By: Edward T. F. Wei PhD
I called each of these individuals shortly after my initial review of the finished water quality and the invoking of the boiled water order arteria coronaria sinistra buy 2.5mg nebivolol visa. Walt mentioned that Kim Fox would be particularly skilled to blood pressure medication reviews nebivolol 2.5mg lowest price conduct this aspect of the investigation prehypertension how to treat nebivolol 5mg amex. In the report of this investigation blood pressure zestoretic cheap nebivolol 2.5mg overnight delivery, Kim noted that the South Plant received a highly variable quality of raw water from Lake Michigan (the influent) for processing and noted that during March 18–April 9 blood pressure app cheap nebivolol uk, 1993, the raw water turbidity levels ranged from 1. Also, the residence time for the water in the plant was relatively short, and the time required to see a result in treated water quality after chemical adjustment was relatively long. The clearwell was the massive receptacle where water from all the filters was pooled before it was released as effluent from the treatment plant. Also, although the filters were frequently backwashed to remove impurities and maintain optimal filtering capability, the backwash water was recycled through the plant instead of being discarded. Comparison of the Efficacy of Different Surveillance Methods Used in this Outbreak Investigation15 the availability of a rich array of surveillance data from seven categories of data source provided us with an opportunity to compare the efficacies of using each category of surveillance data during this waterborne outbreak investigation. We found that surveillance systems that could be easily linked with laboratory data were flexible in adding new variables, and those that demonstrated low baseline variability were most useful. Notably, geographically fixed nursing home residents served as an ideal population with nonconfounded exposures; however, the signals that were most timely. Although not indicators of disease, these signals can be effectively used in stimulating heightened surveillance for human illness and generating timely messages to the public and persons at greater risk of water related illness and help reduce potential outbreak-related morbidity. This would be particularly helpful to implement in communities with populations greater than 100,000 with water supplies derived from surface water. We conducted a follow-up with cooperation from respective state epidemiologists to determine whether diarrhea illnesses occurred in any team or entourage members. Bottled water generally should not be viewed as a panacea, but it sure was healthful in this instance. An outbreak of Cryptosporidium infections investigated in Michigan occurred among a Coast Guard crew on a boat that had its potable water supply tank filled in Milwaukee. Several Milwaukee professional athletes became ill, and there were concerns raised among teams that had recently traveled or would be traveling to Milwaukee. The largest event of concern for which numerous special precautions were taken was the Milwaukee Brewers home season opening game that occurred before the boil water advisory was lifted. Invoking and Lifting the Boil Water Advisory When boil water advisories are enacted, it is important to envision the terms and conditions needed to discontinue (lift) them. The South Plant was closed, and thus, all of our attention was on the North Plant. This would involve repeated measurement of Cryptosporidium oocysts in samples of North Plant effluent water and representative samples of water obtained from distal sites in the municipal water distribution system. Also, spun cartridge filters, the standard at that time, would be used to filter samples of finished water and would then be tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Mark LeChevallier and his colleagues in Belleville provided exceptional expertise and service during this outbreak. After several rounds of calls, the Delphi process ultimately focused on the demonstration of less than one Cryptosporidium oocyst per 100 liters of filtered water at each of the sampling sites (one central and four distal) and in two consecutive samples at each of the central and distal sites. Finally, the boil water advisory was lifted on the evening of April 14 after receipt late on April 14 of the results of processing samples collected during the third round on April 13. The city was served exclusively by the North Plant until June, when the water filters replacement and refurbishing was completed at the South Plant. Additional Investigations and Studies Protection from Point-of-Use Filters22 During a press conference in the early phases of the outbreak, I requested that individuals who had point-of-use (filters that were installed in homes or workplace settings) water filters installed in their homes before the outbreak contact us because we were interested in evaluating whether they were effective in preventing diarrhea illness during this outbreak. The response to this request was overwhelming, and many individuals volunteered to actually donate their filter if needed. We surveyed 155 filter owners and 99 completed the selfadministered questionnaire. Among residents and users of water in the southern or central Milwaukee, we found users of submicron (pore size less than one micron) point-of-use filters during the outbreak were significantly less likely to experience watery diarrhea than those who consumed unfiltered tap water in a public building and those who had home water filters with pore sizes greater than 1 micron. Being conservative in interpreting our data, we concluded that (even in these extraordinarily adverse field conditions) submicron point-of-use water filters may reduce the risk of waterborne cryptosporidiosis. In a follow-up investigation of 33 individuals with onsets of laboratory-confirmed Cryptosporidium infection during May 1 to June 23 and neighborhood and household control subjects, we found waterborne transmission was not associated with these late illnesses. Risk factors for postoutbreak illness included immune compromise and living in a household with one or more children less than 5 years old suggesting personto-person transmission. Shortly after the Milwaukee outbreak and throughout the summer of 1993, outbreaks of Cryptosporidium infection among users of public or hotel pools were reported from several counties. The optimal concentration of chlorine in swimming pools was not sufficiently high to kill the oocysts before an unsuspecting swimmer ingested a small volume of pool water. Genotyping Speciation and further characterization of the outbreak strain of Cryptosporidium were another objective of this investigation. To accomplish this, three volunteers who had been ill during the outbreak and had laboratory-confirmed infections were recruited to donate large volumes of stool. An important goal of the genotyping was to determine the source of the Cryptosporidium. In Milwaukee, the source strain was suggested to be human based on the genotype testing26; however, I believe the extremely small number of specimens from the Milwaukee outbreak used in the genotype investigation and perhaps the sources of stool specimens tested make these observations more conjectural. The suggestion of a human source is supported by the limited data available, but I do not believe that it is proven. Serologic Studies We were very interested in the prospect of testing banked sera from ill and well individuals during this outbreak to assess immune responses when a reliable assay became available at some unspecified time in the future. Samples were obtained during five distinct periods in a 5-week interval between March 1993 and May 1993. Each child was bled once, but the prevalence of antibody among children bled during each distinct period could be measured. Data were also available to compare antibody prevalence by region of residence in Milwaukee. In addition to corroborating our earlier epidemiologic observations, these data suggest that C. The South Plant Intake Grid Location and Unusual Weather Conditions the placement of the South Plant intake grid was unfortunate at best. As previously noted, the three rivers flowing through Milwaukee County join together to flow into a bay and harbor along the Lake Michigan shore. The breakfront has three large outer gaps through which water can flow in and out of the harbor. As previously noted, the ambient current