By: Edward T. F. Wei PhD
Based on a recent paper by Gray et al skin care 40s order benzoyl with a mastercard,2 the prognosis is excellent with supportive care acne cure 20 gr benzoyl overnight delivery. Clinical signs and clinicopathologic findings include increased thirst and urination acne prone skin cheap 20gr benzoyl free shipping, weakness acne 40 years old buy benzoyl 20 gr amex, lethargy skin care korean brand cheap benzoyl online amex, anorexia, vomiting, generalized malaise, uremic halitosis, dehydration, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, azotemia, melena, hemorrhagic diarrhea, and death. In the past, aggressive treatment was recommended for treatment of cholecalciferol toxicosis, due to the narrow margin of safety. Once the patient develops hypercalcemia, treatment can be expensive, and requires hospitalization for an extended period of time. Some patients may be continued on oral furosemide and prednisone for weeks, following discharge from the hospital. Clinical signs are due to clotting factor depletion, resulting in generalized hemorrhage. The most common clinical signs include lethargy, exercise intolerance, inappetence, pallor, dyspnea, coughing, hemoptysis, etc. Rarer clinical signs include gingival bleeding, epistaxis, ecchymosis, petechiae, hematuria, bleeding into the subcutaneous space or joint space, and melena. Next, the administration of a “one-time,” parenteral injection of vitamin K1 at the time of decontamination is unnecessary and potentially detrimental. First, vitamin K1 is faster absorbed orally than parenterally (particularly with a fatty meal). With a “one-time shot,” the patient will bleed out at 5-7 days instead of 3-5 days! Overall, the prognosis is excellent for most rodenticides; however, aggressive therapy is warranted to prevent morbidity. A range of issues are present, including ongoing challenges from endemic diseases, changing patterns of endemic diseases, newly recognized diseases and introduction of previously foreign pathogens. This have resulted in identification of clinically affected dogs of carriers in households and breeding kennels. Routine testing of all imported dogs should be considered to allow for prompt diagnosis and owner counselling. These have been in kennels encountering reproductive losses, as well as kennels with no overt problems. Well over 150 positive breeding dogs have been identified, with that presumably accounting for a distinct minority of cases. The difficulty in eliminating infection and having confidence that the bacterium is eliminated complicate management of cases and client counselling. The need for spaying or neutering as part of the control strategy has led to widespread culling in affected kennels, but treatment of numerous pet dogs has been attempted. The need for long-term treatment and repeated testing after treatment, with little assurance of permanent resolution, creates many challenges. Blastomycosis Blastomycosis, caused by the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis, is a regionally important disease in Ontario. Infectious spores live in the soil and inhalation of inoculation can result in infection. Blastomycosis is most common in dogs (and to a lesser degree cats) around Georgian Bay and northwestern Ontario, but sporadic cases can be found throughout the province. Understanding the regional distribution of blastomycosis is important for veterinarians practicing in endemic areas and for querying travel history. Canine blastomycosis is also a relevant One Health issue as dogs and humans are infected from the same source, contaminated environments. Now a reportable disease in people, record numbers of human blastomycosis cases were identified in 2019. Leptospirosis Leptospirosis has been called a ‘re-emerging’ disease for the past 15 years, but it is clear that is should actually be called a widespread endemic disease in Ontario. Leptospirosis should be considered in dogs with acute renal disease, particularly if there is evidence of concurrent hepatic involvement. A variety of testing options are available, and the relative usefulness of each test varies with factors such as vaccination history and whether antimicrobials have been administered. Leptospirosis vaccination should be considered in virtually all dogs in Ontario, as exposure to contaminated sites from raccoon or rodent urine is difficult to avoid. Leptospirosis was previously considered a disease mainly of large breed dogs in rural areas. However, small breed dogs in urban regions are now the most commonly affected group, likely because of exposure to raccoon urine in urban parks. Antimicrobial Resistance Antimicrobials have been hailed as one of the greatest (in not the greatest) medical discovery. It should not be surprising, therefore, that antimicrobial resistance has been described as one of the main challenges facing humanity. Any use of antimicrobials creates some potential for resistance, and the massive use of antimicrobials in humans, food animals and companion animals creates a complex epidemiology and ecology of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial resistance will never be eliminated, but its impact can potentially be limited through the use of good antimicrobial stewardship in food animals, humans and companion animals. Tickborne Diseases Climate change and changes in tick ecology have resulted in continued emergence and spread of some tick species, and their associated pathogens. As the blacklegged tick expands in Ontario, Lyme disease risk areas expand correspondingly. Understanding regional Lyme disease risk is important for decisions about tick prevention and vaccination, and for consideration of Lyme disease as a differential diagnosis. New