By: Edward T. F. Wei PhD
Of all topical lar tissues either from the conjunctival sac or after systemic antibiotics mental treatment vaginitis purchase 10mg mellaril with visa, it is the least toxic to mental health treatment services generic 25mg mellaril overnight delivery the corneal epithelium mental health treatment wisconsin best mellaril 25 mg. They are administered essentially Topical administration may rarely lead to mental treatment in malaysia cheap mellaril blood dyscrasias mental illness clock test order mellaril pills in toronto. They are often used topically in combination with orally in acne rosacea and chronic staphylococcal infection neomycin, bacitracin and gramicidin for superfcial eye of the lids and conjunctiva. They are useful against extra or intraocular provide better aqueous concentrations. Sulphonamides Macrolide and Lincomycin Groups this group of drugs has a bacteriostatic effect on most Erythromycin, azithromycin, lincomycin and clindamycin are gram-positive bacteria and chlamydia. They are used in relatively narrow-spectrum bacteriostatic agents used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis in combination with pyri treating gram-positive infections and those due to Chlamydia methamine or trimethoprim. Antiviral Agents Azithromycin is long acting and is used as a single stat dose of 500–1500 mg (20–30 mg/kg) in the treatment of Antiviral drugs used to treat herpesvirus infections are trachoma, toxoplasmosis and Lyme disease. Eighty-fve per ocular implant containing 5–6 mg of ganciclovir can be cent of initial dendritic ulcers treated with 0. Commonly seen Other Antiviral Agents toxic reactions are superfcial punctuate keratitis, follicular Foscarnet inhibits the replication of all human herpes and conjunctivitis and punctal occlusion. This drug is soluble and more effective than others Zidovudine inhibits the virus-induced reverse transcrip in the prevention of complications produced by corticoste tase which is essential for virus replication in the infective roids. Antifungal Agents Acyclovir is a selective, virustatic drug, which is acti vated largely in virus-infected cells. It is of proven value Polyene Antibiotics in the treatment of acute cases of the common herpesvirus Amphotericin B is the most effective antibiotic in the treat infections such as herpes simplex keratitis and herpes zos ment of systemic fungal infections. It is used as 3% ointment fve times a day till all activity of keratomycosis, metastatic and exogenous endophthalmi subsides and is less toxic than the other antiviral drugs. It can be given in a dose of 5–10 mg intravitreally herpes simplex iridocyclitis, and acute herpes zoster and incremental doses are given i. It is not absorbed by mouth dose of 800 mg fve times a day for 7–10 days is adminis and is applied topically as a suspension (1 00 000 units/g). It is also effective against the hour and then tapered off as the infection subsides. An oral maintenance dose of 1 g Acyclovir 3% ointment is given thrice daily with meals. They are less toxic than the polyenes and are also effective against bacteria and Corticosteroids are very effective for treating infammations Acanthamoeba. Unfortunately, they Topically, Clotrimazole 1% and Econazole1 2% are also produce substantial local and systemic side effects. Mechanism of action: They act by suppressing the Miconazole is effective against yeast and flamentous formation of arachidonic acid and other infammatory me fungi and is used topically as 1% drops hourly or as a 2% diators by the induction of phospholipase A2 inhibitory ointment given 6 hourly. In cases of fungal endophthalmi of corticosteroids may lead to the formation of posterior tis, adnexal or severe corneal infections, it can be given subcapsular opacities in the lens and is known to cause glau orally in a dose of 200–800 mg daily for 7 days and up to coma in genetically susceptible persons. Its the general clinical effect of these drugs is a temporary adverse effects include liver toxicity. Subconjunctival and blockage of the exudative phases of infammation and an intravitreal injections may also be given. Oral absorption is good, with effective Phospholipids from damaged cell membranes corneal and anterior chamber concentrations at 100–200 mg 6 hourly. Glucocorticoids Phospholipase A2 X Itraconazole: this drug is similar to ketoconazole and is well tolerated orally in a dose of 100–400 mg daily. Ketoconazole has the highest incidence of adverse effects, which limits its usefulness. Itraconazole and voriconazole have activity against Aspergillus, which normally must be treated with amphotericin B. In acute infammations, capillary per meability is decreased and cellular exudation reduced, Steroids Used in Common Anti-infammatory while in the stage of healing, the formation of granulation Ophthalmology Dosage Potency tissue, new vessels and fbrosis is diminished. Therefore, it follows Prednisolone acetate/ 1% 4 that corticosteroids primarily control acute disease and are phosphate completely ineffective in the removal of structural damage Betamethasone 0. Methylprednisolone 5 A solution of 1% prednisolone acetate has the greatest anti-infammatory action, followed by 0. They thus may play Loteprednol is a ‘soft’ steroid has no effect on the intraocu a role in regulating edema. Triamcinolone acetonide in lar pressure or systemic side effects as it binds to the gluco an intravitreal dose of 1/2/4 mg has been evaluated in the corticoid receptor and the remainder is rapidly metabolized treatment of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, to an inactive metabolite in the eye (Table 13. Corticoste exudative age related macular degeneration, cystoid macu roids are used as drops every 6 hours or more frequently, lar edema, venous occlusion, Eales’ disease etc. Frequent instillation of drops is as effective as subcon High doses of methylprednisolone intravenously are given junctival injections. Periocular injections of corticosteroids, in ‘pulses’ to treat optic neuropathies. These drugs are now replacing steroids in less severe Steroids can down-regulate