By: Edward T. F. Wei PhD
However medications 8 rights discount topamax 200mg with amex, despite loss of potency medicine logo cheap topamax 200 mg line, storage over 7-30 days poses potential problems with sterility as neither the product nor the saline is preserved medicine 4h2 purchase 100mg topamax free shipping. Below is a table recommended by Allergan for dilution purposes: Diluent Added Resulting dose in Units per 0 symptoms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis buy cheap topamax line. However treatment brown recluse bite buy topamax 100mg free shipping, we have found that these large dilutions result in paralysis of unacceptably short duration. There is an area of denervation associated with each point of injection due to toxin spread of about 2. While many feel this could be due to large doses and/or increased frequency of injections, others do not support this position. Allergan report the incidence only of 1-2% of treated patient’s resistance (neutralizing antibodies). They could not unequivocally say this was due to the size or frequency of injection. The new batch has 20% less protein than the old batch (5 ng vs 25 ng), which they feels greatly reduces the possibility of the development of neutralizing antibodies. Injection Procedure the frown is not a single corrugator muscle movement but a muscle mass movement of corrugator supercilliari, procerus and obicularis oculi. If a patient has redundant skin, again, be careful because the skin can end up folding over the zygomatic arch, producing an undesirable cosmetic effect. Eccymoses are common when treating periorbital wrinkles, so ice compresses are advised after each side is treated. Immediately after treatment, movement of the treated muscles is encouraged so the toxin is taken up by the involved neural end plates. Remember that the brow shape can be changed because you are eliminating the major muscles responsible for elevating the brow. Injections in the forehead should be above the lowest fold produced when the patient is asked to elevate their forehead (frontalis). If the patient has a low eyebrow, treatment of the forehead lines should be avoided, or limited to that portion of the forehead 4. There appears when treating sympathetic endplates such as hyperhidrosis to be a greater longevity of response than when treating those endplates with facial movement. Collagen therapy is never given simultaneously because of fear of uncontrolled migration of the toxin. In some older patients and in some male patients, redundant skin can be created under the brow (pseudoptosis), so such patients should be approached with caution. Glycolic acid is a natural ingredient that is derived from sugar cane and is a substance known as alpha hydroxy acid. For example, citric acid from citrus fruits, malic acid from apples, tartaric acid from grapes and lactic acid from sour milk. The most promising fruit acid for ageing and acne is glycolic acid because it has the smallest molecular size and therefore has a greater ability to be absorbed and utilised by the skin. When we look at ageing skin, whether it is just beginning to be noticeable or ageing as it appears in mature skin, we visually perceive the result of sun damage that has manifested itself in a courser, thickened texture, enlarged pores, fine lines, deeper wrinkles and loss of underlying tissue tone and elasticity. Whether the changes are subtle or very noticeable, the cause is related to the gradual but increasing slowdown in the rate at which old cells leave the surface of the skin (stratum corneum) and are replaced by newer, younger cells. In addition, the underlying structure suffers from the sun’s destruction of collagen and elastin resulting in distortions of the skin surface that we commonly refer to as wrinkles. F irst, glycolic acid loosens or dissolves glue-like substances that hold the outer layer of cells to each other and to the underlying epidermis (these thick, piled up, clinging cells are responsible for the appearance of dry skin, rough skin, scaly skin and brown age spots or brown sun damage spots). When the glue is loosened, the thick stratum corneum is sloughed away and the skin has a much smoother texture, refined pores and appears healthier, moist and more vibrant. S ec ond ly,glyc olic ac id is known to affect deeper levels of the skin by regenerating collagen and elastin. Clinical studies show a disappearance of fine lines and significant reduction of courser, deeper wrinkles. And thereis another equally importantbenefit: glycolic acid is proving to be more effective in removing brown sun spots or age spots than many of the other treatments currently being used. Simply put, the same glue-like substance on the outer layer of the skin causes the cells in the follicle to stick together and plug the follicle instead of being expelled to the surface of the skin. When glycolic acid is used it also loosens the corneocytes (dead cells) in the follicle so that the follicle can clear. As the follicle clears, glycolic acid will also work to prevent a re-occurrence of the condition. Glycolic acid does not make the skin more sun sensitive nor does it have the side effects associated with Retin-A usage. The key to the effectiveness of glycolic acid is how it is formulated and its ability to penetrate upon application. There are a number of preparations available for home use ranging from cleansers to treatment creams, gels and masks. These products can be integrated into existing skin care programs or used as a complete programme for maximum results (depending on skin type and condition). Bestresults areobtained by weekly application of a Salon Peel containing higher percentages of glycolic for six to ten weeks, in conjunction with daily application of glycolic acid home care. Sensitivities vary and results and side effects run from ultra mild stinging to redness mild flaking and peeling, all temporary, that last a few days at the most. But, because of its random molecular motion, its good effects on the skin are