. In contrast, there is often an increase in restricted, monoclonal immunoglobulins and in autoantibodies (Lambré & Alaoui-Silimani, 1986. Inevitably, some of these receptors will react with antigens present in the body of the host itself. Recognition of autoantigens may result in harm to the host, referred to as autoimmune disease. It is important for survival that these self-directed reactions be avoided or limited so that harm does not follow, the phenomenon called self tolerance. The mechanisms involved in self-tolerance can be divided into central and peripheral. During the generation of T cells in the thymus, a process of negative selection takes place. Antigens presented to immature T cells during their education by thymic stromal cells result in programmed cell death or apoptosis of those T cells. Many autoantigens are presented in the thymus in this manner, resulting in deletion of the precursors of self-reactive clones. The great majority of T cells die during their sojourn in the thymus, suggesting that many of them are precommitted to autoantigens. B cells undergo a similar process of negative selection in the bone marrow or in lymph nodes. In addition to deletion of self-reactive clones directed to the most critical autologous antigens, B cells may undergo a unique process of clonal editing, which allows them to reformulate the B cell receptor on their surface by reactivating the immunoglobulin recombination process. Self-reactive B cells are evident from their low-affinity IgM products, which form a network of natural autoantibodies found in all normal sera. The presence of self-reactive T cells in the periphery can now be shown directly by the use of peptide tetramers. The presence of self-reactive T and B cells in the periphery presents a constant risk for the development of autoimmune disease. A number of mechanisms are in place to maintain self-tolerance and avoid the harmful effects of autoimmunity that are responsible for disease. We now know that T cells and B cells require two signals from an antigen-presenting cell in order to proliferate: an antigen specific stimulus and a nonspecific second signal. Anergy is a state of unresponsiveness of T cells or B cells due to the absence of a required co-stimulatory (second) signal in the presence of the antigen-specific stimulus. Anergy can be overcome by administering the second signal, often in the presence of one of the inflammatory cytokines. The discovery of immunological ignorance resulted from studies in which autoantigen was expressed in tissue, but ignored by the corresponding T cells. The destructive power of the immune system requires that control measures be in place to prevent an overexuberant response. Many of these regulatory mechanisms may also play a role in avoiding harmful immunological reactions. A great deal of attention, for example, is now focused on populations of regulatory T cells that are capable of dampening or preventing immune + + responses. Although their mech anism of action is still not fully understood, it is thought that these cells can control autoimmunity by preventing T cell activation, expansion, and differentiation during lymph node priming, by controlling T cell trafficking to tissues as well as their activation and effector function development (Bluestone & Tang, 2005. Some general principles, however, underlie the immunopathogenesis of all of the autoimmune diseases. These cells are normally quiescent due to the mechanisms of anergy, ignorance, or suppression. The induction of autoimmunity begins by overcoming one of these peripheral mechanisms. Self-reactive B cells are rather easily activated, as shown by the common presence of natural autoantibodies in normal sera. Historically, the earliest mechanism proposed was based on the premise that certain autologous antigens are anatomically sequestered from the immune apparatus. Indeed, there are barriers that normally impede the easy entrance of immunologically competent cells into the lens of the eye, the sperm in the testes, and, to some extent, the brain. More modern research has suggested that the barriers are more physiological than anatomical and may depend upon the local expression of signals that initiate apoptosis of activated T lymphocytes. Moreover, the general notion of sequestration has re-emerged as the doctrine of cryptic epitopes. Immune responses may be induced to antigens that were masked or cryptic, but revealed due to foreign agents (Sercarz et al. This concept suggests that certain epitopes of autologous proteins are unlikely to be expressed by the tolerance-inducing, antigen-presenting stromal cells in the thymus. Therefore, T cells reactive with these cryptic determinants are most likely to escape central tolerance and, if they are encountered in the periphery, are the ones most likely to initiate autoimmune responses. A second possible mechanism to initiate an autoimmune response is based on the concept of molecular mimicry. It is well known that microorganisms often bear epitopes closely resembling epitopes of autoantigens. An encounter with a cross-reacting antigen 18 Introduction to the Immune System from an invading microorganism may initiate a response that affects the similar autoantigen. In fact, rising titres of autoantibodies are frequently found following infection by many different microorgan isms. There are, however, few, if any, clear examples of molecular mimicry actually causing human disease. Although it is well docu mented that streptococcal pharyngitis may precipitate rheumatic fever in susceptible individuals, we are only beginning to define the antigen(s) of the streptococcus that can reproduce the typical patho genetic manifestations of the disease (see also chapter 9. Another possible mechanism to explain the origin of autoim munity is based on the premise that foreign agents, including infectious