in the harbor contained within the large breakfront was southerly. Water flowing out the south fair weather gap typically flowed directly toward the South Plant intake grid. During and after rainy and other high-flow periods when increases in runoff and storm sewer overflow in the rivers are noted, the discharges of dirt and particulate matter into the harbor can be striking (Figure 13-6). The runoff was excessive, and its impact was likely compounded by runoff manure spread onto the snow by farm workers intent on getting rid of it and concurrently enriching their fields. Within the City of Milwaukee, this rainfall contributed to widespread storm sewer overflows resulting in vast volumes of sewage that could be disinfected but otherwise bypassed treatment in the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewage District facility before it drained into the bay that was protected by the breakfront. There was a prolonged period of northeasterly winds occurring in late March and early April. During this time, there was likely accentuation of the southerly flow of water within the breakfront with more flow of water in the bay out the south fair weather gap, which likely amplified plumes flowing directly toward the South Plant intake grid. Cross Connection Between a Sanitary Sewer and a Storm Sewer In early March 1993, during the construction of soccer fields near the Menomonee River and close to downtown Milwaukee, a linkage of a storm sewer draining the fields with a central main sewer was being created when a large volume of impacted contents was noted in the main sewer. In addition, there were many rubber rings that were used to prevent spillage of enteric contents when bovines were slaughtered and eviscerated. Further investigation by local officials resulted in the detection of a cross connection between an abattoir kill floor sanitary sewer and the storm sewer. After elimination of this cross connection and correction of sewage flow, the storm sewer was cleaned during a multiple week process. It is not known whether Cryptosporidium oocysts were released directly through the storm sewer into the Menomonee River during or preceding these events or whether a bolus of oocysts properly flowing through the sanitary sewer during cleanup procedures may have bypassed sewage treatment during a period of high flow. Change in Coagulant the change in coagulant routinely used in both the North and South Plants 6 months before the outbreak and the difficulty in coagulant dosing during a period of abnormal turbidity to bring the turbidity under control were factors. Furthermore, the Milwaukee Water Works interpretation of finished water turbidity as an aesthetic indicator may have contributed to late recognition of the difficulties (or later recognition of the importance of the difficulties) they were having with water treatment. The occurrence of this outbreak provided a focus on the importance of turbidity as a water quality indicator. Human Amplification the amplification of the burden of Cryptosporidium oocysts among residents of the greater Milwaukee area was a critical factor. Among healthy adult volunteers with no serologic evidence of past infection with C. Additionally, the oocysts can remain infective in moist environments for 2 to 6 months. Thus, the opportunity for infection in this outbreak was extraordinarily, perhaps incomprehensibly, high. This was compounded by the aforementioned rainy, high-flow conditions when storm sewers typically overflowed and, other than disinfection, most sewage was not treated before discharge into the harbor. This all contributed to a sustained vicious cycle of oocyst and illness amplification. Based on the sporadic occurrences of diarrhea illnesses weeks prior to the outbreak peak, the outbreak probably began in early March but was initially recognized on April 5. This delay can in part be explained by understanding that testing stool specimens for Cryptosporidium was not commonplace in medical practice at the time of this outbreak. The number of tests requested per month was relatively small, and most healthcare providers would not readily have suspected this diagnosis in healthy patients with brief or even prolonged diarrhea disease. If they requested obtaining a stool specimen to test for parasites, Cryptosporidium was not a pathogen routinely looked for. Indeed, a major factor in the limited number of test requisitions was the complexity caused by the additional pelleting and staining procedures and the attendant greater expense of testing. These factors may have contributed to this insufficient testing demand with consequent delay in ascertainment of an outbreak. Policy Impacts and Infrastructure Improvements Standards the massive Milwaukee cryptosporidiosis outbreak was historic. It is the largest known outbreak of waterborne disease ever documented in the United States and possibly in the developed world. The magnitude of this outbreak coupled with the direct association of illness with a municipal water treatment plant that was operating within existing state and federal regulatory standards at that time had an immediate powerful impact that focused widespread public concern on the quality of drinking water, underscored the need to have far more stringent regulatory standards, and raised awareness of cryptosporidiosis as a diarrheal illness. A specific need to create specific regulatory standards for Cryptosporidium in drinking water was apparent. The Milwaukee Water Works expeditiously adopted standards and quality indices that were maximally stringent and far more stringent than state or federal standards.
Households often then spend a tions were initiated in a community project substantial share of their income on hospiin North Karelia blood pressure 120 80 buy nebivolol overnight, in Finland pulse pressure normal rate proven nebivolol 2.5mg. At that time talization and care following complications Finland had an extremely high mortality rate of hypertension prehypertension medicine generic nebivolol 2.5mg, including heart attack pulse pressure meaning order nebivolol mastercard, from heart disease blood pressure medication used to treat anxiety purchase nebivolol with a visa. Families face catapositive changes were already observed in strophic health expenditure and spending on the form of dietary changes, improved hyperhealth care, which is often long term in the tension control, and smoking reduction. Accase of hypertension complications, pushing cordingly a decision was made to expand the tens of millions of people into poverty (11). Now, some 35 years Moreover, the loss of family income from later, the annual cardiovascular disease mordeath or disability can be devastating. In tality rate among the workingage popucertain lowand middle-income countries, lation in Finland is 85% lower compared to current health expenditure on cardiovascuthe rates in 1977. Observed reductions in poplar diseases alone accounts for 20% of total ulation risk factors (serum cholesterol, blood health expenditure. The Political socioeconomic development and poverty alDeclaration of the High-level Meeting of the leviation. The Political Declaration commits General Assembly on the Prevention and congovernments to a series of concrete actions (8). If no action is taken to tackle hypertension and other noncommunicable diseases, the economic losses are projected to outstrip public spending on health (Fig. Blood pressure is created by the force of blood pushing against the walls of blood vessels (arteries) as it is pumped by the heart. Hypertension, also known as high or raised blood pressure, is a condition in which the blood vessels have persistently raised pressure. Blood vessels may develop bulges (aneurysms) and weak spots due to high pressure, making them more likely to clog and burst. Hypertension can also lead to kidney failure, blindness, rupture of blood vessels and cognitive impairment. The lic (105 mm Hg) and lower diastolic blood upper number is the systolic blood pressure pressure levels (60 mm Hg). Hypertension is the highest pressure in blood vessels and hapdefned as a systolic blood pressure equal to pens when the heart contracts, or beats. The or above 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood lower number is the diastolic blood pressure pressure equal to or above 90 mm Hg. Northe lowest pressure in blood vessels in between mal levels of both systolic and diastolic blood heartbeats when the heart muscle relaxes. Norpressure