By: Edward T. F. Wei PhD
While most emergency situations are handled locally medications ending in lol cheap biltricide 600mg fast delivery, a major incident likely will warrant help from other jurisdictions treatment junctional tachycardia buy biltricide 600 mg online, the 15 State and the Federal Government medications beta blockers generic biltricide 600 mg. Regional coordination prior to medications 122 biltricide 600 mg amex the event may optimize the utilization of assets among multiple jurisdictions during an event symptoms nervous breakdown purchase biltricide australia. This includes collaborating with Federal, State and city/county partners to develop protocols and stakeholder relationships that will ensure a robust interoperable platform for the rapid exchange of public health information. The public will respond favorably to messages which are coordinated and consistent between authorities. Additional information on this program including slide sets and course books can be found at. The Privacy Rule does not cover the use and disclosure of health information by non-covered entities. Rationale Improved situational awareness through information sharing regarding both patients and resources will enable better management of assets during a pandemic and provide for real time epidemiological analysis. Considerations • Compatible communications equipment and communications radio frequency plans should be in place for common hospital diversion and bed capacity situational awareness at the local, State and regional levels. In an influenza pandemic, this is also essential to support the community mitigation strategies that may help protect the public’s health. Public Health/Epidemiologic Issues Public health is a field that is concerned with any and all threats to the overall health of a community and is based on analysis done at the population level, rather than at that of the individual patient. Epidemiology is a subsection of the public health structure that deals with incidence, distribution, and control of disease within a population. By identifying the numerous factors that affect the health of a specific population, epidemiologic studies further guide interventions that can be made to preserve the health of the public. Utilizing public health surveillance and epidemiologic techniques during an influenza pandemic would not only help with situational awareness by detecting disease in the area, but then would lead to appropriate response and containment mechanisms necessary to protect both the community and the providers. Considerations • An investment of resources in the pandemic alert phase may help to significantly reduce the spread of pandemic influenza, reduce mortality and reduce the consumption of healthcare resources that would otherwise occur. However, in order for such a project to be successful, early preparation, training, and, in some cases, legislative changes must be implemented in advance of the catastrophe. The States and their political subdivisions are primarily responsible for isolation and quarantine within their borders. Public health officials generally have the authority to declare and enforce mandatory isolation and/or quarantine. Vaccine administration by paramedics: A model for bioterrorism and disaster response preparation. Simulations showed that a prepared response with targeted strategies would have a high probability of limiting the spread of a pandemic. Preliminary analysis of historical data and mathematical modeling suggest that the early, coordinated application of multiple interventions may be more effective in reducing transmission than the use of a single intervention. The Ethics Subcommittee provided input on ethical considerations in vaccine and anti viral drug distribution prioritization and in the development of interventions that would limit individual freedom and create social distancing. Appendix M-Pandemic Influenza Resources 33 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FluSurge is a spreadsheet-based model that estimates the surge in demand for hospital-based services during the next influenza pandemic. FluSurge estimates the number of hospitalizations and deaths of an influenza pandemic (whose length 35 Homeland Security Council. Considerations • Planning for alternative workforce strategies should include medical direction, quality improvement, education, supervision and legal authority. Absenteeism will increase not only because of personal illness or incapacitation but also because employees may be caring for ill family members, under voluntary home quarantine due to an ill household member, minding children dismissed from school, following public health guidance, or simply staying at home out of safety concerns. FluWorkLoss provides a range of estimates of total workdays lost, as well as graphic illustrations of the workdays lost by week and percentage of total workdays lost to influenza-related illnesses. Rationale the unpredictable nature of an influenza pandemic makes it difficult to ensure the consistent availability of essential equipment, supplies and services. During an influenza pandemic, State, local, and private stocks of material may be depleted quickly. A severe pandemic could have substantial impact on the global economy and on the functioning of society. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Guide for Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources. There should also be a plan for backup or redundant communication strategies in case there are failures in primary communication methods. Similarly, other backup procedures for actions that can be taken when systems fail should be planned, tested in advance, and integrated into the planning process. Considerations • the use of an Internet-Protocol based communications system could facilitate redundancy and real-time communications. There should be backup or redundant communication strategies in case there are failures in primary communication methods. Additional information on Next Generation 9-1-1 technology can be found on the Department of Transportation’s Intelligent Transportation System website at. Appendix N—Continuity of Operations Program Elements 57 Section 4 Legal Authority Guideline 4. In addition, staff may be apprehensive about leaving home, need to care for sick family members and/or may find it difficult to travel to work. During a public health emergency such as an influenza pandemic, it is likely there may be temporary modification of other regulatory requirements at all levels of government. For instance, the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza: 51 Implementation Plan suggests waivers and modification of certain legal requirements during pandemic influenza. As a result, it is important that all concerned understand their roles and the governing legal authorities so that they can coordinate their efforts under a complex set of Federal, State, tribal, and local laws. Federal, State, local and tribal governments should review their legal authorities to respond to an influenza pandemic and identify needed changes. To the extent possible, existing laws and other mechanisms should be used to the fullest. In addition, it addresses public information, administrative and fiscal issues, contracting, personnel, and liability. Draft Checklist for State and Local Government Attorneys to Prepare for Possible Disasters. Rationale If a pandemic exceeds the healthcare capacity of a community, it may be necessary to modify the provision of emergency medical care during an influenza pandemic. Planning should therefore include thresholds for modifying triage algorithms and otherwise optimizing the allocation of scarce resources. These community mitigation strategies may help to ensure health care resources are best utilized. According to the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza: Implementation 57 Plan, should pandemic influenza occur, preference should be given to “those patients whose medical condition suggests that they will obtain greatest benefit from them. Altered Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events: Bioterrorism and Other Public Health Emergencies. Background Given the uncertainty about the characteristics of a new pandemic strain, all aspects of preparedness planning must allow for flexibility and real-time decision-making based on evolving information. The information is provided in real time during an emergency and also allows subscribers the ability to have scheduled moderated forums. Background “Just-in-time” training and education refers to the timely provision of information and instructions as they become available, and when users need them. White Paper: the Provision of Family Assistance and Behavioral Health Services in the Management of Mass Fatalities Resulting from a Pandemic Influenza in the United States. Rationale Community containment strategies designed to limit the spread of the influenza virus may require patients be treated and released without transport. Additionally, healthcare facilities may become overwhelmed with patients, making it necessary to consider alternative options for patients who can be safely treated without transport. During an influenza pandemic the “treat and release” concept is vital to maintain community mitigation strategies, such as social distancing and voluntary quarantine. Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Guidance for Healthcare Workers and Healthcare Employers. The cluster described in this report might be unique, as healthcare workers appear to have followed infection-control precautions recommended by Health Canada. In addition, at the time these exposures occurred, fit testing was not recommended by Canadian public health authorities; such testing has 71 72 been mandated in the United States since 1972. The Supplement states: While it is commonly accepted that influenza transmission requires close contact—via exposure to large droplets (droplet transmission), direct contact (contact transmission), or near- range exposure to aerosols (airborne transmission)—the relative clinical importance of each of these modes of transmission is not known Given some uncertainty about the characteristics of a new pandemic strain, all aspects of preparedness planning for pandemic influenza must allow for flexibility and real-time decision-making that take new information into account as the situation unfolds. The specific characteristics of a new pandemic virus—virulence, transmissibility, initial geographic distribution, clinical manifestation, risk to different age groups and subpopulations, and drug susceptibility—will remain unknown until the pandemic gets underway. Emergency Medical Services and Non- Emergent (Medical) Transport Organizations Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist. A