often hit and miss. And when a glycolic acid molecule misses its mark, it will sometimes cause problems: hyper pigmentation, hypo-pigmentation, blisters, rashes and breakouts. To be more precise in its effect on the skin, researchers have been able to link glycolic acid molecules into stands to penetrate the skin along the lines of propagation of the skin’s natural polymers elastin and collagen. This new molecule, a glycolic polymer, once it is oriented to the skin’s natural polymers, breaks into its individual molecular units and interacts more precisely with the skin’s support structures. We have reviewed your medical history and discussed the following areas: x Allergies x Viral infections x Medications used x Sun sensitivity x Collagen disease/auto-immune disease x History of atrophic skin reactions: eczema, sebhorrheic dermatitis If there is any additional information in these areas that has not been discussed, please contact on of the doctors prior to your peel. As a reminder, if you do have a history of herpes simplex, you should be on preventative medication. The peel procedure can induce an episode of herpes lesions in patients who have had them previously. If you follow your doctor’s advice and directions the risk of complications in this procedure is small. Anything that you do against doctor’s advice increases the chances of your having complications. It will be your responsibility to follow this advice since you will be caring for your skin at home. These include: x inflamed acne lesions 67 x open cuts and/or scratches on your face x active cold sores on lips or face any facial surgery within 3 weeks, including “face lift” or eyelid surgery In addition, if you are under severe physical or mental stress it is not a good time for a peel. It is important that you can devote all of your energies to your peel and are not distracted by other physical or mental needs. It is extremely important that you do not pick, scratch, pull or rub your skin during your peel. If you do, you may damage the underlying new skin and cause changes in your pigmentation or scarring. The doctor may elect not to do any further peels on you if he feels you will not follow his instructions exactly. The motto in this office is “if you are not sure if you should do something or don’t understand the directions, always call the office before you do anything!!!!! Lather the soap in your hands and gently pat the soap on your face, then splash lukewarm water unto your face to rinse off the soap. If hydrogen peroxide is too irritating and stings, you may dilute it even more with clean water. You should use the ointment as often as necessary to keep your skin from getting dry and cracked. Do not let your skin dry out, it will pull on the new tissue underneath and may cause red, irritated areas. Don’t worry if all of the ointment doesn’t come off when you wash your face, it won’t harm you to leave some on your face. If you must wash your hair, wash it with your head tilted backward in the shower, or in the sink. Do not wet your face in the shower, too much water will cause you to peel prematurely and leave you with red, sore areas that my lead to scarring or need to be treated again. If large pieces of skin are hanging from your face, they may be cut off carefully with a pair of blunt-nosed scissors. If you feel you have to do some exercise, you may go out for a walk in the early morning or late evening when the sun is barely out. The longer you can keep this natural bandage in place, the better results your peel will have. In extreme cases, your eyes may swell almost closed during the first two mornings. However, sleeping with an extra pillow to elevate your head may help to decrease your swelling. You need to use it even if you are wearing a hat, since the reflected rays may also cause damage. This is especially important if you feel you may be developing a cold sore on your lip. You need to use your daily healing cream throughout the peel, in the morning and evening. Do not use the cleaning or moisturiser routines as excuses to speed up peeling of your skin, it will only increase your risk of complications. This is a temporary condition which resolves after the peel has healed completely. It is a very safe, superficial peel and is the peel of choice for those who want the benefits of a fruit acid treatment, but would also like to see some flaking of the treated skin. Patients who would prefer to avoid flaking are recommended to have a series of glycolic treatments. The Jessner‘s peel is suitable for those who want to freshen their complexion, restore lustre, reduce pigmentation, and improve acne blemishes and blackheads. It is possibly better than glycolic treatments for those with pigmentation problems. For maximum benefit, it is recommended that you prepare your skin by using a product containing glycolic acid for two weeks prior to your peel. This preparation of the skin removes the first layers of dead skin cells, thus enabling the peel solution to penetrate more effectively, and is particularly important for patients with pigmentation problems. The most appropriate pre-peel products for you will be recommended by our medical aesthetician at your initial consultation. Our aesthetician will ask you how many days you wish to take for peeling and will adjust your peel to fit into this time frame as closely as possible. Even the lightest Jessner’s peel will make the skin shinny and tight for a few days, though this can be camouflaged with make-up. In addition, some patients experience red or brown streaking which disappears once the peeling is complete and is not cause for concern. Slight tingling or stinging may be experienced and you will find the cold air fan quite soothing.
