By: Edward T. F. Wei PhD
Continuation: Submission of lab findings confirming HgB level fi 12 g/dL hiv infected person symptoms discount 1 mg medex, serum ferritin fi100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation of fi 20% four stages hiv infection discount 1mg medex with visa, documentation that previous ribavirin dose did not require reduction due to antiviral y retroviral purchase medex no prescription symptomatic anemia; and documentation that the member HgB levels have increased by at least 1 g/dL from pretreatment baseline hiv infection in india discount 5 mg medex. Re-authorization is required at 3 month intervals Anemia of Chronic Disease – Rheumatoid Arthritis anti viral hand foam 1 mg medex overnight delivery, Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative Colitis (erythropoietin): Initial: Documentation of the underlying chronic disease, submission of laboratory findings confirmin g HgB level < 10 g/dL, serum ferritin fi100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation fi 20%. Re-authorization is required at 3 month intervals Pre-Surgery (erythropoietin): Initial: Documentation of intended high-risk surgery (must be elective, non-cardiac, and non-vascular), submission of lab findings confirming HgB level between 10 -13 g/dL, serum ferritin fi 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation fi 20%. Epoetin is not indicated in cancer patients who are not receiving cancer chemotherapy. Requests for continuing therapy that were approved by a previous Health Plan will be honored for at least 30 days upon receipt of documentation demonstrating that approval Epoetin is indicated for use in non-myeloid cancers when chemotherapy is given. Epoetin is not indicated for use in cancer patients who are given only radiation therapy. Epoetin is not recommended for approval because this indication is excluded from coverage in a typical pharmacy benefit. American Society of Hematology / American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 clinical practice guideline update on the use of epoetin and darbepoetin. Recombinant human erythropoietin treatment in pre dialysis patients: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Treatment of the anemia of rheumatoid arthritis with recombinant human erythropoietin: clinical and in vitro studies. The anemia of chronic renal failure: pathophysiology and the effects of recombinant erythropoietin. Hemodynamics of patients with renal failure treated with recombinant human erythropoietin. Correction of the anemia of end stage renal disease with recombinant human erythropoietin. Management of blood pressure changes during recombinant human erythropoietin therapy. Requests for continuing therapy that were approved by a previous Health Plan will be honored for at least 30 days upon receipt of documentation demonstrating that approval 17. Seizures related to blood transfusion and erythropoietin treatment in patients undergoing dialysis. Multicenter study of recombinant human erythropoietin in correction of anemia in rheumatoid arthritis. Erythropoietin for the treatment of anemia of malignancy associated with neoplastic bone marrow infiltration. Suppressed serum erythropoietin response to anemia and the efficacy of recombinant erythropoietin in the anemia of rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin in cancer patients. Use of recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of anemia in patients who have cancer. Pharmacologic doses of recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. Requests for continuing therapy that were approved by a previous Health Plan will be honored for at least 30 days upon receipt of documentation demonstrating that approval 43. Recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of the anemia of prematurity: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Detection of functional iron deficiency during epoetin alfa treatment: a new approach. Normalization of hemoglobin level in patients with chronic kidney disease and anemia. Erythropoietin to treat head and neck cancer patients with anaemia undergoing radiotherapy: 89ulticente, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Requests for continuing therapy that were approved by a previous Health Plan will be honored for at least 30 days upon receipt of documentation demonstrating that approval 11. Examples of unacceptable toxicity include seizures, excessive falls and/or fractures, and any other Grade 3 or above side effects that are intolerable to the member. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: A short-term study. Intra-articular treatment with hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis of the knee joint: A controlled clinical trial versus mucopolysaccharide polysulfuric acid ester. Intra-articular hyaluronan injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: A 92ulticente, double blind, placebo controlled 92ulticenter trial. Requests for continuing therapy that were approved by a previous Health Plan will be honored for at least 30 days upon receipt of documentation demonstrating that approval References: 1. Clinical Practice Guidelines For the Management of Thalassemia Patients California Consensus. Concurrent use of interferon beta-1b with interferon beta-1a (Avonex, Rebif) or glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) is not recommended. Medical hypothesis: why secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is a relentlessly progressive illness. Interferon-fi therapy in multiple sclerosis: evidence for a clinically relevant dose response. Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines from the International Panel on the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Use of interferon beta in multiple sclerosis: rationale for early treatment and evidence for dose and frequency-dependent effects on clinical response. Clinical results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Management of patients receiving interferon beta-1b for multiple sclerosis: report of a consensus conference. Placebo controlled 95ulticenter 95ulticente trial of interferon beta-1b in treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Requests for continuing therapy that were approved by a previous Health Plan will be honored for at least 30 days upon receipt of documentation demonstrating that approval 18. Neutralizing antibodies during treatment of multiple sclerosis with interferon beta-1b: experience during the first three years. Anon: Placebo-controlled 96ulticenter 96ulticente trial of interferon beta-1b in treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Weber F, Polak T, Gunther A, et al: Synergistic immunomodulatory effects of interferon beta 1b and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Anon: Study Group: Interferon beta-1b is effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Clinical results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Requests for continuing therapy that were approved by a previous Health Plan will be honored for at least 30 days upon receipt of documentation demonstrating that approval 37. Up and about more than 50% of waking hours 3 Capable of only limited selfcare, confined to bed or chair more than 50% of waking hours 4 Completely disabled. Totally confined to bed or chair 5 Dead Additional Information: • If authorized, Virginia Premier will cover maximum of 16 cycles of Farydak in a lifetime • Each fill is limited to 6 capsules Requests for continuing therapy that were approved by a previous Health Plan will be honored for at least 30 days upon receipt of documentation demonstrating that approval • Request for any condition not listed as covered require evidence of current medical literature that substantiates drug’s efficacy or that recognized oncology organizations generally accept the treatment for that condition. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate: Overview of pharmacological and clinical characteristics. Available at: Requests for continuing therapy that were approved by a previous Health Plan will be honored for at least 30 days upon receipt of documentation demonstrating that approval. The relative potency of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate compared with intravenous morphine in the treatment of moderate to severe postoperative pain. Management of transfusional iron overload – differential properties and efficacy of iron chelating agents. Long Term Safety and Effectiveness of Iron-Chelation Therapy with Deferiprone for Thalassemia Major. Chronic infusion of Flolan should be initiated at 2 ng/kg/min and increased in increments of 2 ng/kg/min every 15 minutes or longer until dose limiting pharmacologic effects are elicited or until a tolerance limit to the drug is established and further increases in the infusion rate are not clinically warranted. Rich S, Calcium channel blockers and anticoagulants in the therapy of pulmonary hypertension. A comparison of continuous intravenous Epoprostenol with conventional therapy for primary pulmonary hyperetension N Engl J Med 1996;334:296 301. Efficacy and safety of treprostinil: an Epoprostenol analog for primary pulmonary hypertension. Patient has a history of prevalent vertebral fracture(s) or low trauma or fragility fracture(s) [e. Total duration of treatment with Forteo has not exceeded 2 years Alendronate is the preferred drug. Forteo has not been studied in this patient population and the benefits of building bone in a condition in which substantial bone loss has not occurred have not been investigated. Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone: osteoporosis is proving amenable to treatment. The effect of teriparatide [human 104ulticenter hormone (1-34)] therapy on bone density in men with osteoporosis. Requests for continuing therapy that were approved by a previous Health Plan will be honored for at least 30 days upon receipt of documentation demonstrating that approval 12. Requests for continuing therapy that were approved by a previous Health Plan will be honored for at least 30 days upon receipt of documentation demonstrating that approval 28. These requests will be approved when the following criteria are met: Initial Therapy (Duration of Approval – Maximum of 6 months) Documentation of the following: 1. Short bowel syndrome management has been dependent on parenteral nutrition support for at least 12 months prior to initiation of therapy with Gattex 5. Documentation of fecal occult blood testing prior to initiating treatment in pediatrics. Re-authorization – (Duration of Approval – Maximum of 6 months) Documentation of the following: 1. When approved, members may obtain 30 sublingual Grastek tablets per 30 days References: 1. For some of the following indications, authorization for coverage is not recommended because this indication is excluded from coverage in a typical pharmacy benefit. Acute critical illness due to complications following surgery, multiple accidental trauma, or with acute respiratory failure. Corticosteroid-induced short stature, including a variety of chronic glucocorticoid-dependent conditions, such as asthma, Crohn’s disease, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, as well as after renal, heart, liver, or bone marrow transplantation. Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome, hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy). Requests for continuing therapy that were approved by a previous Health Plan will be honored for at least 30 days upon receipt of documentation demonstrating that approval 25.