number of viruses, including influenza A virus can be found in oral secretions 80 of those infected and survive 2-24 hours on hard surfaces. In addition, 82% of the 35 participants subsequently tracked the contaminant to their home or personal belongings. The study identified phones, desktops, and keyboards among the top five “dirtiest” work surfaces. Background According to the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza: Implementation 83 Plan, the response to an influenza pandemic could require, if necessary and appropriate, measures such as isolation or quarantine. Isolation is a standard public health practice applied to persons who have a communicable disease. Quarantine is a contact management strategy that separates individuals who have been exposed to infection but are not yet ill from others who have not been exposed to the transmissible infection; quarantine may be voluntary or mandatory. Viral shedding and the risk for transmission 84 will be greatest during the first two days of illness. The art and Communication technique of using words effectively and with grace in imparting one’s ideas. Computerized Data maintained on computer for easy access, manipulation, Record refinement and review. Providing the maximal improved health care outcome improvement at Cost-effective the least cost. Analysis that determines the costs and effectiveness of an intervention or system. The preferred alternative is the one that requires the least cost to produce a given level of effectiveness or provides the greatest effectiveness for a given level of cost. An organization that certifies an institution’s or individual’s authority Credentialing or claim to confidence for a course of study or completion of Agency objectives. Crude, isolated, unanalyzed measures that reflect the status or degree Data of a measured attribute of a component or system. Thus, if two services are provided that are equally effective, but one requires the expense of fewer resources, that service is said to be more efficient. The function of providing prompt and accurate processing of calls, for Emergency emergency medical assistance by trained individuals, using a medically Medical approved dispatch protocol system and functioning under medical Dispatch supervision. Emergency A trained public safety telecommunicator with additional training and Medical specific emergency medical knowledge essential for the efficient Dispatcher management of emergency medical communications.
Review of 23 patients affected by the stiff man syndrome: clinical subdivision into stiff trunk (man) syndrome medicine hat alberta canada order generic biltricide from india, stiff limb syndrome 909 treatment order biltricide 600mg visa, and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity medicine woman dr quinn discount biltricide 600mg with visa. Cross References Myokymia; Myotonia; Neuromyotonia; Paramyotonia; Rigidity; Spasticity Stork Legs A name given to medicine man gallery order 600mg biltricide with amex describe the disproportionate wasting of the lower legs bad medicine 1 purchase 600 mg biltricide, a pattern characteristic of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (Charcot– Marie–Tooth diseases), which may be evident even before the development of gait disorder with foot drop and steppage gait. Cross References Foot drop; Steppage, Stepping gait; Wasting Stork Manoeuvre the patient is asked to stand on one leg, with arms folded across chest, and the eyes open. Absence of wobble or falling is said to exclude a significant disorder of balance or pyramidal lower limb weakness. Hence the thumb remains straight when the patient attempts to grasp something or make a fist. Cross Reference ‘Pinch sign’ Striatal Toe Striatal toe refers to the spontaneous tonic extension of the hallux which is seen in dystonic syndromes, and as a feature of extrapyramidal disorders, such as dopa-responsive dystonia. Striatal toe may be confused with Babinski’s sign (extensor plantar response) and pseudo-Babinski’s sign (= ‘phasic striatal toe’), the principal difference being that both the latter are elicited by stimulation whereas the former is a tonic response. Cross References Babinski’s sign (1); Parkinsonism; Pseudo-Babinski’s sign String Sign the string sign has been advocated as a way of testing visual field integrity in patients whose cooperation cannot be easily gained, by asking them to point quickly to the centre of a piece of string held horizontally in the examiner’s hands. If visual fields are full, the patient will point to the approximate centre; if there is a left field defect, pointing will be to the right of centre, and vice versa for a right field defect. Altitudinal field defects may be similarly identified by holding the string vertically. Cross Reference Visual field defects Stupor Stupor is a state of altered consciousness characterized by deep sleep or unre- sponsiveness, in which patients are susceptible to arousal only by vigorous and/or repeated stimuli, with lapse back into unresponsiveness when the stimulus stops. Stupor is a less severe impairment of conscious level than coma, but worse than obtundation (torpor). Cross References Coma; Delirium; Encephalopathy; Obtundation Stutter Stutter, one of the reiterative speech disorders, is usually a developmental prob- lem, but may be acquired in aphasia with unilateral or bilateral hemisphere lesions. Unlike