Contouring the temple area: Temple contour is a traditional step that is as basic as applying blush treatment hypothyroidism purchase topamax online now. Take a look at the cover of any fashion magazine or ad for designer clothes medicine everyday therapy buy topamax paypal, and you will notice this contour ing on most of the models symptoms xxy safe 100 mg topamax. When temple contour is neatly applied symptoms 0f low sodium order generic topamax line, the eyeshadows at the back of the eye can be blended into it so they don’t end abruptly with a harsh edge of color 4 medications at target generic 100mg topamax free shipping. Without temple contour, the forehead becomes a great bare wall against the colored background of the cheeks and eyes. The temple contour is placed next to the back third of the eye near the brow bone, directly out and up onto the forehead like a pie wedge, but without the edges. Temple contour can be applied either before or after the eye-makeup design is in place. If you do the contour frst, apply it in the exact same place and in the same way, but when you apply the eyeshadows, blend them directly over and onto the temple contour. When temple contour looks wrong or unnatural, it’s usually for one of three reasons: 1. Forgetting that this step begins at the back third of the under-eyebrow area, right on top of and over the back third of the entire eye area. Not brushing the contour directly over the eyebrow itself, which can make the ap plication look choppy instead of smooth and even (you should apply the eyebrow color after the temple contour). Applying the color in a straight, one-inch strip next to the eye instead of in a softly blended, two-inch pie wedge that is partially blended onto the forehead. Temple contour is a shaded area, like the blush area, and it should never look like a stripe. Do not use contour under the jaw or at the chin area during the day; it can look too obvious and possibly get on clothing. Do not apply contour as part of your regular makeup routine until you get used to blending it on softly; it should never look like stripes or brown lines on the face. Do not forget to blend hard edges; contour should always look soft and as natural as possible on the face. Blu S h Knowing how to choose a great blush color and applying it correctly are essential to successful makeup application. Blush adds life and a hint of healthy color to the face and its importance should not be overlooked when you’re deciding how to go about doing your makeup. Blush is one of the more prominent parts of any makeup routine, so if you do make a mistake—such as applying it too close to the lines around the eye, applying it like a stripe of color across the cheek, applying the wrong color, or applying it underneath the cheek bones as if it were contour—it is very noticeable. There are many opinions on where it should start, where it should end, and how high or low to place it along the cheekbone. Some women start the blush no farther into the center of the face than the center of the eye. Application: To fnd the area to be blushed, place the full end of your brush about one quarter to one-half inch behind the laugh line. Starting here, brush downward and back toward the center of your ear, being careful not to place any color below the level of the mouth. Applying your blush by brushing down as opposed to back and forth eliminates a stripe effect. The only possible negative for powder blushes is due to powder’s naturally drier texture, making it sometimes appear to sit on top of the surface of the skin, although this effect is usually short-lived. It can be eliminated altogether by choosing a silky-smooth, perfectly soft powder blush. Liquid, gel, cream, and cream-to-powder or stick blushes: these are not my favorites and I recommend considering these carefully. The only real advantage they have over powder blushes is that they tend to mesh better with the skin, which on some women can look more natural—as if it were a glow from within. Yet in spite of this minor positive point, liquid, gel, and cream-type blushes don’t perform reliably for most skin types. They can be very awkward to blend evenly, and many tend to streak whether you use your fngers or a sponge. Liquid and gel blushes can also stain the pores, making the face look dotted with color, and they don’t work well over foundation—the foundation gets wiped off as you apply the blush. Still, if you have near-fawless, smooth skin (no dryness and not oily), no visible pores, and have a deft touch at blending, you are a candidate for liquid, gel, or cream blush. It does help that many of today’s cream blushes are silicone-based, which allows a clean, smooth application and a soft powder fnish. Just don’t buy anything until you check it out in the daylight and see how it wears during the day. A sponge is my frst choice, but some women do fne using their fngers, or even a synthetic brush. Use whatever works best for you and always double-check to make sure there are no hard edges to soften. Gel blushes can be the hardest to blend evenly, so you may want to start with cream or cream-to-powder formulas. Then, using your sponge, blend until you meld the colors together into an attractive design. When done properly, blush and contour add color, depth, and dimension to a face—and that’s always attractive. Choosing a Blush Color In the long run the color that looks best and most natural to your skin tone is the best place to start. Think of the color your cheeks turn when you’ve exercised and consider that as a starting point (but not necessarily the defnitive color your blush should be). An option to consider when choosing blush color is to go neutral; a soft golden brown or tannish-looking color is a great foolproof choice for many skin tones. Whatever option you choose, be sure your lipstick colors match the underlying tone of your blush. In other words, if you are wearing a blush with a blue undertone, the lipstick should be in that same color family; rose blush means rose lipstick; coral blush coordinates with coral or coral/tan lipstick, though a soft-tan looking blush works with almost any color of lipstick. You absolutely do not want to wear pink blush and coral lipstick or mauve blush with orange lipstick. The point is for lipstick and blush colors to work together and