are particularly important for the mal adult blood pressure is defned as a systolic effcient function of vital organs such as the blood pressure of 120 mm Hg and a diastolic heart, brain and kidneys and for overall health blood pressure of 80 mm Hg. In addition, there are several metabolic factors that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, kidney failure and other complications of hypertension, including diabetes, high cholesterol and being overwight or obese. Tobacco and hypertension interact to further raise the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. For example, unemployment food, sedentary behavior, tobacco use and or fear of unemployment may have an imthe harmful use of alcohol. Finally, the risk pact on stress levels that in turn infuences of hypertension increases with age due to high blood pressure. Living and working stiffening of blood vessels, although ageing conditions can also delay timely detection of blood vessels can be slowed through and treatment due to lack of access to diahealthy living, including healthy eating and gnostics and treatment and may also imreducing the salt intake in the diet. Other factors In some cases there is no known specifc Occasionally, when blood pressure is meacause for hyper tension. Genetic factors may sured it may be higher than it usually play a role, and when hypertension develis. For some people, the anxiety of visitops in people below the age of 40 years it ing a doctor may temporarily raise their is important to exclude a secondary cause blood pressure (“white coat syndrome”). There is a common misconcepbut neither can they be relied upon to sigtion that people with hypertension always nify hypertension. Hypertension is a seriexperience symptoms, but the reality is ous warning sign that signifcant lifestyle that most hypertensive people have no changes are required. Sometimes hypertension a silent killer and it is important for everycauses symptoms such as headache, shortbody to know their blood pressure reading. The higher obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, low sothe blood pressure, the higher the likelicioeconomic status and family history of hood of harmful consequences to the heart hypertension (Fig. Low socioeconomic and blood vessels in major organs such as status and poor access to health services the brain and kidneys. This is known as and medications also increase the vulnercardiovascular risk, and can also be high in ability of developing major cardiovascular people with mild hypertension in combievents due to uncontrolled hypertension. Blood pressure ings to be taken when batteries run down, is recorded twice daily, ideally in the morning a not uncommon problem in resource-conand evening. Given that mercury is toxic, are taken, at least a minute apart and with the it is recommended that mercury devices be person seated. Early detection, treatment and self-care of hypertension has signifcant benefts if hypertension is detected early it is possiSelf-monitoring of blood pressure is recomble to minimize the risk of heart attack, heart mended for the management of hypertension failure, stroke and kidney failure. All adults in patients where measurement devices are should check their blood pressure and know affordable. Digital blood presdiseases, self-care can facilitate early detection sure measurement machines enable this to be of hypertension, adherence to medication and done outside clinic settings. If hypertension healthy behaviours, better control and awareis detected people should seek the advice of a ness of the importance of seeking medical health worker. Self-care is important es are not suffcient for controlling blood presfor all, but it is particularly so for people who sure and prescription medication is needed. Blood pressure drugs work in several ways, such as removing excess salt and fuid from the body, slowing the heartbeat or relaxing and widening the blood vessels. Health workers, the academic research community, civil society, the private sector and families and individuals all have a role to play. Only this concerted effort can harness the testing technology and treatments available to prevent and control hypertension and thereby delay or prevent its life-threatening complications. Preventing complications of hypertension because it is a major cause of disease tension is a critical element of containing burden. As such, vertical proto improve health outcomes of patients with grammes that focus solely on hypertension are hypertension by strengthening prevention, not recommended. Programmes that address increasing coverage of health services, and by total cardiovascular risk need to be an integral reducing the suffering associated with high part of the national strategy for prevention and levels of out-of-pocket payment for health sercontrol of noncommunicable diseases. Health systems that have proven to be most Hypertension can only be effectively effective in improving health and equity oraddressed in the context of systems strengthganize their services around the principle ening across all components of the health of universal health coverage. They promote system : governance, fnancing, information, actions at the primary care level that target human resources, service delivery and access the entire spectrum of social determinants of to inexpensive good quality generic medicines health; they balance prevention and health and basic technologies. Governments must promotion with curative interventions; and ensure that all people have equitable access they emphasize the frst level of care with apto the preventive, curative and rehabilitative propriate coordination mechanisms. Evidence-based guidance is also targeted particularly at people at medium or available on management of patients with high risk of developing heart attack, stroke or hypertension through integrated programmes kidney damage. The objective of an intenow using these tools to address hypertension in grated programme is to reduce total cardiovasan affordable and sustainable manner. Adopting this comprehenare major gaps in application, particularly sive approach ensures that drug treatment is in resource-constrained settings. It to quickly identify ways to address these gaps also prevents unnecessary drug treatment of including through operational research; the people with borderline hypertension and low enormous benefts of blood pressure control cardiovascular risk. Inappropriate drug treatfor public health make a compelling case for ment exposes people to unwarranted harmful action. Further, there are inexpensive, very effective medicines available for control of hypertension which have a very good safety margin. Different charts are available for all W orld Health Organization of cardiovascular risk. The cumulative cost tegrated primary care programme to prevent of scaling up very cost-effective interventions heart attack, stroke and kidney failure, using that address cardiovascular disease and cervical blood pressure as an entry point, is shown in cancer in all lowand middle-income countries Fig. Expressed as a proportion of current health spending, the cost Not all patients diagnosed with hypertension of implementing such a package amounts to require medication, but those at medium to 4% in low-income countries, 2% in lower midhigh risk will need one or more of eight essendle-income countries and less than 1% in uptial medicines to lower their cardio vascular risk per middle-income countries (22). In the popcreases continuously as the level of a risk faculation-based approach, interventions target tor such as blood pressure increases, without the population, community, worksites and any natural threshold limit. Most cardiovascuschools, aiming at modifying social and envilar disease in the population occurs in people ronmental determinants. Population-wide this risk group is relatively low because of the approaches to reduce high blood pressure are relatively low proportion of people in this similar to those that address other major nonpopulation segment. They require public approach is thus based on the observation that policies to reduce the exposure of the whole effective reduction of cardiovascular disease population to risk factors such as an unhealthy rates in the population usually calls for comdiet, physical inactivity, harmful use of alcohol munity-wide changes in unhealthy behavand tobacco use (24-27) with a special focus on iors or reduction in mean risk factor levels. In