developmental stutter, acquired stutter may be evident throughout sentences, rather than just at the begin- ning. Furthermore, developmental stutter tends to occur more with plosives (phonemes where the fiow of air is temporarily blocked and suddenly released, as in ‘p’, ‘b’), whereas acquired stutter is said to affect all speech sounds fairly equally. Cessation of developmental stutter following bilateral thalamic infarc- tion in adult life has been reported, as has onset of stutter after anterior corpus callosum infarct. Stuttering without callosal apraxia resulting from infarction in the anterior corpus callosum. Cross References Aphasia; Echolalia; Palilalia Sucking Refiex Contact of an object with the lips will evoke sucking movements in an infant. In dementia, there may be complete reversal of sleep schedule with daytime somnolence and nocturnal wakefulness. Although this syndrome may relate to worsening of visual cues with increas- ing darkness, it may also occur in well-lit environments. Supranuclear gaze palsies may be classified as follows: • Horizontal: Hemisphere (frontal) lesion: eyes deviated to the side of the lesion, or in the case of an irritative. This may refiect intrinsic or intramedullary spinal cord pathology, in which case other signs of myelopathy may be present, including dissociated sensory loss, but it can also occur in peripheral neuropathic disease such as acute porphyria. Cross References Dissociated sensory loss; Myelopathy Swan Neck this term has been applied to thinning of the neck musculature, as in myotonic dystrophy type 1, for example. Swearing Swearing is not, in sensu strictu, a part of language, serving merely to add force of emotion to the expression of ideas; hence it is within the same category as loudness of tone or violence of gesticulation. Cross Reference Coprolalia Sweat Level A definable sweat level, below which sweating is absent, is an autonomic change which may be observed below a spinal compression. Swinging Flashlight Sign the swinging fiashlight sign or test, originally described by Levitan in 1959, com- pares the direct and consensual pupillary light refiexes in one eye; the speed of swing is found by trial and error. Normally the responses are equal but in the -339 S Syllogomania presence of an afferent conduction defect an inequality is manifest as pupillary dilatation. The test is known to be unreliable in the presence of bilateral affer- ent defects of light conduction. Subjective appreciation of light intensity, or light brightness comparison, is a subjective version of this test. Synaesthesia Synaesthesia is a perceptual experience in one sensory modality following stim- ulation of another sensory modality. The most commonly encountered example is colour-word synaesthesia (‘coloured hearing’ or chromaesthesia), experienc- ing a visual colour sensation on hearing a particular word. Known synaesthetes include the composers Messiaen and Scriabin, the artist Kandinsky, and the author Nabokov. There may be concurrent excellent memory (hypermnesia), sometimes of a photographic nature (eidetic memory). Characteristics ascribed to synaesthetic experience include its invol- untary or automatic nature, consistency, generic or categorical and affect-laden quality. Neuropsychologically, this phenomenon has been conceptualized as a break down of modularity. Functional imaging studies of colour-word synaesthetes show activation of visual associative areas of cortex (but not primary visual cor- tex), as well as perisylvian language areas, when listening to words which evoke the experience of colour. Bright colors falsely seen: synaesthesia and the search for transcendental knowledge. Cross References Auditory-visual synaesthesia; Phosphene Synkinesia, Synkinesis the term synkinesis may be used in different ways. It may refer to involun- tary movements which accompany or are associated with certain voluntary 340 Synkinesia, Synkinesis S movements (mitbewegungen, motor overfiow). Aberrant nerve regen- eration is common to a number of synkinetic phenomena, such as elevation of a ptotic eyelid on swallowing (Ewart phenomenon) and upper eyelid elevation or retraction on attempted downgaze (pseudo-Von Graefe’s sign). Crocodile tears, or lacrimation when salivating, due to reinnervation following a lower motor neurone facial nerve palsy, may also fall under this rubric, although there is no movement per se (autonomic synkinesis), likewise gustatory sweating. Abnormal synkinesis may be useful in assessing whether weakness is organic or functional (cf. Synkinesis may also refer to the aggravation of limb rigidity detected when performing movements in the opposite limb. Cross References Crocodile tears; Ewart phenomenon; Froment’s sign; Gustatory sweating; Hoover’s sign; Jaw winking; Pseudo-Von Graefe’s sign; Rigidity -341 T ‘ Table Top’ Sign the ‘table top’ sign describes the inability to place the hand fiat on a level surface, recognized causes of which include ulnar neuropathy (mainengriffe), Dupuytren’s contracture, diabetic cheiroarthropathy, and camptodactyly. This has been reported in patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, particularly in the 20–40-year age group. Tachyphemia Tachyphemia is repetition of a word or phrase with increasing rapidity and decreasing volume; it may be encountered as a feature of the speech disorders in parkinsonian syndromes. Cross Reference Parkinsonism