not look like opposite, clashing ends of a rainbow. Your blush color does not need to match your clothing, shoes, or any other accessories, although if you wear vivid clothing colors (fuchsia, turquoise, royal blue) your blush should ideally be in the same tonal family as your clothing to prevent an overly contrasting look. Blush and lipstick colors should never clash; they should either complement each other or be in the same color family. Never put blush close to or on the lines around the eye; it makes them look more evident, and if you are using a pink, peach, or coral shade of blush, the eye area can also look red and irritated. Do not apply blush below the mouth or the laugh lines; blush is for the cheek bones only. Do not blush your nose, forehead, hairline, or chin; it can make the face look overly pink or red, or made-up. It may look great in professional photographs, but can look blotchy and uneven in daylight. Blush should always be well blended, with no visible edges where the blush starts and stops. Luckily, it’s not complicated: If you’re wearing makeup, your lips need lipstick—not lip gloss, but lipstick. Lip gloss provides a sheer, temporary look that can be great, but it doesn’t go with a full or classic makeup look. Lipstick (cream, matte, or semi-matte lipstick) provides a polished and put-together look that can last at least until your second cup of coffee. If your lips are naked while your eyes and cheeks are made up, you will look like you forgot you had a mouth when applying your makeup. As you probably already know from experience, lipstick colors and textures can vary even within the same cosmetics line. Some melt easily; others go on stickily, evenly, thickly, thinly, and all combinations thereof. I recommend lipsticks that go on creamily, in an even layer that doesn’t smear or look thick or greasy. Whether or not to go with a matte or creamy fnish is your own personal preference. True matte-fnish lipsticks do last noticeably longer than creamy (and especially sheer) lipsticks. The only way to fnd out which ones you prefer is to be patient and try on various formulas in the colors you like and see how they feel and look. But whatever you do, avoid wearing overly shiny or glittery lipsticks, particularly if you are an adult with a serious career. Note: If your lipstick has a tendency to cake or to dry out as the day goes by, avoid reap plying more lipstick over semi-worn-off lipstick. You may also want to apply a bit of lip balm under your lipstick if the problem of caking persists. Although conventional, opaque lipsticks do provide a barrier (which is one of the reasons skin cancer on the lips is markedly higher in men than in women), for true sun protection a lip balm with sunscreen applied underneath lipstick, or better yet a lipstick with built-in sunscreen is a must. You can read reviews of these lipsticks and others I rate highly on my Web site, If they don’t appear, or if they are listed anyplace other than in the active ingredient list, you can’t count on getting reliable sun protection. Brighter colors may take a bit of getting used to, but they truly make a smaller mouth more noticeable. You can use a lip pencil to draw a de fnitive edge around the mouth to follow when applying lipstick, and a lip brush to control your application. A tube of lipstick makes too wide a mark for some lips and too narrow a mark for others. If your lips are small, it is best to use a lip brush; if your lips are large, the only reason to use a lip brush is to improve your accuracy. If you do choose to work with a lip pencil, always place the color on the actual outline of your mouth. Do not use corrective techniques that make the mouth look larger or longer, especially for daytime makeup. If you try to change the outline of your mouth with a lip pencil by drawing outside the lips, some time later, when your lipstick wears off, the lip liner, which almost always lasts longer than the lipstick, will still be in place and it will look like you missed your lips. Always line the lips following their actual shape, then fll in the lipstick color, using either the tube or a lip brush. Leave the points neither rounded nor pyramid-like—someplace in between with a soft arch is best. To prevent lipstick from gunking up in the corners of the mouth, don’t place lip liner or pencil in that area. If you feel doing this makes you look as if you have missed a spot, carefully fll in this area with color using a lip brush, applying only the smallest amount. Lip pencils should never create a contrasting dark, brown, or clearly visible line. Your lip pencil should not appear to be an obvious line that shows up as a colored border around the lipstick.
The active drug in Vaniqa is efornithine hydrochloride treatment 4 ulcer topamax 200 mg without prescription, which has been used as an oral medication for certain cancers and to medicine omeprazole 20mg buy cheap topamax 100 mg online treat African Sleeping Sickness medicine 3 sixes generic topamax 200mg with mastercard. The notion that topical application of efornithine hydrochloride could also affect hair loss probably stems from its hair-loss side effect when taken orally medicine interaction checker generic topamax 200 mg with mastercard. However medications with pseudoephedrine order 100mg topamax visa, the product information insert for the medication states that, when applied topically, efornithine hydrochloride, “is not known to be metabolized and is pri marily excreted unchanged in the urine with no adverse systemic side effects. Your treatment program should include con tinuation of any hair removal technique you are currently using. Improvement may be seen as early as 4 to 8 weeks of treatment [and] may take longer in some individuals. Clinical studies show that in about 8 weeks after stopping treatment with Vaniqa, the hair will return to the same condition as before beginning treatment. Note that the insert warns, “You should not use Vaniqa if you are less than 12 years of age. That means pregnant