They of the conduction system of the heart and results in serious consist of small haemorrhages hiv infection rates taiwan cheap medex 1 mg mastercard, oedema and perivascular arrhythmias hiv infection and teenage pregnancy cheap 1mg medex with visa. There may be endarteritis chronic valvular deformities hiv infection rates manitoba order medex in india, especially the mitral stenosis hiv infection to symptom timeline buy medex 1mg with mastercard, obliterans and thrombosis of cortical and meningeal as already explained on page 441 hiv symptoms sinus infection medex 1mg line. In bacterial endocarditis and embolism: rheumatic pneumonitis, the lungs are large, firm and 1. Bacterial endocarditis of both acute and subacute type may valves, in the valve pockets and on the adjoining supervene due to inadequate use of antibiotics. The organs most frequently affected are Libman-Sacks endocarditis do not produce any significant the brain, kidneys, spleen and lungs. Similar inflammatory endocarditis on the basis of anatomic area of the involved changes may be found in the interstitial connective tissue endocardium such as: valvular for valvular endocardium, of the myocardium. The Aschoff bodies are never found mural for inner lining of the lumina of cardiac chambers, in the endocardium or myocardium. Most types of endocarditis are Non-bacterial thrombotic, cachectic, marantic or terminal characterised by the presence of ‘vegetations’ or ‘verrucae’ endocarditis or endocarditis simplex is an involvement of which have distinct features. The Libman and Sacks, two American physicians, described a following diseases and conditions are frequently associated form of endocarditis in 1924 that is characterised by sterile with their presence: endocardial vegetations which are distinguishable from the 1. Rheumatic endocarditis (page 440) brownish and occur along the line of closure of the leaflets 2. Non-bacterial thrombotic (cachectic, marantic) endocarditis Organised and healed vegetations appear as fibrous nodules. Streptococcus is serious infection of the valvular and mural endocardium bovis which is the normal inhabitant of gastrointestinal tract, caused by different forms of microorganisms and is Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus epidermidis which characterised by typical infected and friable vegetations. Conditions initiating transient bacteraemia, septicaemia destructive acute infection of the endocardium by highly and pyaemia. Bacteraemia, septicaemia and pyaemia: Bacteria gain entrance previously diseased heart and has a gradual downhill course to the bloodstream causing transient and clinically silent in a period of 6 weeks to a few months and sometimes years. Some of the common and subacute forms has been largely discarded because the examples are: clinical course is altered by antibiotic treatment, still a few i) Periodontal infections such as trauma from vigorous important distinguishing features are worth describing brushing of teeth, hard chewing, tooth extraction and other (Table 16. Virulence of Highly virulent Less virulent following: organisms i) Chronic rheumatic valvular disease in about 50% cases. Previous condition Usually previously Usually previously ii) Congenital heart diseases in about 20% cases. Clinical features Features of acute Splenomegaly, iii) Other causes are syphilitic aortic valve disease, systemic infection clubbing of fingers, atherosclerotic valvular disease, floppy mitral valve, and petechiae prosthetic heart valves. The vegetations are shown on the mitral valve (left upper diagram) as viewed from the left atrium, while those on the aortic valve (left lower diagram) are shown as seen from the left ventricle. Opened up chambers and valves of the left heart show presence of irregular, soft, elevated grey white friable vegetations on the atrial (superior) surface of the mitral valve (arrow). The circulating bacteria are lodged much more frequently may appear flat, filiform, fungating or polypoid. Conditions producing haemodynamic stress on the valves underlying valve leaflet, or may produce myocardial are liable to cause damage to the endothelium, favouring abscesses. Another alternative hypothesis is the occurrence of non i) the outer layer or cap consists of eosinophilic material bacterial thrombotic endocarditis from prolonged stress which composed of fibrin and platelets. Valves commonly Mitral alone; mitral Mitral, tricuspid Mainly mitral; less often Mitral; aortic; combined affected and aortic combined aortic and tricuspid mitral and aortic 2. Macroscopy Small, multiple, warty, Medium-sized, multi Small but larger than Often large, grey-tawny grey brown, translucent, ple, generally do not those of rheumatic, to greenish, irregular, firmly attached, generally produce significant single or multiple, single or multiple, produce permanent val valvular deformity brownish, firm, but typically friable vular deformity more friable than those of rheumatic 4. Microscopy Composed of fibrin with Composed of fibrinoid Composed of degenerated Composed of outer superimposed platelet material with