Tactile Agnosia Tactile agnosia is a selective impairment of object recognition by touch despite (relatively) preserved somaesthetic perception. This is a unilateral disorder result- ing from lesions of the contralateral inferior parietal cortex. Braille alexia may be a form of tactile agnosia, either associative or apperceptive. Tactile agnosia: underlying impairment and implications for normal tactile object recognition. Cross Reference Agnosia Tadpole Pupils Pupillary dilatation restricted to one segment may cause peaked elongation of the pupil, a shape likened to a tadpole’s pupil. In ataxic disorders, cerebellar (midline cerebellum, in which axial coordina- tion is most affected) or sensory (loss of proprioception), the ability to tandem walk is impaired, as refiected by the tendency of such patients to compensate for their incoordination by developing a broad-based gait. Cross References Ataxia; Cerebellar syndromes; Proprioception; Rombergism, Romberg’s sign Tasikinesia Tasikinesia is forced walking as a consequence of an inner feeling of restlessness or jitteriness as encountered in akathisia. This may be the earliest indication of a developing temporal field defect, as in a bitemporal hemianopia due to a chiasmal lesion, or a monocular temporal field defect (junctional scotoma of Traquair) due to a distal ipsilateral optic nerve lesion. Cross References Hemianopia; Scotoma Temporal Pallor Pallor of the temporal portion of the optic nerve head may follow atrophy of the macular fibre bundle in the retina, since the macular fibres for central vision enter the temporal nerve head. Cross Reference Optic atrophy Terson Syndrome Terson’s syndrome refers to vitreous haemorrhage in association with any form of intracranial or subarachnoid haemorrhage. They may temporarily be voluntarily suppressed by will power (perhaps accounting for their previous designation as ‘habit spasms’) but this is usually accompanied by a growing inner tension or restlessness, only relieved by the performance of the movement. The belief that Tourette syndrome was a disorder of the basal ganglia has now been superseded by evidence of dysfunction within the cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex, perhaps related to excessive endorphin release. The aetiological differential diagnosis of tic includes • Idiopathic; • Tourette syndrome; • Tics related to structural brain damage; -345 T Tic Convulsif • Drug-induced tics; • Tics triggered by streptococcal infection. Treatment of tics is most usually with dopamine antagonists (haloperidol, sulpiride) and opioid antagonists (naltrexone); clonidine (central fi2 adrenergic- receptor antagonist) and tetrabenazine (dopamine-depleting agent) have also been reported to be beneficial on occasion. The word tic has also been used to describe the paroxysmal, lancinating pains of trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux). Cross References Klazomania; Stereotypy Tic Convulsif Tic convulsif is a name that has been given to the combination of trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux) with hemifacial spasm. Cross References Bitemporal hemianopia; Visual field defects Tinel’s Sign (Hoffmann–Tinel Sign) Tinel’s sign (Hoffmann–Tinel sign) is present when tingling (paraesthesia) is experienced when tapping lightly with a finger or a tendon hammer over a compressed or regenerating peripheral nerve. The tingling (Tinel’s ‘sign of formi- cation’) is present in the cutaneous distribution of the damaged nerve (‘peripheral reference’). Although originally described in the context of peripheral nerve regeneration after injury, Tinel’s sign may also be helpful in diagnosing focal 346 Titubation T entrapment neuropathy such as carpal tunnel syndrome. However, it is a ‘soft’ sign; like other provocative tests for carpal tunnel syndrome. Its speci- ficity has been reported to range between 23 and 60% and sensitivity between 64 and 87%. The neurophysiological basis of Tinel’s sign is presumed to be the lower threshold of regenerating or injured (demyelinated) nerves to mechanical stim- uli, which permits ectopic generation of orthodromic action potentials, as in Lhermitte’s sign. Cross References Closed fist sign; Flick sign; Hand elevation test; Lhermitte’s sign; Phalen’s sign; Pressure provocation test Tinnitus Tinnitus is the perception of elementary non-environmental sound or noise in the ear. The common causes of subjective tinnitus are as follows: • middle/inner ear disease: cochlear hydrops (Meniere’s disease), presbycusis, acoustic tumour; • pulsatile: normal heartbeat, glomus jugulare tumour, raised intracranial pressure, cervical/intracranial aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation. A postictal ‘paralytic’ conjugate ocular deviation may be observed after adversive seizures. Todd’s paresis is of localizing value, being contralateral to the epileptogenic hemisphere. The differential diagnosis of transient postictal hemiparesis includes stroke, hemiplegic migraine, and, in children, alternating hemiplegia. Cross References Hemiparesis; Seizures Toe Walking Toe walking, or cock walking, is walking on the balls of the toes, with the heel off the fioor. A tendency to walk on the toes may be a feature of hereditary spastic paraplegia and the presenting feature of idiopathic torsion dystonia in childhood. Cross Reference Dystonia Tongue Biting Tongue biting is one feature of a