infammatory stimuli by or more chronic infammations. They act by inhibiting modulating the response of the vascular endothelial growth the cyclooxygenase pathway for prostaglandin formation Chapter | 13 Ocular Therapeutics 155 (Flowchart 13. Systemic supplementation is Cycloplegics and Mydriatics required for diseases involving the retina and uvea. The latter allows zonular along with mydriatic–cycloplegics are used for preventing laxity and a consequent thickening and forward movement intraoperative miosis, and 6 hourly in the management of of the lens necessary for the visualization of near objects, postoperative infammation. Atropine 1% eye ointment is used for refraction and fundus examina Antihistamines tion in children, especially those with darkly pigmented Antihistamines show a competitive antagonism to histamine irises and those less than 5 years of age. They ing hence ointment is preferred over drops in young chil are used for vernal keratoconjunctivitis, giant papillary dren. Atropine 1% drops or ointment may also be used as conjunctivitis and other forms of allergic conjunctivitis. H1 receptor antagonists are emedastine when atropine is used for prolonged periods. Homatropine used four times a day, and azelastine used once or twice a 2% drops are less potent and used in the treatment of uveitis day. In severe cases, loratadine, cetrizine and astemizole can and for refraction in children. Cyclopentolate 1% drops three times 5 minutes apart are used for refraction and fundus exami Mast Cell Stabilizers nation in children. A 2% ointment can be Side effects of cycloplegics are blurred vision and photo used at night. In patients above 60 years of age having Ketotifen drops are instilled thrice a day. This drug is hypermetropia and a shallow anterior chamber, mydriasis also a mast cell stabilizer but has the advantage of a quicker may precipitate acute angle-closure glaucoma. Olopatadine has both a mast cell stabilizing effect and these dilate the pupil and are used prior to fundus examina an antihistaminic action. Phenylephrine 5–10%, a selec on the trabecular meshwork increasing the size of the pores. Side effects include In eyes having a narrow angle recess or angle-closure glau stinging on application, and a rise of blood pressure in coma, constriction of the pupil pulls the peripheral iris away predisposed individuals. Its therapeutic effect begins in half an hour, At present, the treatment of glaucoma is aimed at lowering with a peak action at 2 hours. Pilocarpine 4% in a high the intraocular pressure to levels that permit the normal viscosity acrylic gel is effective for 18–24 hours. This is achieved by sup trolled delivery of pilocarpine is available through ocuserts pressing the production of aqueous or by increasing the that release pilocarpine at 20 mg or 40 mg/hour for a week. Medications directed towards pre but its use is limited by the occurrence of miosis, browache venting neural cell loss are presently under investigation, and accommodative spasm. Sympathomimetics Parasympathomimetics Cholinergic agents help to improve the trabecular outfow of Alpha-Agonists aqueous. Longitudinal fbres of the ciliary muscle are attached Alpha-agonists reduce the production of aqueous humour to the scleral spur and contraction of these fbres exerts a pull and increase aqueous outfow. It is well tolerated locally, but its effi increasing trabecular and uveoscleral outfow. It is commercially patients with asthma or chronic bronchitis, atrioventricular available only in Europe. The maximum fall in intraocular pressure is seen in 2 hours and its effect lasts for 12 hours. This allergic reaction is very common, as are conjunctival blanch causes the release of matrix metalloproteinases and in ing and follicular conjunctivitis. Common side effects are conjunctival hyper Brimonidine has a signifcantly higher relative selectiv aemia, superfcial punctate keratopathy and pigmentation ity for the alpha-2 receptors, hence cardiovascular and of the iris. It appears to work largely Latanoprost is a pro-drug and is activated during its by increasing the uveoscleral outfow and reducing aqueous passage through the cornea. This is equivalent to the effect produced by timo Contact allergy is recorded in about 15% of patients and lol, with which latanoprost shows a further additive effect. Latanoprost can also lower the intraocular pressure to a It can cause drowsiness and respiratory depression in in moderate extent in normotensive eyes. It has a similar intraocular pressure lowering effect as Latanoprost and Travoprost, but Adrenergic Antagonists often causes pigmentation of the skin Beta-Blockers l Travoprost 0. Initial control of intraocular Mechanism of action: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors pressure with these drugs is very good, but with tachyphy block the action of carbonic anhydrase and reduce the pro laxis this decreases in a few months to a 25% reduction in duction of aqueous in the eye. It must be remembered that oral beta Preparations: blockers are commonly used for hypertension and angina Acetazolamide reduces the production of aqueous by and, in these situations, also lower intraocular pressure. It Drugs: is commonly used for controlling very high intraocular pres sures in acute angle-closure glaucoma and secondary glauco l Timolol maleate 0. Tablets of 250 mg administered 6 hourly have a maxi while gel preparations are available for use once daily. It is believed to increase altered taste, loss of appetite, paraesthesias of the hands and the perfusion of the optic nerve head. Systemically, carbonic effective than both timolol and levobunolol when used anhydrase inhibitors are known to produce hypokalemia, as 0. Preservative-free drops are an cause renal stones and acidosis as compared to acetazolamide. Some newer preservatives such as Dorzolamide 2% is the frst topical carbonic anhydrase sodium perborate and purite disintegrate into harmless inhibitor. It is used twice or thrice daily and causes a fall in molecules on contact with the eye and exposure to light. Patients Slow release of tear supplements by a conjunctival insert is complain of a bitter taste and common allergic reactions. For such patients, preservative and lanolin-free lium in predisposed individuals.