most countries average per-person salt Reducing population salt intake requires intake is too high and is between 9 grams (g) action at all levels, including the government, and 12 g/day (28). Scientific studies have the food industry, nongovernmental organiconsistently demonstrated that a modest rezations, health professionals and the pubduction in salt intake lowers blood pressure lic. A modest reduction in salt intake can be in people with hypertension and people with achieved by voluntary reduction or by regunormal blood pressure, in all age groups, and lating the salt content of prepackaged foods in all ethnic groups, although there are variand condiments. Several a major contribution to population health if studies have shown that a reduction in salt a gradual and sustained decrease is achieved intake is one of the most cost-effective interin the amount of salt that is added to preventions to reduce heart disease and stroke packaged foods. Sodium content is Several countries have successfully carried high in processed foods, such as bread (apout salt reduction programmes as a result proximately 250 mg/100 g), processed meats of which salt intake has fallen. For example, like bacon (approximately 1500 mg/100 g), Finland initiated a systematic approach to snack foods such as pretzels, cheese puffs and reduce salt intake in the late 1970s through popcorn (approximately 1500 mg/100 g), as mass-media campaigns, cooperation with the well as in condiments such as soy sauce (apfood industry, and implementation of salt laproximately 7000 mg/100 g), and bouillon or beling legislation. Potassium-rich foods include : beans and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northpeas (approximately 1,300 mg of potassium ern Ireland, the United States of America and per 100 g), nuts (approximately 600 mg/100 g), several other high-income countries have also vegetables such as spinach, cabbage and parsuccessfully developed programmes of volunsley (approximately 550 mg/100 g) and fruit tary salt reduction in collaboration with the such as bananas, papayas and dates (approxifood industry. Processing reduces the ing countries have also launched national salt amount of potassium in many food products. Workplace wellness programmes should focus the United Nations high-level meeting on on promoting worker health through the renoncommunicable disease prevention and duction of individual risk-related behaviours, control in 2011 called on the private sector to. They have the potential to ing by establishing tobacco-free workplaces, reach a signifcant proportion of employed and safe and healthy working environments adults for early detection of hypertension and through occupational safety and health meaother illnesses. More information on how health measurement campaigns to health education workers should manage people with high programmes in the workplace to information blood pressure is available online, including dialogue with policy makers on how living how to measure blood pressure, which blood conditions and unhealthy behavior infuence pressure devices to use, how to counsel on lifeblood pressure levels. Training of health workers should be institutionalized within medical, nursing and allied http :// The majority of cases of hypertension can be managed effectively at the primary health care level. The International Society of help strengthen capacity to address prevention Hypertension, World Hypertension League, of noncommunicable diseases at the national World Heart Federation and the World Stroke level. In addition to contributing to worksite wellness programmes, it can actively participate in In addition, the private sector has potential to the implementation of the set of recommendacontribute to prevention and control of hypertions on the marketing of foods and non-alcoholtension and other noncommunicable diseases ic beverages to children which was endorsed through the development of cutting-edge health by the Sixty-third World Health Assembly technologies and applications, and manufacturin May 2010 (36). Advertising and other forms of are outlined in the draft Global Noncommunicafood marketing to children are widespread ble Diseases Action Plan 2013-2020 (9). All adults should know their blood pressure level and should also fnd out if a close relative had or has hypertension as this could place them at increased risk.
In most series blood pressure medication hydro order nebivolol now, individual patients have severe developmental delays due to arteria magna cheap nebivolol 5mg line an intracranial hemorrhage in infancy 4 arteria aorta purchase genuine nebivolol line. All series include a few women who have successfully delivered healthy babies blood pressure spikes generic nebivolol 2.5mg on line, who are mostly somewhat small for their gestational age; temporary worsening of portal hypertension during pregnancy is often described blood pressure medication causing low blood pressure purchase 5mg nebivolol with mastercard. In addition to this data search the National Institute for Health and Welfare’s Register of Congenital Malformations was similarly searched for cases born in Finland between 1987 and 2008. The recorded demographic data included antenatally observed abnormalities, gestational age, birth weight, birth place, date of birth, number of preceding siblings, and maternal age. Serum total and conjugated bilirubin concentrations were recorded at 3, 6, 24, and 60 months as well as the time to the first recorded normal (20 mol/L) serum bilirubin concentration. Cholangitis episodes, reoperations, ultrasonic signs of portal hypertension (repeated abdominal ultrasounds for spleen size and ascites), upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings and sclerotherapy details, blood count, liver biochemistry, and growth were recorded. Postoperative use of corticosteroids as well as other medications used during follow-up was recorded. The distribution of portal area inflammatory cells was quantified as percentages of lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, and plasma cells. All live patients, controls, and parents of minors signed an informed consent form after reading and thoroughly discussing the purpose and methods of the study. Categorical variables were compared with Chi square or Fisher’s exact test, unpaired samples with Mann-Whitney U-test, and paired samples with Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Actuarial survival figures with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Yearly galactose challenge and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy surveillance for varices were performed, more recently accompanied with elastography. Altogether 17 patients (23%) had structural abnormalities associated with disordered laterality (cardiac malformations, intestinal malrotation, missing inferior vena cava, polysplenia, asplenia, pancreatic anomalies, abnormal situs). Outcome of 73 biliary atresia patients born in Finland before and after treatment centralization in 2005. In total, 27 (42%) patients cleared their jaundice (serum bilirubin below 20 mol/L) by a median of 3 (range 1 to 33) months after surgery. Before treatment centralization, 25 out of 44 patients were operated on in the Children’s Hospital in Helsinki. After centralization, the treatment results also improved significantly in the Children’s Hospital: clearance-of-jaundice rate rose from 36% to 71% (p=0. Actuarial native liver survival of 51 biliary atresia patients born 1987-2005 and 22 born 2005-2010. Liver biochemistry, signs of portal hypertension, and medications among 23 native liver survivors. The median age at the first bleeding episode was 10 months (range 5-20 months); four patients bled before the first surveillance endoscopy at 7 months (range 7-10 months). All bleeders received sclerotherapy with four week intervals, but in 12 of 13 cases, bleeding recurred after initiating the sclerotherapy treatment. The varices of 27 patients were treated with sclerotherapy in 115 sessions (median per patient 2, range 1 to 19). Sodium tetradecyl sulphate was injected into a median of two (range one to seven) sites per session. Native liver survival among 19 patients with a successful portoenterostomy, 10 with and 9 without esophageal varices. The median Metavir fibrosis score was 4 (1-4), and 12 (52%) biopsies were cirrhotic, Figure 13B. Portal inflammation diminished uniformly, and in one third of the patients all the inflammatory features disappeared. Three