seizure: in a generalized tonic–clonic epileptic seizure the side or sides of the tongue are typically bitten: a specific but not very sensitive sign. Cross Reference Seizure Tonic Spasms Painful tonic spasms occur in multiple sclerosis, especially with lesions of the pos- terior limb of the internal capsule or cerebral peduncle, perhaps due to ephaptic activation, or following putaminal infarction. In the majority of cases (>50%) this produces head rotation, but laterocollis, retro- collis, tremulous (‘no–no’) and complex. Contractions are usually unilateral, may be associated with local pain, and, as with other types of dystonia, may be relieved by a ‘sensory trick’ (geste antagoniste). Causes of torticollis include • Idiopathic (the majority); • Secondary to acquired cervical spine abnormalities, trauma; • Cervical spinal tumour; • Tardive effect of neuroleptics. The treatment of choice is botulinum toxin injections into the affected mus- cles.
Of reported outbreaks medicine 0636 purchase biltricide pills in toronto, 60% involved the intestinal tract symptoms endometriosis generic biltricide 600mg amex, 18% were dermatologic medications at 8 weeks pregnant purchase 600mg biltricide with amex, and 18% involved the respiratory tract medicine 524 buy biltricide 600 mg mastercard. Recommendations for prevention of diseases transmitted by animals have been updated in the Diseases Transmitted by Animals (Zoonoses) section to symptoms 9 days after ovulation order 600mg biltricide fast delivery include a mnemonic for appropriate pet selection from the Black Pine Animal Park. Updates on epi- demic strains, outbreaks in specifc situations, guidelines for outbreak management and disease prevention, and diagnostic testing have been added. Guidelines for management of candidiasis from the Infectious Diseases Society of America and chemoprophylaxis with fuconazole for infants with birth weights of fi1000 g have been added. Epidemiology and diagnosis have been updated, including the role of travel in acquisition of this organism and the role in foodborne and water- borne outbreaks. Valganciclovir administered orally to young infants provides a therapeutic option for treatment of infants with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection involving the central nervous system. Dengue has been expanded into a separate chapter and removed from the Arboviruses chapter. Echoviruses 22 and 23 are classifed as human parechovirus, which cause febrile illness, exanthema, sepsis-like syndromes, and respiratory and intestinal tract infections. The epidemiology and treatment sections have been updated; recom- mendations for immunization of adults with diabetes mellitus and a fgure showing stages of acute hepatitis B virus infection and recovery has been added. For diagnosis of neonatal herpes, swab specimens from mouth, nasopharynx, conjunctivae and anus can be obtained with a single swab ending with the anus and placed in one viral transport media tube. Recommendations have been updated to include new vaccines, an algo- rithm recommending an approach to immunization of children with egg allergy has been added, and the current status of antiviral recommendations has been updated. The outbreak of measles in the United States in 2011 is highlighted, as is the need to immunize infants 6 through 11 months of age who travel internationally. Recommendations for routine use of meningo- coccal vaccines for adolescents, and for children and adolescents at high risk of disease have been updated and placed into 2 tables. Specifc changes include guid- ance for adolescents and people in high-risk groups, need for booster doses, and vaccine interchangeability. Diagnostic and antimicrobial prophylaxis after exposure have been updated, as have recommendations for Tdap use in children 7 through 10 years of age, pregnant women, and adults of all ages. Mebendazole no longer is available to treat pinworm and other parasitic infections, including giardiasis, ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infection. There are now 9 human polyomavi- ruses associated with a variety of diseases, generally in immunocompromised people. The postexposure prophylaxis regimen of rabies vaccine has been reduced from 5 to 4 doses given at 0, 3, 7, and 14 days following exposure. The epidemiology of rotavirus disease showing the marked reduction in hospitaliza- tion following licensure of rotavirus vaccine has been updated. Changes to management of newborn infants include use of lumbar puncture in infants who have signs of sepsis, change in use of intrapartum prophylaxis and inclusion of a revised algorithm for management of newborn infants with possible risk of early-onset group B streptococcal disease. Isoniazid and rifapentine, a long-acting rifamycin, have been added, but because evaluation in children younger than 13 years of age has been limited, this therapeutic option is not recommended for this age group. The benefts of therapy with doxycycline for serious infections, including those caused by Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma organisms, has been clarifed. The Antimicrobial Stewardship section highlights appropriate use of antimi- crobial agents in children with the aim of decreasing inappropriate use that leads to resistance and toxicity. The Drugs for Parasitic Infections section is reproduced with permission from the 2010 edition of the Medical