For example mental illness bible best purchase mellaril, an older heart can normally pump blood as strong as a younger heart mental disorders represented in winnie the pooh buy cheapest mellaril and mellaril, while less ability to mental illness spectrum test mellaril 25 mg sale pump blood is caused by disease mental emotional therapy 10mg mellaril amex. Therefore mental therapy singapore purchase discount mellaril on-line, leading a heart-healthy lifestyle is most important to keeping one’s heart strong in late adulthood. Almost 1 in 2 older adults with arthritis have some degree of mobility limitations, such as climbing stairs, walking, and grasping objects. The pain and other limitations of arthritis can also increase the risk of depression and other forms of mental distress. Over time, joints can lose strength and pain may become chronic” (Arthritis Foundation, 2017, para 3). Common risk factors for osteoarthritis include genetics, obesity, age, previous injury, and other medical conditions. Osteoporosis After age 50, 1 in 2 women and 1 in 4 men will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, often leading to hip, spine, and wrist fractures (Dailey & Cravedi, 2006). As bones weaken in the spine, adults gradually lose height and their posture becomes hunched over, which is called Kyphosis. Adults can prevent the loss of bone mass by eating a healthy diet with enough calcium and vitamin D, regularly exercising, limiting alcohol, and not smoking (National Source Osteoporosis Foundation, 2016). Research has indicated that women may be more susceptible to the effects of cigarette smoke due to having smaller lungs and estrogen worsening the effects. Shingles: According to the National Institute on Aging (2015e), shingles is a disease that affects your nerves. After you recover from chickenpox, the virus continues to live in some of your nerve cells. A risk factor for shingles includes advanced age as people have a harder time fighting off infections as they get older. About half of all shingles cases are in adults age 60 or older, and the chance of getting shingles becomes much greater by age 70. Shingles results in pain, burning, tingling, or itching in the affected area, as well as a rash and blisters. Typically, shingles develops only on one side of the body or face and in a small area rather than all over. After the shingles rash goes away, 393 some people may be left with ongoing pain, called Figure 9. A brief paralysis of the face, hearing loss, and very rarely, swelling of the brain Source (encephalitis) can also occur. Shingles is not contagious, but one can catch chickenpox from someone with shingles. Beliefs about Health: Despite the fact that the majority of older adults have at least one chronic illness, most rate their overall health positively (Graham, 2019). Because older adults focus more on emotional well-being, positive social relationships, remaining active, and overall life satisfaction, poor physical functioning is not considered as important. Older adults often look to those who are worse off than themselves, including those having died or are in a nursing home, and consequently feel more positive about themselves. This perspective is in contrast to those younger who believe that there should not be anything wrong with them, and consequently experience negative feelings when they have an illness. Older adults expect there will be some deterioration in their health and are able to adapt to it. Similarly, most older adults identify positive mental health in conjunction with their physical health. Brain Functioning Research has demonstrated that the brain loses 5% to 10% of its weight between 20 and 90 years of age (Fjell & Walhovd, 2010). This decrease in brain volume appears to be due to the shrinkage of neurons, lower number of synapses, and shorter length of axons. Without myelin, neurons demonstrate slower conduction and impede each other’s actions. A loss of synapses occurs in specific brain areas, including the hippocampus (involved in memory) and the basal forebrain region. Older individuals also activate larger regions of their attentional and executive networks, located in the parietal and prefrontal cortex, when they perform complex tasks. This increased activation correlates with a reduced performance on both executive tasks and tests of working memory when compared to those younger (Kolb & Whishaw, 2011). Approximately 2000 neural progenitor cells and 150, 000 developing neurons were found per brain, although the number of developing neurons was lower in people with cognitive impairments or Alzheimer’s disease. The brain in late adulthood also exhibits considerable plasticity, and through practice and training, the brain can be modified to compensate for any age-related changes (Erber & Szuchman, 2015). Park and Reuter-Lorenz (2009) proposed the Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition which states that the brain adapts to neural atrophy (dying of brain cells) by building alternative connections, referred to as scaffolding. Brain compensation is especially noted in the additional neural effort demonstrated by those individuals who are aging well. For example, older adults who performed just as well as younger adults on a memory task used both prefrontal areas, while only the right prefrontal cortex was used in younger participants (Cabeza, Anderson, Locantore, & McIntosh, 2002). Consequently, this decrease in brain lateralization appears to assist older adults with their cognitive skills. Healthy Brain Functioning: Cheng (2016) found that physical activity and stimulating cognitive activity resulted in Figure 9. Physical activity, especially aerobic Functioning exercise, is associated with less age-related gray and white matter loss, as well and diminished neurotoxins in the brain. Cognitive training improves the efficiency of the prefrontal cortex and executive functions, such as working memory, and strengthens the plasticity of