patients, however, had splenomegaly, varices, and a low platelet count, but only had slight fibrosis (Metavir 2) in the follow-up biopsy. Liver histological findings typical for biliary atresia at the time of portoenterostomy. Individual Metavir fibrosis scores of 19 patients at portoenterostomy and follow-up. Importantly, the overall survival improved based on improved native liver survival. This study has several limitations, including the small number of patients and the retrospective nature of some of the data. Strengths include all-inclusive patient identification and complete access to follow-up data. By definition epidemiology includes, besides studying incidence and distribution of a disease, the search for means to diminish the incidence of the disease. In Finland, rotavirus vaccine was given to approximately one third of newborns in 2008 and added to the national immunization protocol in September 2009. The observed cardiac anomalies, rotation disorders, vascular abnormalities, and spleen anomalies all associate with disordered development of asymmetric laterality of the organs (202). In order to improve survival, as many deaths as possible should be avoided at all phases of treatment. Obvious improvement has occurred, but still three patients died after centralization in 2005. Even in retrospective evaluation, it is hard to imagine how these deaths might have been avoided. France and Canada have reported similar clearance of jaundice rates achieved in both high and low volume centres (34, 167). Denmark reported a similar observation of improved results after treatment centralization (209). These figures are well comparable to results from high-volume centres in France (respective figures 48% and 90%) (34), Canada (45% and 83%) (167), and England and Wales (47% and 91%) (6). The factors affecting the improvement of treatment results in Finland are most likely multiple. Besides increased centre caseload, general improvement in health care facilities and skills such as intensive care of infants may have contributed to the improvement in treatment results. Portal hypertension is a common and significant complication of any chronic liver disease (100). Chronic cholestasis induces hepatocytes to transform into cholangiocytes – possibly the liver tries to maximize the surface of cholangiocytes in order to increase chole-hepatic cycling of bile acids (216). The proliferating cholangiocytes secrete numerous profibrogenic substances and function as the pacemaker of portal fibrosis (217). The inflammation observed in the follow-up biopsies may also be a factor sustaining the fibrotization of the liver. In many organs, a fibrotizing process characterized by accumulation of activated myofibroblasts may be observed. A healthy liver has a large unused functional reserve, while in chronic liver disease, a proportion of the liver’s functional reserve is in constant use and the evaluation of the available reserve is complicated. During the follow-up the patients and their families need continuous counseling regarding future prospects. On the contrary, a rising trend of serum bilirubin level, prolonged Gal, development of esophageal varices, and growth retardation (219) may be signs of an approaching endstage liver disease. These serious and regrettable complications were absent in our cohort, possibly because newborns in Finland receive intramuscular vitamin K supplementation, which prevents vitamin K deficiency associated bleeding more efficiently than peroral prophylaxis (55). In the Finnish material, the height scores at one and two years of age improved significantly after treatment centralization and at the end of the study all the native liver survivors grew within normal limits. In a French series of 63 adult native liver survivors, all but two had adult height above -1. Elastography as a clinical follow-up tool seems worth studying as a predictor of varices and liver fibrosis. No variceal bleeding occurred in patients with normal serum bilirubin levels and thus surveillance endoscopies could be allocated to patients with elevated serum bilirubin or clinical signs of portal hypertension. I thank the financial supporters of this study: the Finnish Association of Pediatric Surgeons – Sulamaa Society, the Finnish Association of Transplant Surgeons, the Finnish Foundation for Pediatric Research, the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim, the Martti I. I sincerely thank all the patients and their families for participating in this study. I gratefully acknowledge my outstanding supervisor, Docent Mikko Pakarinen, for his support and guidance throughout this learning project, and for providing me the option of doing research full time right from the beginning. You, the warm-hearted enthusiast, have taught me to celebrate successes both great and small. Docent Jouni Lauronen and Jesper Kivela, members of the research group, are acknowledged for their easy-going collaboration. Annika, Janne, Kristiina, Saara, Topi, and Tuomas, my research colleagues in Pediatric Surgery: thank you all for the great company while traveling. Hearing your laughter revealed your presence already from the other end of the corridor, and you both created a cheerful atmosphere during the many hours spent at the microscope. I am grateful to Annukka Ritvanen at the National Institute for Welfare and Health for her friendly collaboration and for letting me glimpse the potential of register studies. I warmly thank Professor Emeritus Christer Holmberg for his support in the beginning of this project and for chaperoning Silja and me on our first congress trip to Istanbul. I sincerely thank the nurses at the outpatient surgery units of Peijas and Children’s Hospitals, especially Mervi Mannonen, for their important help in collecting the control blood samples. I warmly thank my roommate Eve, as well as Anne N, Anne S, Hanne, Juuso, Maija, Mervi, Satu, Sonja, Susann, and all my other research colleagues on the sixth floor of Biomedicum 2C for their cheerful company and shared feelings during these years. I deeply apologize for undermining the founding principles of the anti-research program. I 57 thank Anna, Iiro, Laura, Mikko, Jaakko, Emelie, and their children for the joyous moments together, and Anna and Laura for introducing me to the world of unforgettable cakes. I wish to thank my dear parents Marketta and Jorma Ahola for their unconditional love, support, and letting me be me. I also thank my dependable brother Rami and his family for their support, and for humorously sharing the course of life. The anatomic pattern of biliary atresia identified at time of Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy and early postoperative clearance of jaundice are significant predictors of transplant-free survival. Biliary atresia in England and Wales: Results of centralization and new benchmark. Surgical anastomoses between the biliary and intestinal tracts of children: follow-up studies. A population-based study on the incidence and possible preand perinatal etiologic risk factors of biliary atresia. Biliary atresia in the Netherlands: Outcome of patients diagnosed between 1987 and 2008. Fiveand 10-year survival rates after surgery for biliary atresia: A report from the Japanese biliary atresia registry. Insignificant seasonal and geographical variation in incidence of biliary atresia in Japan: A regional survey of over 20 years. Risk factors for isolated biliary atresia, national birth defects prevention study, 1997-2002. The biliary atresia splenic malformation syndrome: A 28-year single-center retrospective study. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with vitamin K-deficiency bleeding in patients with biliary atresia: Focus on long-term outcomes. Screening of newborn infants for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease with tandem mass spectrometry.