initiatives are underway to track ticks from dogs and cats in Ontario, to better define the risk of exposure to ticks and tickborne disease. There are many different types of Leptospira organisms that occur worldwide including within Ontario, and only a few of the strains are pathogenic to dogs. Optimal survival conditions for the bacteria include stagnant or slow-moving water, neutral or alkaline pH and ambient temperatures between 0 – 25 degrees Celsius. The bacteria are maintained in the renal tubules of the reservoir host and excreted in the urine. Water contact is the most common means of spread; Leptospira organisms invade the host through skin wounds or through intact mucous membranes from the water. Leptospires damage organs by replicating and inducing cytokine production and recruitment of inflammatory cells. Although most cases present with acute clinical illness, there are rare reports of chronic disease due to leptospirosis. Clinical Syndromes the two most common clinical syndromes involve renal or hepatic dysfunction, however leptospirosis patients may also present with conjunctivitis, uveitis, pulmonary hemorrhage, acute febrile illness, pancreatitis and bleeding tendencies. Azotemia (elevated urea and creatinine) is present in greater than 80 – 90% of dogs. This may be accompanied by changes in the urinalysis, which include a decreased urine specific gravity, glucosuria, granular casts and proteinuria. Electrolyte abnormalities may be a consequence of gastrointestinal or renal fluid losses, resulting in hyponatremia, hypochloridemia, hypokalemia and hyperphosphotemia. When imaging is performed in dogs with leptospirosis, there are no pathognomonic changes noted with any imaging modality. Thoracic radiographs can vary from normal, to nodules and areas of consolidation that can mimic neoplasia or bronchopneumonia. In addition, a generalized bronchointerstitial pattern can be seen, which can mimic chronic bronchitis. Abdominal ultrasound of the liver and kidneys can appear normal in dogs with severely elevated renal and/or hepatic parameter, or non-specific changes can be seen. Diagnostic Testing There are several options available for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, and selection of the appropriate test or tests is not straight-forward. The vaccination history of the dog must be considered, along with recent use of antibiotics (see summary below). Even if a dog has not had recent antimicrobial therapy, a negative result does not rule out leptospirosis because samples may have been obtained when organism numbers in a sample are low. While a positive result confirms infection, a negative test should prompt additional testing to rule out leptospirosis as there is the possibility of a false negative result. The administration of a Leptospira vaccine prompts an antibodybased immune response. Therefore, a positive antibody test could be detecting vaccinal antibodies, as opposed to antibodies due to clinical infection (a false positive). However, the duration to which a leptospirosis vaccine affects the outcome of an antibody test is testdependent. The Witness antibody test detects IgM antibodies, which are relatively short-lived after vaccination. Therefore, most dogs will have a negative Witness test within 2-3 months of vaccination, if not sooner. The Witness Leptospira Antibody Test was introduced in the spring of 2018 in Canada. As IgM antibodies are produced early in the course of disease, their production decreases a few weeks after infection. The test is therefore only useful for acute leptospirosis infections, but that comprises almost all cases. The Witness test is affected by vaccination (false positive), but only for a few weeks after vaccination. Because IgM levels begin to rise a few days after infection, it is possible to have a negative result early in the course of disease (false negative). Due to the low cost of the test, this is more feasible than with some of the other tests. The Witness Leptospira Antibody Test is an in clinic test that can be performed within 10-20 minutes, and utilizes whole blood, plasma or serum. Although a single positive titer can increase suspicion for the disease, it does not often confirm a diagnosis, particularly if the dog has been vaccinated for leptospirosis at any time in their life. To increase the diagnostic utility of the test, acute and convalescent antibody testing should be performed two to four weeks apart. A four-fold increase in titer supports recent infection; convalescent titers in vaccinated dogs are generally stable or decreased after 2-4 weeks, unless vaccination was very recent. This test provides a negative or positive, as seen with the Witness test, without information on infecting serovar. The test will be positive in dogs for months to years after vaccination, therefore may be positive in dogs with up to date vaccination, and also potentially in dogs with out of date vaccination. A negative result is useful in ruling out leptospirosis unless the dog was infected very recently, in which case a false negative is possible. A positive result in a dog confirmed to have never received a Leptospira vaccine confirms leptospirosis. Given the utility of the Witness Leptospira antibody test and its low cost, it is worth using as the primary test for leptospirosis in most cases. However, other approaches are needed if the dog has been vaccinated in the previous few weeks. The goal of the first stage of treatment is to immediately inhibit multiplication of the organism and rapidly reduce fatal complications of infection. The optimal treatment for Leptospirosis is still unknown, as is the optimal duration of antimicrobial therapy.
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