neural circuits. Both activities support cognitive reserve, or “the structural and dynamic capacities of the brain that buffer against atrophies and lesions” (p. Although it is optimal to begin physical and cognitive activities earlier in life, it is not too late to start these programs in late adulthood to improve one’s cognitive health. These racially diverse participants received 10 group training sessions and 4 follow up sessions to work on tasks of memory, reasoning, and speed of processing. Many of the participants believed that this improvement could be 395 seen in everyday tasks as well (Tennstedt et al. However, programs for the elderly on memory, reading, and processing speed training demonstrate that there is improvement on the specific tasks trained, but there is no generalization to other abilities (Jarrett, 2015). Further, these programs have not been shown to delay or slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Although these programs are not harmful, “physical exercise, learning new skills, and socializing remain the most effective ways to train your brain” (p. These activities appear to build a reserve to minimize the effects of primary aging of the brain. Parkinson’s disease is characterized by motor tremors, loss of balance, poor coordination, rigidity, and difficulty moving (Garrett, 2015). Parkinson’s affects approximately 1% of those over the age of 60, and it appears more frequently in family members in a little less than 10% of cases. Twenty-eight chromosomal areas have been implicated in Parkinson’s disease, but environmental factors have also been identified and include brain injury. Being knocked unconscious once increases the risk by 32% and being knocked out several times increases the risk by 174% (Garrett, 2015). Other environmental influences include toxins, industrial chemicals, carbon monoxide, herbicides and pesticides (Olanow & Tatton, 1999). The symptoms are due to the deterioration of the substantia nigra, an area in the midbrain whose neurons send dopamine-releasing axons to the basal ganglia which affects motor activity. Treatment typically includes the medication levodopa (L-dopa), which crosses the blood-brain barrier and is converted into dopamine in the brain. Deep brain stimulation, which involves inserting an electrode into the brain that provides electrical stimulation, has resulted in improved motor functioning (Garrett, 2015). Sleep Similar to other adults, older adults need between 7 to 9 hours of sleep per night, but they tend to go to sleep earlier and get up earlier than those younger. This pattern is called advanced sleep phase syndrome and is based on changes in circadian rhythms (National Sleep Foundation, 2009). There are many reasons why older people may have insomnia, including certain medications, being in pain, having a medical or psychiatric condition, and even worrying before bedtime about not being able to sleep. Using over the counter sleep aids or medication may only work when used for a short time. Sleep apnea refers to repeated short pauses in breathing, while an individual sleeps, that can lead to reduced oxygen in the blood. Untreated sleep apnea can lead to impaired daytime functioning, high blood pressure, headaches, stroke, and memory loss. Restless legs syndrome feels like there is tingling, crawling, or pins and needles in one or both legs, and this feeling is worse at night. Periodic limb movement disorder causes people to jerk and kick their legs every 20 to 40 seconds during sleep. Individuals may wake up many times during the night, wander when up, and yell which can alter the amount of time they sleep. Both minor and major sleep problems in older adults can lead to increased risk of accidents, falls, chronic fatigue, decreased quality of life, cognitive decline, reduced immune function, and depression (Buman, 2013). Results show that 150 minutes per week of exercise can improve sleep quality (Buman, 2013). This amount of exercise is also recommended to improve other health areas including lowering the risk for heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. For those who live in assisted living facilities even light exercise, such as stretching and short walks, can improve sleep. Overall, the effects of exercise on sleep may actually be even larger for Source older adults since their sleep quality may not be ideal to start. Sexuality According to Kane (2008), older men and women are often viewed as genderless and asexual. These ageist myths can become internalized, and older people have a more difficult time accepting their sexuality (Gosney, 2011). Additionally, some older women indicate that they no longer worry about sexual concerns anymore once they are past the child bearing years. In reality, many older couples find greater satisfaction in their sex life than they did when they were younger. Results from the National Social Life Health, and Aging Project indicated that 72% of men and 45. Additionally, the National Survey of Sexual Health data indicated that 20%-30% of individuals remain sexually active well into their 80s (Schick et al. However, there are issues that occur in older adults that can adversely affect their enjoyment of healthy sexual relationships. Hormonal changes, physical disabilities, surgeries, and medicines can also affect a senior’s ability to participate in and enjoy sex. For example, a woman who is unhappy about her appearance as she ages may think her partner will no longer find her attractive. A focus on youthful physical beauty for women may get in the way of her enjoyment of sex. If there is a decline in sexual activity for a heterosexual couple, it is typically due to a decline in the male’s physical health (Erber & Szuchman, 2015).