However arteria peronea buy nebivolol pills in toronto, they are likely to blood pressure chart for male and female discount 5 mg nebivolol with amex have overstated these effects because it appears that they did not detrend their sales and advertising data arteria ileocolica safe nebivolol 5 mg. Data from Scott-Levin indicate that the proportion of elevated cholesterol diagnoses resulting in a statin drug 29 prescription increased from 75 to blood pressure good range cheap 5 mg nebivolol with amex 95 percent during 1996–2000 blood pressure levels cheap nebivolol 2.5mg free shipping. It is therefore possible to characterize a process that has been growing during the past 4 years in which consumers visit the doctor, get a diagnosis, and, when diagnosed with high cholesterol, usually get a statin prescription. Advertising may therefore have an indirect effect on statin drug demand by inuencing people to visit their doctor for a checkup and diagnosis. A Dickey-Fuller test revealed that the visits variables were nonstationary, so we estimated models using rst differences (in logs). We specied advertising expenditures in several alternative ways including simple lags and 3-month and 6-month stocks. The consistent nding was that advertising expenditures had a statistically insignicant effect on ofce visits. In addition, if advertising were having a strong effect on ofce visits, one might expect that patients would be initiating requests for statin drugs. But the Scott-Levin physicians’ panel data indicate that the share of patients with 29 Scott-Levin, Physician Drug and Diagnosis Audit verispan. In the face of growing cholesterol-related patient visits and statin drug demand, it would strengthen our ndings that advertising has had a statistically insignicant effect on this growth if we could point to what has caused it. One relevant fact is that actual and potential patients can obtain objective evidence on the efcacy of statin drugs in reducing serum cholesterol. The motivation is that information about successful treatment may inuence demand; for example, people who are dramatically lowering their cholesterol may increase demand by spreading the word about the effectiveness of statin drugs and thus making patients more receptive to physicians’ recommendations for statin drug therapy. This nding is consistent with the idea that information is playing a role in the growth of the statin drug market. That information is presumably not from advertising, but instead from successful treatments that we speculate are being discussed among friends, coworkers, and the public 30 at large as well as among physicians. Given that the Scott-Levin data indicate that the average total cholesterol levels of existing cholesterol patients declined from about 240 to about 215 between 1996 and the end of 2000, it would not be surprising if patients were sharing their positive experiences with statin drug therapy. It seems likely that the doctor, acting as a gatekeeper with both professional advice and the power to prescribe, has, in combination with objective evidence from the effects of cholesterol-reducing drugs, “crowded out” advertising from playing a signicant short-run role in the growth of the cholesterol drug market. But advertising may be having a subtle effect by reinforcing 30 Fred Mannering & Clifford Winston, Automobile Air Bags in the 1990s: Market Failure or Market Efciency This nding is consistent with survey evidence indicating that patients pay attention to advertising for drugs they are using, which reminds them to rell prescriptions 32 and stick with their regimens, thereby improving compliance. As before, this may reect the difculty of correlating the sequence of consumers’ behavior with advertising. That is, our data could not distinguish between the initial rell (when the doctor’s role is still large) and subsequent rells (when the physician’s role may be attenuated and such rells are spread across several months). For instance, it has been alleged that drug advertising is attracting people into the market who do not need the drug. Robert Dubois and others nd that although considerably more patients received lipid-lowering therapy from 1997 to 1999, the dis33 tribution of statin use by risk prole has remained stable. According to the Scott-Levin data, average cholesterol levels for newly diagnosed patients have remained essentially constant since 1996. Given the aging of the population, this suggests, and is consistent with ndings in the medical literature, that statin drugs are underused rather than overused. As noted, average statin prices have probably declined and certainly have not been inated by promotional expenditures, which have been running at only 6 percent of statin revenues. Calfee, Public Policy Issues in Direct-to-Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs, 19 J. This function of advertising was noted by Victoria Stagg Elliott, Questions Swirl around Drug Ads for Patients, Am. We found previously, however, that advertising did not have a statistically signicant effect on brand shares. Given that physicians play a dominant role in statin drug use and that many patients who could benet from these drugs are not using them, it is possible that the prescription requirement is having adverse effects. We found, in the case of statin drugs, that it has not directly increased total market demand or rms’ market shares in the short run but that it may be strengthening patient compliance (or reinforcing information disseminated by word of mouth), which suggests that advertising may have an effect on demand in the long run. Firms may need more experience before their promotions directly affect demand, or they may learn that advertising is not nearly as effective as they thought it would be and decide to curtail it. To be sure, we also found that the time-tested tool of detailing had no direct effect; inexperience may not be a factor in this case. We have also pointed out that advertising’s effectiveness is proverbially difcult to assess given the process at work in the statin drug market—a positively received advertising message followed by several visits to a doctor and possibly a prescription for and then the use of a cholesterol-reducing drug. Future work could capture this process by using disaggregate patient data to identify the lags between advertising and drug purchases or renewals. The substantial increase in the demand for statin drugs is undoubtedly related to the growing recognition by physicians and patients that the drugs are effective—in that respect, television advertising appears to be playing an important role by increasing drug therapy compliance. Given the many undiagnosed cases of treatable elevated cholesterol and the difculties of detecting by econometric methods the relationship between advertising and prescription sales, it is entirely possible that advertising could yet generate large direct benets in direct-to-consumer advertising 687 the long run. London: Agora; North American distribution by the American Enterprise Institute, 1997. Our results indicate that insulin resistance is responsible for approximately 42% of myocardial infarctions. Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat (like omega-6), considered an essential fatty acid because it cannot be manufactured by the body. As a result, people must obtain omega-3 fatty acids from foods such as fsh, nut, and plant-based oils such as canola oil and sunfower oils. The frst double bond is located in the n-3 position or at the omega end of the fatty acid. Omega-3 fatty acids correct imbalances in modern diets that lead to health problems. Omega-6 fatty acid is also a polyunsaturated fat, essential for human health because it cannot be made in the body. For this reason, people must obtain omega-6 fatty acids by consuming foods such as meat, poultry, and eggs as well as nut and plant-based oils such as canola and sunfower oils. The frst double bond is located at the sixth carbon from the omega end of the fatty acid. Its frst double bond is located at the sixth carbon from the omega end of the fatty acid. Most omega-6 fatty acids are consumed in the diet from vegetable oils such as linoleic acid. Excessive amounts of linolenic acid can contribute to infammation and result in heart disease, cancer, asthma, arthritis, and depression. An improper balance and excess in omega-6 fatty acids promotes infammation and can contribute to the development of diseases such as coronary heart disease, cancer, and arthritis. A healthy diet should consist of roughly two to four times more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids. A typical North American diet may contain 11 to 30 times more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids, contributing to the rising rate of infammatory disorders in the United States. Omega-9 fatty acids are from a family of unsaturated fats that commonly are found in vegetable and animal fats. This monounsaturated fat is described as omega-9 because the double bond is in the ninth position from the omega end. These fatty acids are also known has oleic acids or