women should not use this drug, and lactating women probably should not either, though there is no research about that risk. Also, “Vaniqa may cause temporary redness, stinging, burning, tingling or rash on areas of the skin where it is applied. Well, that depends on how you look at the statistics, because clearly for some women it can work very well to reduce the amount of facial hair while others will be disappointed. At the very least, it is certainly an option when experimenting with serious hair growth problems. All treatments for hair removal are contraindicated after any facial peel or laser procedure. Any trauma to the skin during the recovery period can cause discoloration or even scarring. These treatments can make skin more susceptible to tears, wounds, and irritation, and attempting hair-removal at the same time can prove to be uncomfortable as well as damaging. Ch a p t e r 25 Gr o w i n G Ha i r Hair Gr o w t H Sc a m S Regrowing hair that has been lost is a tantalizing hope for both men and women. As a result, hair-loss scams are one of the more pervasive and prevalent marketing deceptions found on the fringes of the cosmetics industry. Few major cosmetics companies dally in this arena; instead it is populated by small, fy-by-night companies. Almost without exception what you are told are lies, deceptions, and twisted interpretations of actual scientifc information. In reality, once hair begins to fall out, for any of a variety of reasons, it is very diffcult to grow it back. There are only two products with substantiated, published research show ing they can reduce hair loss and regrow hair. When a company asserts that its product stops hair loss, prevents thinning hair, or regrows what you’ve lost, it simply can’t be true. Even when they showcase their research, those studies aren’t published, and the results are simply too good to be true. What you don’t know about your hair will waste your money and it won’t give you the head of hair you want. Depending on the individual, approximately 5 million hair follicles cover the surface of the body at any given time. Surprisingly, blondes usually have more hair on their heads than those with red or darker hair colors. All those millions of hair follicles are developed and in place before a person is born. Biologically, it is impossible to grow more hair after birth—all the hair you are ever going to have is already there when you arrive in this world (Source: “Hair Loss and Hair Restoration,” Inside the hair follicle, deep below the skin, hair is going through a life cycle all its own. At any given time, each hair on your body is in one of three phases—growing, resting (or dormant), or shedding. At this point, the hair is very busy developing in the hair follicle, the pocket-like structure that houses the bulb shaped root of the hair. At the very base of this root is an intricate network of capillaries and nerves that feed the developing hair. During the growth stage, each individual hair is formed by rapidly dividing cells that push forward and up through the follicle. During this phase, hair grows an average of about half an inch per month, or six inches per year (but that is only an average and it varies drastically from very active hair growth to very slow growth for different people). Over the entire growth phase, the hair can reach a length of approximately three feet, about the middle of the back for most women, before it stops growing and proceeds to the catagen (resting) phase. Naturally, there are variations in length potential, and women with tresses six feet long have been reported, but there are also women who can’t grow hair much past their shoulders. The reason for these variations is that the length of hair is genetically predetermined, which explains why some women feel they can never get their hair to grow past a certain point, while other women can’t seem to get to a hairdresser often enough to keep up with the grow-out. After about three to six years of growth, the hair cells stop reproducing and the growth process is over. For about two to six weeks, the hair just lies around taking it easy while the root slowly moves up to the skin’s surface. Entering its last phase of life, the hair is ready to literally jump ship and shed. At this point the hair root has moved almost to the surface (near the opening of the oil gland), where it is completely separated from the base of the follicle. In a matter of weeks the anagen (growth) stage will begin again at the base of the hair follicle. When the new hair sprouts to the surface, it simply pushes the old hair out of its way. So all that hair collecting on your brush, in the bottom of your drain, or on your clothing—about 25 to 100 hairs a day—is usually hair that has passed from the growth phase through the transition plateau and into the fnal period of shedding. At any given time, approximately 88% of scalp hair is in the anagen phase, 1% in the catagen phase, and 11% in the telogen phase. Thankfully, hair is predominantly in the growing phase (at least if male pattern baldness or some other form of hair loss has not started to occur), which explains why we end up having more hair than less, despite the strands we lose daily. Although everyone’s hair goes through the same life cycle, not all hair is the same; hair has very distinct inherited differences. African hair grows mostly in an alternating curved/ fat sequence that imparts a coiled, corkscrew-like shape to the hair, a form that produces weak spots at every turn. Asian, Native American, and Hispanic hair is straight to slightly wavy, coarse, thick, and almost always black. European and Hindu hair textures vary greatly, from straight to curly, thick to thin, and fne to coarse, and they also have a wide range of colors. Generally, what distinguishes African hair from European or Asian hair is its tight, spiral growth pattern. Alopecia is the technical name for hair loss, but that’s just the beginning of the story. There are so many complicated and multifaceted factors