Physiology of the skeletal muscle contraction system and the neuromuscular junction iv mental health kingston ny buy genuine mellaril on-line. Skeletal muscle actions – origin mental disorders questions discount 10mg mellaril with mastercard, insertion mental health diseases cheap mellaril 10mg with amex, interactions of different muscles vi mental disorders hereditary cheap mellaril online visa. Location and identifcation rare mental conditions buy 100mg mellaril overnight delivery, including origin, insertion, and function, of the major skeletal muscles of the body listed on the 2020 Science Olympiad Major Skeletal Muscle List vii. Exercise and aging effects on the cellular and gross anatomical structures of the muscular system viii. National Tournament Only: (1) Kinds of muscle contraction (2) Classes of muscle fbers and their functions (3) Cardiac and smooth muscle roles in the body (4) Role of the nervous system in muscle function (5) Muscle sensory systems. Each team may bring one of the following options containing information in any form and from any source: i. If three ring binders are used they may be of any size and the information contained should be attached using the available rings. Each team may bring two stand-alone calculators of any type to use during the event. If the participants are using a computer/tablet they may use the calculator app or other program on their device in place of a stand-alone calculator. Participants using computers/tablets as a resource should have all information stored so that it is available to them offine. Use Kepler’s laws, rotation and circular motion to answer questions relating to the orbital motions of galaxies; use the distance modulus, Type Ia supernovas, Hubble’s law and redshift to answer questions about Hubble’s constant and the recessional velocities of and distances to galaxies. Identify and answer questions relating to the content areas outlined above for the following objects: i. Each team is allowed to enter only one Boomilever, built prior to the competition. Participants without proper eye protection must be immediately informed and given a chance to obtain eye protection if time allows. Participants without proper eye protection will not be allowed to compete and be placed in Tier 3. The Event Supervisor will provide the TestApparatus (see Section 5) and tools/materials for measurement. The Boomilever must be a single structure with no separate or detachable pieces, constructed of wood, and bonded by adhesive. Wood is defned as the hard, fbrous substance making up the greater part of the stems, branches, trunks, and roots of trees beneath the bark. Wood may never be painted, color enhanced, or have tape/ preprinted/paper labels affxed. Adhesive is a substance used to join two or more materials together and may be used only for this purpose. Before and throughout loading, no portion of the Boomilever may touch the Testing Wall between the Contact Width Lines (5. Participants must be able to answer questions regarding the design, construction, and operation of the device per the Building Policy found on The team must place their Boomilever on the scale so the Event Supervisor can determine the mass, in grams to the nearest 0. No alterations, substitutions, or repairs may be made to the Boomilever after the check-in process has started. Once participants enter the event area to compete, they must not leave or receive outside assistance, materials, or communication until they are fnished competing. Participants will have 6 minutes to setup and test their Boomilever to maximum load or failure. The participants must place the Boomilever on the Testing Wall and assemble the Loading Assembly as required to load the Boomilever. If necessary, participants may disassemble & reassemble the Loading Assembly but must not adjust the Mounting Hook. The bucket must be mounted to allow enough clearance above the foor for the bucket to tilt or the Boomilever to defect. The participants will be allowed to adjust the Boomilever until they start loading sand. Prior to loading, the Event Supervisor will verify that the Boomilever is placed properly: i. No portion of the Boomilever touches the Testing Wall between the Contact Width Lines (5. Participants will load the sand into the bucket and be allowed to safely and effectively stabilize the bucket from movement caused by sand loading. The bucket may only be stabilized by using the tips of the provided Bucket Stabilizing Sticks (5. Loading stops immediately when the Boomilever touches the Testing Wall between the Contact Width Lines (5. Failure is defned as the inability of the Boomilever to carry any additional load, or if any part of the load is supported by anything other than the Boomilever. The Load Supported (mass of the Loading Assembly and the sand in the bucket) will be recorded to the nearest gram or best precision available. The Event Supervisor will review with the team the data recorded on their scoresheet. Teams who wish to fle an appeal must leave their Boomilever with the Event Supervisor. Constructed of ” grade plywood or other suitable material, with a smooth, hard, low friction surface that does not bend when loaded. The Mounting Hook must be a 4” steel J-bolt made of ” nominal round stock, have a 5/8” nominal inside hook diameter with a threaded ” mounting end [e. The Mounting Hook must be attached to the Testing Wall by the Event Supervisor with the “opening” up and installed to allow 2. The Hook must be secured in place with a hex nut and fat washer on the front side and a wing nut and fat washer on the back side of the Testing Wall. The horizontal and vertical centerlines of the hole must be marked on the face of the Testing Wall. It must be drawn 20 cm for Division B or 15 cm for Division C below the center of the hole for the Mounting Hook. A square Loading Block measuring 5 cm x 5 cm x approximately 2 cm high with a hole no larger than 8 mm drilled in the center of the 5 cm x 5 cm faces for a ” threaded eyebolt ii. An approximately fve-gallon plastic bucket with handle and hook to be suspended from the chain v. Two (2) Bucket Stabilizing Sticks each made from a piece of ” dowel approximately 18 inches long with a spring-type door stop screwed into one end. Tier 1: Holding any load and meeting all construction parameters and competition requirements ii. Tier 2: Holding any load with any violations of the construction parameters and/or competition requirements iii. Estimated Load Supported