organisms, environmental chemicals, and radiation, may alter an autoantigen in a manner that makes it antigenic and/or immunogenic. The immune response to the altered self may then extend to the unaltered autologous antigen. While there are many experiments demonstrating the production of antibody to altered autoantigens, there are, as yet, no good examples of situations where they are clearly responsible for an autoimmune disease. The infectious process affects changes in the body of the host that favour the induction of autoimmunity. Many microorganisms produce superantigens that activate an entire family of T cells. Some members of the T cell family may be committed to responding to autoantigens and could thereby initiate an autoimmune response. In the past, we have often compared the effects of infection with the actions of complete Freunds adjuvant, a mixture of mineral oil and bacterial bodies that is known to combine with antigen, to enhance immune responses, and to favour the transition from harmless to pathogenetic auto immunity. The infectious process itself can act like an adjuvant: it can drive B cells to differentiate into antibody-producing cells that produce the natural autoantibodies so often seen following infection. There are instances, moreover, where class switching results in IgG antibodies, indicating that helper T cells may also be activated, perhaps through the infectious process. Inadequate affinity matura tion of adaptive responses can be harmful, as the host responds not only to the infectious agent, but also to closely related autoantigens. Moreover, self-reactive effector T cells may also be generated and induce autoimmune disease. These effects may even be apparent in dealing with memory T cells, suggesting that an infection occurring long after the initial sensitization of the host to autoantigen can cause an enhanced autoimmune response. The mechanisms described above are likely to be involved in the induction of organ-localized autoimmune diseases, where damage is largely confined to a single organ or cell target, such as seen in diabetes mellitus type 1, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, or multiple sclerosis. An alternative mechanism by which autoimmu nity may arise is a defect in negative selection in the thymus and a failure of clonal deletion to rid the periphery of self-reactive T cells. Such a defect in clonal deletion is most likely to give rise to multiple autoimmune responses, such as seen in the generalized or systemic autoimmune diseases (e. These animals character istically produce a large spectrum of autoantibodies similar to those seen in human cases of lupus. Once activated, the T cells amplify the immune response to the point where the bodys natural homeostatic mechanisms are no longer able to contain the dangerous reaction. The amplification mechanisms include epitope spread, which involves the recruitment of additional antigenic determinants on the self-reactive antigen molecule. We distinguish this intramolecular epitope spreading from immune esca lation, which describes the extension of the autoimmune response to other antigenic molecules in the same target organ. It is charac teristic of almost all of the autoimmune diseases that multiple autoantibodies are produced after the disease is under way, probably reflecting an adjuvant effect. For these reasons — epitope spread and immune escalation — it is difficult to define the original 20 Introduction to the Immune System autoantigenic determinant responsible for initiation of an auto immune disease in human cases. Thus, the use of animal models, where the disease can be induced under controlled conditions, can provide important insights into this process. In addition, prospective epidemiological studies that examine the development, persistence, and progression of autoantibodies before the clinical expression of disease can also advance our understanding of the etiology of autoimmune diseases in humans. Several studies of this type are now being conducted in diabetes mellitus type 1 research (Parks et al. The important factors deter mining the cytotoxic mechanisms involved in any situation include the accessibility of the antigen to the immune effectors as well as the quality and quantity of the immune response itself. There is some heuristic value in distinguishing Th1 responses from Th2 responses, although this dichotomy is rarely clear-cut or complete. This dichotomy is largely based on mouse studies that may not entirely apply to human beings or all animal species. Thus, broadly speaking, Th1 responses are thought of as cell-mediated, whereas Th2 responses are associated with antibody-mediated effector mechanisms. Among the autoimmune diseases, a direct demonstration of pathogenetic mechanisms has been possible until now only with antibody-mediated disorders. Antibodies to blood cells are responsible for the haemolytic anaemias and thrombocytopenias, either through enhanced phagocytosis by reticuloendothelial cells or by complement-mediated lysis. Pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid are due to antibodies that destroy intercellular substances that hold together cells of the skin, inducing blister or bullous formation. The most important antibodies from a clinical point of view are directed to components of the cell nucleus. When these nuclear antigens are released into the bloodstream, they combine with autoantibody to produce immune complexes that can deposit in capillary beds in the brain, skin, kidneys, and other organs, where they induce a patho genetic inflammatory response.