that affect hair growth the subject is too vast and complex for this book to tackle in detail. For example, reasons for hair loss can include scarring alopecia (also referred to as pseu dopelade, a condition where for no known reason the hair follicle is destroyed, resulting in permanent hair loss); nonscarring alopecia (also referred to as alopecia areata, which results in hair loss that can grow back); androgenetic alopecia (more commonly known as male pattern baldness); scleroderma (a chronic connective-tissue disease believed to be an autoimmune rheumatic disease); some tick bites; lichen planopilaris (an infammatory disease of unknown origin that usually affects the skin but can also affect hair and can result in permanent hair loss); psoriasis; lupus (an autoimmune disorder causing chronic infammation, especially of the skin, but that can also affect hair growth); seborrheic der matitis; trichotillomania (an impulse-control disorder that causes people to pull out their own hair); traction alopecia (resulting from inadvertent pulling on hair from styling hair too tightly); physical injury (particularly burns that destroy hair follicles); hemochromatosis (an inherited disorder that causes the body to absorb and store too much iron, damaging the organs in the body); surgery; cancer; rapid weight loss; thyroid abnormalities; and high blood pressure are all contributing factors. There is also a long list of medications that can cause hair loss, and there are no cos metic products that can reverse their effect, though hair growth is almost always restored once the drug is not being taken. These include the cholesterol-lowering drugs clofbrate (Atromis-S) and gemfbrozil (Lopid); the Parkinson’s medication levodopa (Dopar, Laro dopa); the ulcer drugs cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), and famotidine (Pepcid); the anticoagulants coumarin and heparin; drugs for gout treatment, including allopurinol (Loporin, Zyloprim); anti-arthritics penicillamine, auranofn (Ridaura), indomethacin (Indocin), naproxen (Naprosyn), sulindac (Clinoril), and methotrexate (Folex); drugs derived from vitamin-A isotretinoin (Accutane) and etretinate (Tegison); anticonvulsants for treating epilepsy like trimethadione (Tridione); beta-blocker drugs for high blood pres sure such as atenolol (Tenormin), metoprolol (Lopressor), nadolol (Corgard), propranolol (Inderal), and timolol (Blocadren); and the anti-thyroid medications carbimazole, iodine, thiocyanate, and thiouracil. But by far, the most typical cause of hair loss is something called male pattern baldness caused by certain androgens (male hormones) destroying the hair follicle. Yes, despite the name, more then 21 million women are affected by male pattern baldness. Before you even begin to think about what products to use for hair growth, you must know the source of your hair loss. Each of these causes requires medical evaluation and a determina tion of treatment. About 95% of all cases of hair loss are the result of male pattern baldness, but this number also includes women, who can have a version of hair loss referred to as female androgenetic alopecia or female pattern baldness. Approximately 25% of men begin balding by age 30; two-thirds begin balding by age 60. For women, androgenetic alopecia was found in 3% of women ages 20 to 29 years, 16 to 17% of women ages 30 to 49, 23 to 25% of women ages 50 to 69, 28% of women ages 70 to 79, and 32% of women ages 80 to 89. In some research, statistics indicate that 40% of women are affected by androgenetic alopecia. As you can tell by these numbers, female pattern baldness increases dramatically just before and after menopause. For men, male pattern baldness develops in a horseshoe pattern, with the hair receding from the forehead back toward the neck. Male pattern baldness can also take place from the center of the scalp out toward the sides. For women, the location is more diffuse, with hair loss taking place all over the scalp (Sources: Male Pattern Baldness, American Medical Association Medical Library, The key element you need to be aware of to understand whether the products being sold to improve or restore hair growth will work is how hormones affect hair growth. This is because, for both male pattern baldness and female pattern baldness, hormones are the primary cause of hair loss. First, let’s start with some basic information about the hair growing on your head. Hair growth basically has a lot to do with hormonal activity, and is especially related to the male sex hormone group called androgens. These hormones are responsible for the development of secondary male sex characteristics for both genders. They are also responsible for increasing the size of hair follicles early in life, and, ironically, for decreasing and shrinking the hair follicles later in life. This explains why, when estrogen levels decrease as women approach menopause, androgen-related balding can begin to appear. There is some research indicating that topical application of estrogen can induce hair growth in women (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, January 2004, pages 7–13). Blo o D Fl o w a n D Hair lo S S While research concerning hair loss has focused primarily on the involvement of hor mones, there is a good deal of discussion about another concept, especially on Web sites selling products claiming to regrow hair. According to these sources, the status of the hair involves the issue of blood supply to the hair follicle. Some hair-care companies want you to believe that reduced or impeded blood fow is the primary factor affecting hair growth. Although an adequate oxygenated blood supply is necessary for any and all of the tis sues of the body to function properly, not all disorders of the body (including hair loss) are related to decreased blood fow. Consider this: When hair follicles are transplanted from the back of the head to the front they do not become thin and they do not fall out. There seems to be plenty of blood fow in the same bald areas where the newly transplanted hair thrives.