closest to, without exceeding, the actual Load Supported ii. Teams not bringing these items will be at a disadvantage, as they are not provided. Participants must wear goggles, an apron or a lab coat and have skin covered from the neck down to the wrist and toes. Gloves are optional, but if the host requires a specifc type they will notify teams. Participants removing safety clothing/goggles or unsafely handling materials or equipment will be penalized or disqualifed. Supervisors will provide any required reagents, additional glassware, and/or references that are needed for the tasks. The competition will consist of a series of tasks similar to those in frst year high school courses. These tasks could include hands-on activities, questions on listed topics, interpretation of data. Teams may be asked to collect data using a probeware set-up demonstrated by the Supervisor(s). Following a demonstration of the sensors/probes, participants may be given data sets to interpret. Nomenclature, formula writing, & stoichiometry (mole conversions & percentage yield) are essential tools of chemistry & may be included in the event. Participants are expected to know the symbols & charges for: nitrate, carbonate, phosphate, acetate, sulfate, ammonium, bicarbonate, & hydroxide. Participants should know how to use the “ite” form of anion (one less oxygen than the “ate” form). With a periodic table, participants should be able to obtain charges for monatomic ions. Acid & Base reactions will be limited to metals, carbonates, bicarbonates, sulftes, bisulftes, oxides, & neutralizations iii. Identify the pH indicator that should be used to monitor the pH change in a given experiment. Time may be limited at each task but will not be used as a tiebreaker or for scoring. Each team may bring one three-ring binder of any size containing information in any form and from any source attached using the available rings. Event Supervisors must provide any material & measurement devices required for the hands-on tasks. Participants may bring their own basic multimeters for use in place of provided ones at the discretion of the Event Supervisor. The written test consisting of multiple choice, true-false, completion, or calculation questions/problems will assess the team’s knowledge of electricity and magnetism. Unless otherwise requested, answers must be in metric units with appropriate signifcant fgures. The test will consist of at least one question from each of the following areas: i. Historical perspective of the electricity discoveries made by Ampere, Coulomb, Kirchhoff, Volta, Ohm, Tesla, & Faraday ii. Properties of electric charges/felds, sources/hazards of static electricity, Coulomb’s Law, capacitance iii. Concepts and units of current, voltage, resistance, power, energy, and using Ohm’s law vi. Magnetic poles/felds, electromagnets, transformers, motors/generators, right-hand rule vii. Simple calculations, constructions, and confgurations of a circuit and individual components ix. The hands-on portion will consist of at least one task at a station(s) for the teams to complete. Participants must be familiar with the operation of breadboards and how to use them. Determine the value of a mystery resistor in a circuit using only voltage measurements. Points will be awarded for correct answers, measurements, calculations, and data analysis.
Washing facilities Wherever chemicals are handled mental treatment vertigo buy discount mellaril 50 mg on line, adequate washing facilities are required conveniently situated with respect to mental health nurse buy mellaril uk the workplace mental health tier 0 cheap 25mg mellaril free shipping. These comprise wash-basins or troughs with a constant supply of hot and cold or warm water; soap or liquid hand cleanser; clean towels or hot-air driers or disposable paper towels mental disorders diagnosis codes discount 10mg mellaril amex. Facilities for rest and food Rest facilities should be provided in readily accessible places disorders of brain yo mellaril 100mg visa. To avoid contamination of food, or accidental ingestion of chemicals, these should include facilities to eat meals in a separate location. Medical screening the medical background of workers must be considered for work involving certain chemicals. Techniques include environmental and/or biological monitoring, health surveillance, safety audits, safety inspections, and procedures for accident reporting, investigation and analysis. Training Education, training and supervision are essential for the safe handling of chemicals. Training requirements vary according to position within the organization, and hence responsibility. Topics should embrace a knowledge of the hazards and precautions, including the use and maintenance of protective devices including personal protection, under both normal and abnormal operating conditions including emergencies. Mixtures of chemicals, such as formulated products, are usually termed ‘preparations’ which constitute 95% of commercially-available dangerous chemicals. Manufacturers, suppliers and importers of all chemicals have a legal obligation to ensure that their products are fit for use, properly packed, labelled and transported, and to provide the user with information on the hazards and precautions to ensure they can be used safely and without harm to the environment. These are applicable to any substance dangerous for supply excluding specific categories. Classification If a chemical is hazardous it is first classified into an appropriate category of danger to assist in the provision of the correct information and packaging. If a chemical is not in one of these categories it is not generally considered to be dangerous. If the hazards of a new chemical have not been established it should be labelled ‘Caution – substance not yet fully tested’. Mixtures can be classified either from results from tests on the preparation, or by calculation to predict the health effects of the product based on the properties of individual components and their concentration in the mixture. Preparations need to be classified for both physico-chemical and health