Letter. A new table titled Principal Adverse Effects of Antiparasitic Drugs has been added, and the table titled Principal Adverse Effects of Antiparasitic Drugs in Pregnancy has been updated. Haemophilus infuenzae and Bacillus anthracis have been added to the Exposed Host column, and rheumatic fever has been added to the Vulnerable Host (Pathogen) column. The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act Reporting and Compensation Table has been restructured to include adverse events and intervals from vaccination to onset of event for reporting and for compensation. The table of Nationally Notifable Infectious Diseases in the United States has been updated to include diseases notifable in 2012. To accomplish these goals, physicians must make timely immunization, including active and passive immunoprophy- laxis, a high priority in the care of infants, children, adolescents, and adults. The global eradication of smallpox in 1977, elimination of poliomyelitis disease from the Americas in 1991, elimination of ongoing measles transmission in the United States in 2000 and in the Americas in 2002, and elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome from the United States in 2004 serve as models for fulflling the promise of disease control through immunization. These accomplishments were achieved by combining a com- prehensive immunization program providing consistent, high levels of vaccine coverage with intensive surveillance and effective public health disease control measures. Future success in the worldwide elimination of polio, measles, rubella, and hepatitis B is possible through implementation of similar prevention strategies. High immunization rates, in general, have reduced dramatically the incidence of all vaccine-preventable diseases (see Tables 1. Yet, because organisms that cause vaccine-preventable diseases persist in the United States and elsewhere around the world, continued immunization efforts must be maintained and strengthened. Discoveries in immunology, molecular biology, and medical genetics have resulted in burgeoning vaccine research. Licensing of new, improved, and safer vaccines; anticipated arrival of additional combination vaccines; establishment of an adolescent immunization platform; and application of novel vaccine-delivery systems promise a new era of preventive medicine. The advent of population-based postlicensure studies of new vaccines facilitates detection of rare adverse events temporally associated with immunization that were undetected during prelicensure clinical trials. Identifcation of the rare occurrence of intussusception after administration of the frst licensed oral rhesus rotavirus vaccine confrmed the value of such surveillance systems. Physicians must regularly update their knowledge about specifc vaccines, including information about their recommended use, safety, and effectiveness. Each edition of the Red Book provides recommendations for immunization of infants, children, and adolescents. Whereas immuni- zation recommendations represent the best approach to disease prevention on a population basis, in rare circumstances, individual considerations may warrant a different approach. Comparison of 20th Century Annual Morbidity and Current Morbidity: Vaccine-Preventable Diseasesa 20th Century 2010 Reported Percent Disease Annual Morbidityb Casesc Decrease Smallpox 29 005 0 100 Diphtheria 21 053 0 100 Measles 530 217 63 >99 Mumps 162 344 2612 98 Pertussis 200 752 27 550 86 Polio (paralytic) 16 316 0 100 Rubella 47 745 5 >99 Congenital rubella syndrome 152 0 100 Tetanus 580 26 96 Haemophilus infuenzae 20 000 246d 99 a National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. Historical comparisons of morbidity and mortality for vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Comparison of Prevaccine Era Estimated Annual Morbidity With Current Estimates: Vaccine-Preventable Diseasesa Prevaccine Era 2010 Reported Disease Annual Estimate Cases Percent Decrease Hepatitis A 117 333b 9670c 92 Hepatitis B (acute) 66 232b 3374c 95 Pneumococcus (invasive) All ages 63 067b 16 569c 84 <5 years of age 16 069b 1877c 88 Rotavirus (hospitalizations, 62 500d 28 125e 55 <3 years of age) Varicella 4 085 120b 9920c 99. Sources of Vaccine Information In addition to the Red Book, which is published every 3 years, physicians should use evidence-based literature and other sources for data to answer specifc vaccine questions encountered in practice. Each product insert lists contents of the vaccine, including preservatives, stabilizers, antimicrobial agents, adjuvants, and suspending fuids. Health care professionals should be familiar with the label for each product they administer. Most manufacturers maintain Web sites with current information concerning new vaccine releases and changes in labeling. Additionally, 24-hour contact telephone numbers for medical questions are available in the Physicians’ Desk Reference ( The monograph also provides information about other vaccines recommended for travel in specifc areas and other information for travelers. For additional sources of information on international travel, see International Travel (p 103). Annual course offerings include the Immunization Update, Vaccines for International Travel, Infuenza, and a 9-module introductory course on the Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. The course schedule, slide sets, and written materials