monounsaturated fats and can often be found in canola, sunfower, olive, and nut oils. Unlike omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, omega-9 fatty acids are produced by the body, but are also benefcial when they are obtained in food. Oleic acid – Oleic acid is a main component of canola oil, sunfower oil, olive oil, and other monounsaturated fats, many of which are used as a solution for reducing bad fats in cooking oils. Oleic acid – Canola oil, Sunfower Oil, and Almonds Specially developed oils for foodservice, such as Omega-9 Canola and Sunfower Oils, are uniquely high in monounsaturated fats (>70 percent) and reduces key factors that contribute to heart disease and diabetes. Canola, sunfower, olive, and nut oils have signifcant levels of omega-9 fatty acids, which are also known as high-oleic acids, or monounsaturated fats. Oils produced from these sources have emerged as healthier, highly functional replacements for partially hydrogenated cooking oils, which are often laden with unhealthy trans and saturated fats What are the health benefts of omega-9 fatty acids Research has shown that omega-9 fatty acids, commonly referred to as monounsaturated fatty acids, can help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Omega-9 Canola and Sunfower Oils are uniquely high in monounsaturated (omega-9) fat, as well as low in saturated fat and zero trans fat. Food and Drug Administration recently approved a Qualifed Health Claim for canola oil saying, “limited and not conclusive scientifc evidence suggests that eating about 1 tablespoons (19 grams) of canola oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the unsaturated fat content in canola oil. To achieve this possible beneft, canola oil is to replace a similar amount of saturate fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. Although omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids all serve different functions within the body, the evidence is clear that incorporating balanced proportions of both essential and non-essential fatty acids are necessary for maintaining overall heart health and general wellness. The Association also found that substitution of canola oil for fat commonly used in the U. Epidemiological evidence of relationships between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Okuyama, Hirohmi; Ichikawa, Yuko; Sun, Yueji; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Lands, William E. World Review of Nutritional Dietetics 96 (Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease): 83–103. When switching dosage regimens, administer the first dose of the new regimen on the next scheduled date of the prior regimen. The mean age of the population was 57 years, 49% of the population were women, 85% White, 6% Black, 8% Asians, and 2% other races. The mean age was 56 years (range: 22 to 75 years), 23% were older than 65 years, 52% women, 80% White, 8% Black, 6% Asian; 6% identified as Hispanic ethnicity. The mean age was 57 years (range: 18 to 80 years), 29% were older than 65 years, 49% women, 85% White, 5% Black, 9% Asian; 5% identified as Hispanic ethnicity. Page 5 of 21 Local Injection Site Reactions Injection site reactions occurred in 3. Among the 16,676 patients without diabetes mellitus at baseline, the incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus during the trial was 8. The mean age was 31 years (range: 13 to 57 years), 49% were women, 90% White, 4% Asian, and 6% other. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed Page 6 of 21 incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For patients whose sera tested positive in the screening immunoassay, an in vitro biological assay was performed to detect neutralizing antibodies. Patients whose sera tested positive for binding antibodies were further evaluated for neutralizing antibodies; none of the patients tested positive for neutralizing antibodies. In animal reproduction studies, there were no effects on pregnancy or neonatal/infant development when monkeys were subcutaneously administered evolocumab from organogenesis through parturition at dose exposures up to 12 times the exposure at the maximum recommended human dose of 420 mg every month.
One participant indicated that she would have to blood pressure normal variation discount nebivolol express go to blood pressure medication ramipril purchase generic nebivolol online the hospital because they do not treat cholera in the clinics arteria bulbi vestibuli nebivolol 2.5mg on line. Four participants stated that they would have to arrhythmia exam discount nebivolol 5 mg visa go to blood pressure ranges pregnancy cheap 5 mg nebivolol mastercard a hospital, because the clinics only treat people who have money and can pay for the services. This short incubation period can lead to very explosive outbreaks because cases can multiply very quickly. In order to prevent the spread of cholera, the World Health Organization recommends the provision of potable water and proper sanitation to those who are without these basic services. In order to control the spread of cholera, the World Health Organization identifies six essential actions that states should take. While cholera treatment units were prepared in the hospital in Dajabon as well as in clinics throughout the province, increased surveillance and improved casefinding methods are necessary in the Dominican Republic. Case fatality rates continue to be higher in the Dominican Republic than in Haiti. As of February 25, the Nord-Est province in Haiti had managed a reported total of 27,269 cases that had resulted in 324 deaths. As of the year 2008, 83% of the Dominican population had access to sanitation services, compared to only 17% of the Haitian population. The large difference in the volume of cases between Haiti and the Dominican Republic is largely a reflection in the disparity of availability water and sanitation services between the two countries. The differences in the availability of water and sanitation services are reflected in the number of cases reported, but the case-fatality rate has less to do with water and sanitation and more to do with the effectiveness of case-finding methods, diagnosis and the treatment received. The Dominican Republic, which has experienced a much lower volume of cases, should not be experiencing a higher case-fatality rate. The policy in the Dajabon province is to only report cholera cases that have been confirmed by laboratory tests. During the outbreak in Partido in late September 98 and early October 2011, a total of 227 patients had been treated for symptoms of cholera at a single clinic. What was reported to the public was that there were seven confirmed cases of cholera. This type of reporting is misleading and can adversely affect prevention campaigns. If the real extent of an outbreak is not reported, the local population may not take the outbreak as seriously as they should, and policymakers will not have the necessary information to make informed policy decisions. This number is misleading, however, because during the outbreak in Partido alone, 227 patients had been seen in the clinic with symptoms of cholera and 33 patients had traveled from Partido to the hospital in Dajabon to seek treatment. This is a total of 260 patients treated for cholera-like symptoms during one outbreak. These patients received a clinical diagnosis that determined that their symptoms were characteristic of cholera and were treated accordingly. Under-reporting the number of affected cases does a disservice not only to the local population effected by the outbreak but also to the healthcare workers dealing with the outbreak. It is important that healthcare workers receive the materials and supplies that they need to effectively treat patients. Case finding initiatives must be aggressive during outbreaks in order to 99 reach patients in time. As the patients are dealing with the symptoms of cholera, their feces continue to spread infectious organisms (Farmer 2011). Paul Farmer asserts that, “we must expand case finding, patient transport, and treatment and integrate such efforts into the public health system to facilitate responses to future cholera epidemics” (Farmer 2011, p. This training took place throughout the province of Dajabon and, according to public health officials, in every province in the Dominican Republic. Such measures were taken in Dajabon in areas like the clinic in Partido and the hospital in Dajabon, where treatment units were prepared, sanitary