Some individuals experience a benign and stable clinical course 340b medications purchase topamax online from canada, while in others the disease is characterized by progressive symptoms medications prescribed for anxiety buy cheap topamax 200mg online. For some individuals medicine cabinets recessed buy topamax on line amex, sudden death is the first definitive manifestation of the disease medicine interactions generic topamax 200 mg overnight delivery. Waiting Period If you note an enlarged heart in a driver medications with acetaminophen buy 200mg topamax mastercard, you should not certify the driver until evaluation by a cardiovascular specialist who understands the functions and demands of commercial driving to confirm or rule out a diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recommend not to certify if: the driver has a diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy the Mayo Clinic performed a study on idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy between 1979 and 1996. The Clinical Profile and Outcome of Idiopathic Restrictive Cardiomyopathy report indicated a 5-year survival rate of only 64%, compared with an expected survival rate of 85%. Waiting Period If you suspect restrictive cardiomyopathy in a driver, you should not certify the driver until evaluation by a cardiovascular specialist who understands the functions and demands of commercial driving to confirm or rule out a diagnosis of restrictive cardiomyopathy. Page 102 of 260 Recommend not to certify if: the driver has a diagnosis of restrictive cardiomyopathy. To review the Cardiomyopathies and Congestive Heart Failure Recommendation Table, see Appendix D of this handbook. Syncope Syncope is a symptom, not a medical condition, that can present an immediate threat to public safety when causing the driver of a commercial motor vehicle to lose control of the vehicle. As an example, syncope as a consequence of an arrhythmia while driving, places the driver and others around the driver at the time in serious jeopardy. Medications are available that are effective in managing ventricular arrhythmias and, although they are designed to prevent occurrences, they are not "fail-safe" and if an arrhythmia recurs, syncope may follow. Recurrent, unexplained syncope and syncope from cardiac causes may herald a markedly increased future risk for sudden death. As a medical examiner, you should ensure that: • Diagnosis distinguishes between pre-syncope. You may refer to the Cardiovascular Advisory Panel Guidelines for the Medical Examination of Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers for diagnosis-specific recommendations for: • Hypersensitive carotid sinus with syncope. Page 103 of 260 Decision Maximum certification period — 1 year Recommend to certify if: the driver: • Has been treated for symptomatic disease. Recommend not to certify if: the driver: • Experiences syncope as a consequence of the disease process, regardless of the underlying condition. Certification also depends on the risk for syncope and gradual or sudden incapacitation from the underlying heart disease that may remain even after successful treatment of the conduction system disease. Monitoring/Testing the driver should: • Comply with medication and/or treatment guidelines, when appropriate. See the Supraventricular Tachycardias Recommendation Table and Pacemakers Recommendation Table in Appendix D of this handbook for diagnosis-specific recommendations. Valvular Heart Diseases and Treatments Murmurs are a common sign of valvular heart conditions; however the presence of a murmur may be associated with other cardiovascular conditions. As a medical examiner, you must distinguish between functional murmurs and pathological murmurs that are medically disqualifying. When in doubt about the severity of a heart murmur, you should obtain additional evaluation. Other conditions such as infective endocarditis and aortic dissection can result in acute severe aortic regurgitation. Page 105 of 260 Decision Maximum certification period — 1 year Recommend to certify if: the driver has: • Mild aortic regurgitation that is asymptomatic. Monitoring/Testing Echocardiography repeated every 2 to 3 years when certified with mild or moderate aortic regurgitation. The driver who has had surgical repair for severe aortic regurgitation and meets guidelines for post-aortic valve repair may be recertified for 1 year. Follow-up the driver with severe aortic regurgitation should have a semi-annual medical examination. To review the Aortic Regurgitation Recommendation Table, see Appendix D of this handbook. Aortic Stenosis the most common cause of aortic stenosis in adults is a degenerative process associated with many of the risk factors underlying atherosclerosis. Recommendation parameters for aortic stenosis include the severity of the diagnosis and the presence of signs or symptoms. Decision Maximum certification period — 1 year Page 107 of 260 Recommend to certify if: the driver has: • Mild aortic stenosis that is asymptomatic. Recommend not to certify if: the driver has moderate aortic stenosis with one or more of the following: • Angina. The driver has severe aortic stenosis regardless of symptoms or left ventricular function. Monitoring/Testing Echocardiography repeated every: • 5 years if mild aortic stenosis. To review the Aortic Stenosis Recommendation Table, see Appendix D of this handbook. Aortic Valve Repair Aortic valve repair is a technique for repairing the existing aortic valve and usually does not require anticoagulant therapy. Early post-operative evaluation is required to assess adequacy of repair and extent of residual aortic regurgitation. Decision Maximum certification period — 1 year Page 108 of 260 Recommend to certify if: the driver: • Meets asymptomatic aortic stenosis or aortic regurgitation qualification requirements. Monitoring/Testing Two-dimensional echocardiography with Doppler should be performed prior to discharge. Additional monitoring