can be accessed online ( This system responds to immunization-related questions submitted from health care profession- als and members of the public. The hotline is a telephone-based resource available to answer immunization-related questions from health care professionals and members of the public. Appendix I (p 883) provides a list of reliable immunization information resources, including facts concern- ing vaccine effcacy, clinical applications, schedules, and unbiased information about safety. Two resources comprehensively address concerns of practicing physicians: the National Network for Immunization Information ( Information can be obtained from state and local health depart- ments about current epidemiology of diseases; immunization recommendations; legal requirements; public health policies; and nursery school, child care, and school health concerns or requirements. Information regarding global health matters can be obtained from the World Health Organization ( Online catch-up immunization schedulers are available for use by parents, other care providers, and health care professionals. The schedulers are based on the recommended immunization schedules for children, adolescents, and adults. The schedulers, which can be downloaded, allow the user to determine vaccines needed by age and are useful for viewing missed or skipped vaccines quickly accord- ing to the recommended childhood and adult immunization schedules. The inter active vaccine schedules are available at the following sites: catch-up scheduler. Questions should be encouraged, and adequate time should be allowed so that information is understood ( This applies in all settings, including clinics, offces, hospitals (eg, for the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine), and pharmacies. Health care professionals also should be aware of local confdentiality laws involving adolescents. Health care professionals should be familiar with requirements of the state in which they practice. Parental Concerns About Immunization Health care professionals should anticipate that some parents will question the need for or the safety of immunizations, want to space out vaccines, refuse certain vaccines, or even decide to reject all immunizations for their child. Some parents may have religious or philosophic objections to immunization, which are permitted by some states. Several factors contribute to parental vaccine concerns or lack of understanding of the benefts of vaccines, including: (1) lack of infor- mation about the vaccine being given and about immunizations in general; (2) opposing information from other sources (eg, alternative medicine practitioners, antivaccination organizations, some religious groups, and alternative Web sites); (3) mistrust of the source of information (eg, vaccine manufacturer); (4) perceived risk of serious vaccine adverse events; (5) concern regarding number of injections or the vaccine schedule; (6) informa- tion being delivered in a way that does not recognize cultural differences or that is not tailored to individual concern; (7) information being delivered at an inconvenient time; (8) not perceiving risk of vaccines accurately; and (9) lack of appreciation of the sever- ity of vaccine-preventable diseases. One important aspect physicians can control is their relationship with patients and their parents. If parents trust their child’s physician, information pre- sented to them by the physician in support of vaccines is accepted more readily. A non- judgmental approach is best for parents who question the need for immunizations. Ideally, health care professionals should determine in general terms what parents understand about vaccines their children will be receiving, the nature of their concerns, their health beliefs, and what information they fnd credible. People understand and react to vaccine information on the basis of a variety of factors, including previous experiences, attitudes, health beliefs, personal values, and education. The method in which data are presented about immunizations as well as a person’s perceptions of the risks of disease, perceived ability to control those risks, and risk preference also contribute to understanding of immunizations. For some people, the risk of immunization can be viewed as disproportionately greater than the risk of disease so that immunization is not perceived as benefcial, in part because of the relative infre- quency of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Others can dwell on socio- political issues, such as mandatory immunization, informed consent, and the primacy of individual rights over that of societal beneft. Parents may be aware through the media or information from alternative Web sites about alleged controversial issues concerning vaccines their child is scheduled to receive. When a parent initiates discussion about an alleged vaccine controversy, the health care professional should listen carefully and then calmly and non- judgmentally discuss specifc concerns. Health care professionals always should provide factual information and use language appropriate for parents and other care providers. Through direct dialogue with parents and use of available resources, health care profes- sionals can help reduce and possibly prevent acceptance of inaccurate media reports and information from nonauthoritative sources.
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