effects but, to date, not for environmental effects. The Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road Regulations Covers the mode of dispatch of dangerous goods by road 1996 including bulk and tanker transport; suitability of containers and vehicles; examination and testing; information requirements; loading and unloading; procedures for emergencies and parking; exemptions. The Carriage of Dangerous Goods (Classification, Governs the classification of dangerous goods; consignment Packaging and Labelling) and Use of Transportable in packages and their markings/labelling; the design, Pressure Receptacles Regulations 1996 manufacture, modification and repair of transportable pressure receptacles and their approval and certification, marking and filling; the role of approved persons and the need for records. The Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (Driver Addresses the instruction, training and certification of drivers Training) Regulations 1996 of road vehicles used for the carriage of dangerous goods. The Carriage of Explosives by Road Regulations 1996 Scope includes mode of transport in both passenger vehicles and bulk carriage; suitability of vehicle and container; approval; quantity limits; mixed loads; information and documentation; safety and security during carriage; equipment; precautions against fire and explosion and in the event of accidents and emergencies; age limits for those engaged in the carriage. The Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail Regulations Governs the transport of dangerous goods by rail in small 1996 containers, large containers, tanks and wagons. Covers classification of dangerous goods; suitability, examination and testing of container; information including labelling. Also included is training and instruction; loading and unloading; marshalling; prohibition of overfilling, mixed loads and temperature-controlled substances; security and emergency procedures and special requirements for carriage of explosives. The Packaging, Labelling and Carriage of Radioactive Covers package design, approval, test procedures, notification Materials by Rail Regulations 1996 of consignment, information requirements (for package and transport container). Act 1974 to Environmentally Hazardous Substances) Regulations to include environmentally-hazardous substances including 1996 as amended transportation of such dangerous goods and the control of volatile organic carbon emissions from storage and distribution of petrol. The Ionizing Radiations Regulations 1999 Apply to all work activities with radioactive materials, including transport. The main provisions relevant to transport are those relating to driver training and the need, under some circumstances, to prepare contingency plans for emergencies and enforced stoppages. Checks which may be required if reliance is placed on classification by a manufacturer are: • reference to the Approved Supply List; • use of experience about the reliability and experience of the supplier; • use of common sense and experience; • comparison with similar substances or preparations; • comparison with any classification for carriage; • enquiries with the supplier or other competent persons; • checking with information in reference textbooks. Packaging A hazardous chemical must be supplied/conveyed in a package (drum, keg, cylinder, bottle, etc. In particular: • the receptacle and any associated packaging must be designed, constructed, maintained and closed so as to prevent the escape of any of the contents of the receptacle when subjected to the stresses and strains of normal handling. Basic precautions with an aerosol dispenser are: • Assume that the aerosol contains a liquid of flammability equivalent to that of petrol and treat it as such. Labelling If a dangerous chemical is supplied in a package then the package must be labelled. Clearly this is not practical if the chemical is delivered in bulk or via a pipeline. The elements of a label are: • Full name and address and phone number of supplier. Requirements for labelling of containers for supply may differ from those for conveyance. Key features of a supply label are to identify the substance (the chemical name in most cases) and any hazards and safety precautions. A substance is considered dangerous if in Part 1A of an approved list or if it exhibits hazardous properties as defined in Schedule 1 for supply, or Schedule 2 for conveyance as shown in Tables 14. Substances not tested should be labelled ‘Caution – substance not yet fully tested’. Under the scheme, explosives are labelled according to a classification based on hazard division (Table 14. Labels are diamond shaped: the top half is reserved for the pictograph and division number, the bottom half shows the hazard code and the classification number. Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition 4. Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray (appropriate wording to be specified by manufacturer) 24. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice 27. During fumigation/spraying wear suitable respiratory equipment (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturers) 43. In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible) 46. Dispose of this material and its container to hazardous or special waste collection point 57. If swallowed, do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label 63. In case of accident by inhalation: remove casualty to fresh air and keep at rest 64. If swallowed, rinse mouth with water (only if the person is conscious) Examples of combination of safety precautions 1/2 Keep locked up and out of the reach of children 3/9/14 Keep in a cool well-ventilated place away from [incompatible materials to be indicated by manufacturer] 3/9/14/49 Keep only in the original container in a cool well-ventilated place away from [incompatible materials to be indicated by manufacturer] 3/9/49 Keep only in the original container in a cool well-ventilated place 3/14 Keep in a cool place away from [incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer] 7/8 Keep container tightly closed