measures were taken, and increased accessibility to purified water was achieved. Each of the outbreaks that occurred in Dajabon was due to a breach in the water and sanitation infrastructure. The official explanation for the outbreaks in Carata and Los Arrollos was that an individual without basic sanitation services defecated close to a river, subsequently infecting those who consumed the contaminated water. The outbreak in Partido was likely due to a breach in the 100 water and sanitation infrastructure as a portion of the population was consuming water from an aqueduct that was not connected to the treatment plant. Ensuring that the entire population has access to basic water and sanitation services and that all water and sanitation facilities are in proper working order is essential if cholera is to be controlled. According to interviews with public health officials in Dajabon, a thorough review was conducted of all the aqueducts in the province at the onset of the outbreak in Haiti in October 2010 to ensure that all aqueducts were being properly maintained and appropriately chlorinated. The officials stated that the monitoring of the water distribution system was continuous. The officials also stated that a study was launched when the outbreak began in 2010 to identify all of the homes in the province that were without water and sanitation services. If this was the case, why had the homes in Carata and Los Arrollos that were without sanitation services not been identified The outbreak in Carata began in mid-April, almost six months after the study had been initiated by the Ministry of Public Health. The outbreak in Los Arrollos occurred in August, approximately 10 months after the prevention campaign was initiated. Public health officials stated that the point of contamination in both of these outbreaks was a home near the river that had no form of sanitation services and that those living in the home defecated outside, thus contaminating the river. It was not until after the outbreak began that the homes were identified and the people were provided with sanitation services. If the water distribution system was being monitored since October 2010, the fact that there was an aqueduct that was not even connected to 101 the treatment plant should have been identified by local officials. When the cholera outbreak began, water tests were taken to identify any contaminants. At this time, it was identified that Vibrio cholerae was not the only bacteria present in the water. Had the breach in the water system been identified earlier and the system adequately chlorinated, the severity of the outbreak could have been greatly diminished, and any illnesses related to the consumption of water contaminated with the salmonella or shigella bacteria could have been addressed. The Ministry of Public Health’s education campaign centered around three core messages that public health workers were attempting to disseminate to the population. The second message was to not consume food from street vendors or homemade foods for sale. The third message was to disinfect water with five drops of chlorine per gallon this water can then be used to brush one’s teeth; wash the dishes, fruits, and vegetables; and to cook. If chlorine is not readily available, the water must be boiled to avoid contamination. It is very important that the population follow these directives to prevent infection. Hand washing stations were installed at the border crossing to enter the market and the Haitians 102 crossing the border were instructed to wash their hands upon entry. This emphasis led many people to believe that cholera was spread by contact – by touching things that are “dirty. Through contamination: not washing your hands before earing, and not washing your hands when you go to the bathroom. While the washing of hands is a very important prevention measure, the emphasis on the washing of hands has led many to believe that cholera is spread through contact rather than the consumption of contaminated water and/or food. This misconception also gives a partial explanation as to why so many people think that the illness is spread by Haitians rather than contaminated water. The chlorinated mat that was placed at the border crossing reinforces this thought. This measure taken by the Ministry of Public Health further stigmatizes the 103 Haitian population as the perception is that the Haitians are bringing the bacteria into the Dominican Republic on their feet and their hands. They are requested to step on a chlorinated mat and wash their hands in chlorinated water before entering the market. One day I was stopped by a military official, who told me that I should not enter that way. As shown by interview responses, there are many different mediums through which the population of Dajabon obtains its information. There are also different opinions about how cholera is contracted, what the symptoms are, how cholera can be controlled, and what measures are being taken locally to protect the population. Uniform messaging and information dissemination is essential to prevent confusion and misinformation. A single point of contamination in an area without adequate water and sanitation facilities can affect an entire community, so it is imperative that everyone be aware of the prevention measures to take in the home. There were interview participants who were not even aware of what cholera was 104 prior to my speaking with them. In order for the population to protect itself, uniform information must be disseminated to all members of the community. Many effective prevention and control measures have been taken in the clinics and hospital of Dajabon. But there have also been measures that are detrimental to the health security of the community. This is most certainly the case in Dajabon, as the cordon sanitaire has effectively stigmatized the Haitian population and shifted the public perception of cholera from an illness caused by the ingestion of a bacteria to an illness brought to the Dominican Republic by Haitians. The public discourse on the explanation for the presence of cholera in Dajabon is focused, not on water and sanitation, but on culture and ethnicity. The official explanation that was provided to me by the Ministry of Public Health for the outbreak in Carata, Dajabon, was that “the Haitians in the community defecated in the mouth of the river and the river became contaminated with cholera. The official stated, “The Haitians were removed from this area and put in another town. They were given 105 latrines in this new areaAfter removing the Haitians and chlorinating the water, there were no additional cases of cholera in that area. The official explanation for the outbreak that occurred in Los Arrollos in August, 2011, was that “a Haitian’s home is located near the water intake, and the Haitian did not have a bathroom or latrine. The nationality of the man who lived near the water intake is irrelevant as to whether or not this man had cholera and contaminated the river. The public health official did not indicate that this man was infected with cholera – the only part of the official explanation about how the river became contaminated was that the man was Haitian. There are many Dominican citizens who do not have water or sanitation services – the real questions that beg to be asked are the following: Why is 7. And why, if part of the public health campaign that began in Dajabon in October, 2010, was to identify all households without basic water and 106 sanitation services and make sure they were provided with these services, were these issues not already identified and addressed prior to the outbreak The outbreak that occurred in Partido was largely due to the fact that part of the population of Partido was receiving water from an aqueduct that was not even connected to the treatment plant. What was broadcasted on the news was that a Haitian had died in the water intake, and that this was the point of contamination. Absent from the dialogue was the fact that a government-maintained aqueduct was constructed without even connecting the aqueduct to the treatment plant. Also absent from the dialogue was that there were other contaminants in the river that were causing the population to contract diarrhea. And finally, absent from the public eye was the fact that the results of the laboratory tests on the water in the aqueduct and in the river were not released to the public.
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