and testing should be based on aortic regurgitation severity. To review the Aortic Regurgitation Recommendation Table or the Aortic Stenosis Recommendation Table, see Appendix D of this handbook. Mitral Regurgitation Recommendation parameters for mitral regurgitation include the severity of the diagnosis and the presence of signs or symptoms. The development of symptoms, especially dyspnea, fatigue, orthopnea, and/or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, is a marker of a poor prognosis, including an inability to perform driver tasks and increased risk for sudden cardiac death. Page 109 of 260 Recommend not to certify if: the driver has mild, moderate, or severe mitral regurgitation and has: • Symptoms. Monitoring/Testing the driver with: • Moderate mitral regurgitation should have an annual echocardiography. To review the Mitral Regurgitation Recommendation Table, see Appendix D of this handbook. Mitral Stenosis Recommendations for mitral stenosis are based on valve area size and the presence of signs or symptoms. Inquire about episodes of angina or syncope, fatigue, and the ability to perform tasks that require exertion. Decision Maximum certification period — 1 year Recommend to certify if: the driver has: • Mild mitral stenosis that is asymptomatic. Monitoring/Testing the frequency of cardiovascular specialist evaluation depends on the development and severity of symptoms; however, it should be performed at least annually, including: • Chest X-ray. To review the Mitral Stenosis Recommendation Table, see Appendix D of this handbook. Mitral Stenosis Treatment Management of mitral stenosis is based primarily on the development of symptoms and pulmonary hypertension rather than the severity of the stenosis itself. Treatment options for mitral stenosis include enlarging the mitral valve or cutting the band of mitral fibers. Symptomatic improvement occurs almost immediately, but after 9 years, recurrent symptoms are present in approximately 60% of individuals. Decision Maximum certification period — 1 year Page 111 of 260 Recommend to certify if: the driver: • Is asymptomatic. Decision Maximum certification period — 1 year Page 112 of 260 Recommend to certify if: the driver: • Is asymptomatic. Monitoring/Testing the driver should have an annual cardiology evaluation which should include: • History. The frequency of repeat echo-Doppler examinations is variable and depends upon the initial periprocedural outcome and the occurrence of symptoms. Mitral Valve Prolapse the natural history of mitral valve prolapse is extremely variable and depends on the extent of myxomatous degeneration, the degree of mitral regurgitation, and association with other conditions. Page 113 of 260 Decision Maximum certification period — 1 year Recommend to certify if: As the medical examiner, you believe that the nature and severity of the medical condition of the driver does not endanger the health and safety of the driver and the public. Recommend not to certify if: the driver has: • Symptoms or reduced effort tolerance due to mitral valve prolapse or mitral regurgitation. Drivers who have definite mitral regurgitation (even if mild) or markedly thickened leaflets, should have: • Echocardiography at least annually. Mitral Valve Repair for Mitral Regurgitation the majority of inadequate valvular repair procedures can be detected in the early perioperative period. Careful evaluation at this time includes a two-dimensional echocardiography with Doppler and, if necessary, transesophageal echocardiography. Decision Maximum certification period — 1 year Page 114 of 260 Recommend to certify if: the driver is asymptomatic and meets the underlying mild, moderate, or severe mitral regurgitation recommendations. The driver should also have clearance from a cardiovascular specialist who understands the functions and demands of commercial driving. Page 115 of 260 Recommend not to certify if: the driver has: • Persistent symptoms. To review the Valve Replacement Recommendation Table, see Appendix D of this handbook. Pulmonary Valve Stenosis Pulmonary valve stenosis is usually a well-tolerated cardiac lesion normally exhibiting a gradual progression. Decision Maximum certification period — 1 year Recommend to certify if: the driver has: • Mild or moderate pulmonary valve stenosis. Page 116 of 260 Recommend not to certify if: the driver has: • Symptoms of dyspnea, palpitations, or syncope. Monitoring/Testing the driver should have annual cardiology evaluations by a cardiovascular specialist who is knowledgeable in adult congenital heart disease and who understands the functions and demands of commercial driving. Respiratory (b)(5) the commercial driver spends more time driving than the average individual. Driving is a repetitive and monotonous activity that demands the driver be alert at all times. Symptoms of respiratory dysfunction or disease can be debilitating and can interfere with the ability to remain attentive to driving conditions and to perform heavy exertion. Even the slightest impairment in respiratory function under emergency conditions (when greater oxygen supply may be necessary for performance) can be detrimental to safe driving. There are many primary and secondary respiratory conditions that interfere with oxygen exchange and may result in gradual or sudden incapacitation, for example: • Asthma. As the medical examiner, your fundamental obligation during the respiratory assessment is to establish whether a driver has a respiratory disease or disorder that increases the risk for sudden death or incapacitation, thus endangering public safety. The examination is based on information provided by the driver (history), objective data (physical examination), and additional testing requested by the medical examiner. Key Points for Respiratory Examination During the physical examination, you should ask the same questions as you would for any individual who is being assessed for respiratory diseases or disorders.
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