and dry 7/9 Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place 7/47 Keep container tightly closed and at a temperature not exceeding [ ]oC [to be specified by manufacturer] 20/21 When using do not eat, drink or smoke 24/25 Avoid contact with skin and eyes 29/56 Do not empty into drains, dispose of this material and its container to hazardous or special waste collection point 36/37 Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves 37/38/39 Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection 36/39 Wear suitable protective clothing and eye/face protection 37/39 Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection 47/49 Keep only in the original container at temperature not exceeding [ ]oC [to be specified by manufacturer] Information Suppliers must also provide the customer with more detailed information on the hazards and safety precautions of their products. If the chemicals are to be used in connection with work this is usually in a Material Safety Data Sheet. Many countries operate mandatory premanufacturing and premarketing notification schemes of which safety testing is the cornerstone. A substance which gives rise to highly exothermic reaction when in Oxidizing contact with other substances, particularly flammable substances. Extremely flammable(1) A substance which Highly flammable(1) (a) may become hot and finally catch fire in contact with air at ambient temperature without any application of energy; (b) is a solid and may readily catch fire after brief contact with a source of ignition and which continues to burn or to be consumed after removal of the source of ignition; (c) is gaseous and flammable in air at normal pressure; (d) in contact with water or damp air, evolves highly flammable gases in dangerous quantities; or (e) is a liquid having a flash point <21°C. A substance which is a liquid having a flash point 21°C and Flammable(1) No symbol required 55°C, except a liquid which when tested at 55°C in the manner described in Schedule 2 to the Highly Flammable Liquids and Liquefied Petroleum Gases Regulations 1972 does not support combustion. A substance which if it is inhaled or ingested or it penetrates the Very toxic(2) skin, may involve extremely serious acute or chronic health risks and even death. A substance which if it is inhaled or ingested or it penetrates the Toxic(2) skin, may involve serious acute or chronic health risks and even death. A substance which if it is inhaled or ingested or it penetrates the Harmful(2) skin, may involve limited health risks. Corrosive A non-corrosive substance which, through immediate, prolonged or Irritant repeated contact with the skin or mucous membrane, can cause inflammation. A substance which has a critical temperature <50° Toxic g as or which at 50°C has a vapour pressure of more than 3 bar absolute and which is toxic. A solid which is readily combustible under Flammable solid conditions encountered in conveyance by road or which may cause or contribute to fire through friction. The aim of the notification systems is to identify possible risks posed to people and the environment from placing new substances on the market. The notification dossier may also contain a risk assessment prepared by the notifier. The thresholds for notification and a summary of the information requirements are given in Table 14. Comprehensive labelling and identification procedures, and information supply, covered in Chapter 14, aim to avoid any confusion over the nature of the chemical and recommended handling, storage and emergency procedures. However, different parties have to oversee, and take responsibility for, the chemical at different stages during its movement between sites. Moreover, third parties can be prone to injury, and property or the environment can be subjected to damage, if loss of containment occurs. In addition to general transport legislation numerous statutory provisions govern the carriage of hazardous substances by air, road, rail and sea. These tend to address the need for: • documentation; • suitability of container, examination, testing and certification of tanks; • classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous goods; • carriage information; • duties of consignors, operators, drivers, etc. It is the duty of all those engaged in the transportation of hazardous chemicals to identify the relevant legislation and to comply with all appropriate detailed requirements. In addition to local legislation and guidance, the transportation of chemicals by air, rail, road and sea is the subject of international conventions. This chapter provides an insight into general principles associated with the transportation of hazardous substances; reference is made to selected regulations for illustrative purposes. Road transport Dangerous substances Typical division of responsibilities in a road transport operation are shown in Figure 15. Producers transporting their own products need to establish a system to ensure that all necessary information and instructions are provided for safe handling under all foreseeable conditions. This will require: • the enforcement of codes of practice, working procedures and general instructions incorporating all possible safety factors. These need to comply with all statutory legislation relevant to the specific chemical. The vehicles must be of the correct design and construction for the load carried and be maintained in sound condition. Various regulations, codes of practice and guidelines cover the labelling of containers and vehicles to identify the substances and their hazards in an emergency. Dangerous substances are defined as those named in an approved list or falling into the classifications in a schedule. Except for a slightly different definition for ‘other dangerous substances’ and ‘multi-load’, the latter classification is similar to that in Table 14. A check-list of selected operator duties (excluding duties in relation to the unloading of petroleum spirit, covered by Schedule 4) arising where appropriate under these regulations is given in Table 15.
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