Be aware of impulsive behavior or actions suggestive of May indicate need for additional interventions and supervision impaired judgment cholesterol deposits purchase 10 mg zetia mastercard. Allow client sufficient time Clients need empathy and to know caregivers will be consis to accomplish tasks is the cholesterol in shrimp bad generic zetia 10 mg line. Enhances sense of self-worth cholesterol in eggs good or bad quality zetia 10mg, promotes independence cholesterol levels blood test buy 10 mg zetia overnight delivery, and encourages client to continue endeavors cholesterol test alcohol buy discount zetia 10mg. Create plan for visual deficits that are present, such as the following: Place food and utensils on the tray related to clients Client will be able to see to eat the food. Situate the bed so that clients unaffected side is facing the Will be able to see when getting in or out of bed and observe room with the affected side to the wall. Provides for safety when client is able to move around the room, reducing risk of tripping and falling over furniture. Provide self-help devices, such as button or zipper hook, Enables client to manage for self, enhancing independence and knife-fork combinations, long-handled brushes, extensions self-esteem; reduces reliance on others for meeting own for picking things up from floor, toilet riser, leg bag for needs; and enables client to be more socially active. Reestablishes sense of independence and fosters self-worth and enhances rehabilitation process. Assess clients ability to communicate the need to void and Client may have neurogenic bladder, be inattentive, or be un ability to use urinal or bedpan. Take client to the bathroom at able to communicate needs in acute recovery phase, but frequent and scheduled intervals for voiding if appropriate. Assists in development of retraining program (independence) Increase bulk in diet. Encourage fluid intake and increased and aids in preventing constipation and impaction (long activity. Consult with rehabilitation team, such as physical or occupa Provides assistance in developing a comprehensive therapy tional therapist. Identify meaning of the loss and dysfunction or change to Independence is highly valued in American society, but is not client. Note ability to understand events and provide realis as significant in some other cultures. In order to provide meaningful support and appropriate problem-solving, healthcare providers need to understand the meaning of the stroke and limitations to the client. Determine outside stressors, including family, work, social, and Helps identify specific needs, provides opportunity to offer in future nursing and healthcare needs. Consid eration of social factors, in addition to functional status, is important in determining appropriate discharge destination. Encourage client to express feelings, including hostility or Demonstrates acceptance of and assists client in recognizing anger, denial, depression, and sense of disconnectedness. Note whether client refers to affected side as it or denies Suggests rejection of body part or negative feelings about affected side and says it is dead. Acknowledge statement of feelings about betrayal of body; Helps client see that the nurse accepts both sides as part of the remain matter-of-fact about reality that client can still use whole individual. Allows client to feel hopeful and begin to unaffected side and learn to control affected side. Provides opportunity to use behaviors previously effective, Determine presence and quality of support systems. Emphasize and provide positive I-messages for small gains Consolidates gains, helps reduce feelings of anger and help either in recovery of function or independence. Support behaviors or efforts such as increased interest and Suggests possible adaptation to changes and understanding participation in rehabilitation activities. Monitor for sleep disturbance, increased difficulty concentrating, May indicate onset of depression (common aftereffect of stroke), statements of inability to cope, lethargy, and withdrawal. Collaborative Refer for neuropsychological evaluation and counseling, if May facilitate adaptation to role changes that are necessary indicated. Note: Depression is common in stroke survivors and may be a direct result of the brain damage or an emotional reaction to sudden-onset disability. Have suction equipment available at bedside, especially during Timely intervention may limit amount and untoward effect of early feeding efforts. Promote effective swallowing using methods such as the following: Schedule activities and medications to provide a minimum Promotes optimal muscle function and helps to limit fatigue. Assist client with head control or support, and position based Counteracts hyperextension, aiding in prevention of aspiration on specific dysfunction. Optimal positioning can facilitate intake and reduce risk of aspiration—head back for decreased posterior propulsion of tongue, head turned to weak side for unilateral pharyngeal paralysis, and lying down on either side for reduced pharyngeal contraction. Place client in upright position during and after feeding, as Uses gravity to facilitate swallowing and reduces risk of appropriate. Clients with dry mouth require a moisturizing agent, such as ar tificial saliva or alcohol-free mouthwash, before and after eating; clients with excess saliva will benefit from use of a drying agent, such as lemon or glycerin swabs, before meal and a moisturizing agent afterward. Season food with herbs, spices, and lemon juice according to Increases salivation, improving bolus formation and swallowing clients preference, within dietary restrictions. Stimulate lips to close or manually open mouth by light Aids in sensory retraining and promotes muscular control. Place food of appropriate consistency in unaffected side Provides sensory stimulation (including taste), which may in of mouth. For example: Clients with decreased range of tongue mo tion require thick liquids initially, progressing to thin liquids, whereas clients with delayed pharyngeal swallow will han dle thick liquids and thicker foods better. Note: Pureed food is not recommended because client may not be able to rec ognize what is being eaten. Most milk products, peanut but ter, syrup, and bananas are avoided because they produce mucus and are sticky. Touch parts of the cheek with tongue blade or apply ice Can improve tongue movement and control necessary for to weak tongue. Feeling rushed can increase stress and level of frustration, may increase risk of aspiration, and may result in clients termi nating meal early. In general, liquids should be offered only after client has finished eating solids. Although use may strengthen facial and swallowing muscles, if client lacks tight lip closure to accommodate straw or if liquid is deposited too far back in mouth, risk of aspiration may be increased. Maintain accurate record of food and fluid intake; record If swallowing efforts are not sufficient to meet fluid and nutri calorie count if indicated. May increase release of endorphins in the brain, promoting a sense of general well-being and increasing appetite. Collaborative Review results of radiographic studies, such as video Aids in determining phase of swallowing difficulties—oral fluoroscopy. Coordinate multidisciplinary approach to develop treatment Inclusion of dietitian and speech and occupational therapists plan that meets individual needs. Encourage client to turn head and eyes to scan the Helps client compensate for visual field loss, increasing environment. Discuss affected side while touching, manipulating, and Focuses clients attention, and limb activation treatment stroking affected side; provide items of varied size, provides tactile stimuli to promote use of affected limb in weight, and texture for client to hold. Have client look at and handle affected side, bring across Encourages client to accept affected limb or side as part of self midline during care activities. Assist client to position affected extremity carefully and to Promotes safety awareness, reducing risk of injury. Discuss environmental safety concerns and assist in developing Client may continue to have some ongoing degree of func plan to correct risk factors. Reinforce continuation of prescribed rehabilitation activities Maximizes recovery and enhances independence. Deficits affect the choice of teaching methods and content and complexity of instruction. These individuals will be providing support and care and have great impact on clients quality of life. Aids in establishing realistic expectations and promotes understanding of current situation and needs. Identify signs and symptoms requiring further follow-up, such Prompt evaluation and intervention reduces risk of complica as changes or decline in visual, motor, sensory functions; tions and further loss of function. Review current restrictions or limitations and discuss planned Promotes understanding, provides hope for future, and creates or potential resumption of activities, including sexual expectation of resumption of more normal life. Follow-through is essential to similar-acting drug, such as ticlopidine (Ticlid) and warfarin progression of recovery and prevention of complications. Identify ways of continuing program Note: Long-term anticoagulation may be beneficial for after discharge. Provide written instructions and schedules for activity, medica Provides visual reinforcement and reference source after tion, and important facts. Encourage client to refer to lists, written communications or Provides aids to support memory and promotes improvement notes, and memory book. Varying levels of assistance may be required and need to be planned for based on individual situation. Refer to discharge planner or home-care supervisor and visiting Home environment may require evaluation and modifications nurse. Identify community resources, such as National Stroke Associa Enhances coping abilities and promotes home management tion, American Heart Associations Stroke Connection, stroke and adjustment to impairments for both stroke survivors and support clubs, senior services, Meals on Wheels, adult day caregivers. Note: Recent innovations include such programs care or respite program, and visiting nurse. Suggest client reduce or limit environmental stimuli, especially Multiple or concomitant stimuli may aggravate confusion and during cognitive activities. Identify individual risk factors—hypertension, cardiac dysrhyth Promotes general well-being and may reduce risk of recur mias, obesity, smoking, heavy alcohol use, atherosclerosis, rence. Note: Obesity in women has been found to have a poor control of diabetes, and use of oral contraceptives— high correlation with ischemic stroke. Review importance of a balanced diet, low in cholesterol and Improves general health and well-being and provides energy sodium, if indicated. Refer to and reinforce importance of follow-up care by rehabili Diligent work may eventually overcome or minimize residual tation team, such as physical, occupational, speech, and deficits. Meningitis (indicated by m in tables in this section) cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure. The syndrome is most often acute, but may become tions by the blood-brain barrier. Risk factors include (1) age: can occur at any age, but isolated from the immune system. Replicating bacteria, is more common under 5 years and over 60 years; (continues on page 230) 229 (2) certain disorders (e. In the United States, most encephalitis is caused by acute bacterial meningitis); (4) crowded living spaces (1) enteroviruses (e. Encephalitis due to Herpes simplex type 1 virus is most to areas known for meningococcal disease (e. Encephalitis (indicated by e in tables in this section) pes simplex type 2 is typically spread through sexual i. There are two types of encephalitis—primary and sec contact or, less commonly, a newborn can contract the ondary forms.
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