superim valvular tissue, fibrin eosinophilic zone of fibrin thrombi and no bacteria, posed fibrin and platelet platelets thrombi and no and platelets, covering Adjacent and underlying thrombi and no bacteria. The underlying colonies of bacteria and endocardium shows the underlying endo valve shows swelling of deeper zone of non-specific oedema, proliferation of cardium shows fibrinoid collagen, fibrinoid change, acute and chronic inflam capillaries, mononuclear necrosis, proliferation of proliferation of capillaries matory cells. The underlying inflammatory infiltrate capillaries and acute and but no significant inflam endocardium may show and occasional Aschoff chronic inflammatory matory cell infiltrate. B, Section of the mitral valve shows fibrin cap on luminal surface, layer of bacteria, and deeper zone of inflammatory cells, with prominence of neutrophils. In either case, their origin is due to toxic or involvement of extra-cardiac organs. Both these have their pathogenesis in circulating immune complexes (hypersensitivity A. Though tubercle bacilli are entering the systemic circulation affect organs like the spleen, bacteria, tuberculous endocarditis is described separate from kidneys, and brain causing infarcts, abscesses and mycotic the bacterial endocarditis due to specific granulomatous aneurysms. It is characterised by ii) Emboli arising from right side of the heart enter the presence of typical tubercles on the valvular as well as mural endocardium and may form tuberculous thromboemboli. Rarely, endocardium may be maculopapular lesions on the pulp of the fingers called infected with fungi such as from Candida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Aspergillus, Mucor, coccidioidomycosis, crypto the major forms of vegetative endocarditis involving the 449 coccosis, blastomycosis and actinomycosis. Others along with the fungal infections like candidiasis and aspergillosis are seen consequences of these valvular diseases in the form of more commonly in patients receiving long-term antibiotic stenosis and insufficiency of the heart valves are described therapy, intravenous drug abusers and after prosthetic valve below. Rheumatic heart disease is mitral valve in stenosis varies according to the extent of the most common form of acquired valvular disease. Generally, the valve leaflets are diffusely of the left side of the heart are involved much more frequently thickened by fibrous tissue and/or calcific deposits, than those of the right side of the heart. There are fibrous affected most often, followed in descending frequency, by adhesions of mitral commissures and fusion and the aortic valve, and combined mitral and aortic valves. In less extensive valvular deformities may be of 2 types: stenosis and involvement, the bases of the leaflets of mitral valve are insufficiency: mobile while the free margins have puckered and Stenosis is the term used for failure of a valve to open thickened tissue with narrowed orifice; this is called as completely during diastole resulting in obstruction to the ‘purse-string puckering’. Infective endocarditis (page 445) atrial pressure from the normal of 12 mmHg to about 25 3. Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (page 444) mmHg leading to dilatation of the left atrium. Libman-Sacks endocarditis (page 444) left atrial pressure, in turn, raises pressure in the pulmonary 5. Syphilitic valvulitis (page 401) veins and capillaries, reducing the pulmonary function and 6. Calcific aortic valve stenosis causing exertional dyspnoea which is the chief symptom of 7. Normal mitral valve (A) contrasted with mitral stenosis (B) and mitral insufficiency (C). Normal-sized or atrophic left ventricle due to reduced as well as pressure since the left ventricle cannot empty inflow of blood. As a consequence of left atrial hypertension, backward transmission of elevated left artial pressure which pulmonary hypertension occurs resulting in pulmonary causes: oedema and right heart failure. In symptomatic cases of i) chronic passive congestion of the lungs; mitral insufficiency, the major symptoms are related to ii) hypertrophy and dilatation of the right ventricle; and decreased cardiac output. Features of pulmonary hypertension such as: insufficiency occurs more often in men (75%). Subsequently, i) chronic passive congestion of the lungs; mitral insufficiency is associated with some degree of mitral ii) hypertrophy and dilatation of the right ventricle; and stenosis. About 80% patients of valve syndrome), rupture of a leaflet or of the chordae symptomatic aortic stenosis are males. A few other conditions non-calcific and calcific type, the latter being more common. Calcific aortic stenosis is more rigidity, deformity and retraction of the valve leaflets and common type. These fusion of commissures as well as shortening and fusion include healing by scarring followed by calcification of aortic of chordae tendineae (Fig. The aortic cusps show in the aged, there is irregular, stony-hard, bead-like characteristic fibrous thickening and calcific nodularity thickening in the region of mitral annulus without any of the closing edges. Normal aortic valve (A) contrasted with aortic stenosis (B) and aortic insufficiency (C). The lesions are characteristically located 451 valve orifice is reduced to 1 cm2 from its normal 3 cm2. The major effect carcinoid tumour with hepatic metastasis, there is increased of aortic stenosis is obstruction to the outflow resulting in blood level of serotonin secreted by the tumour. Later, when increased concentration of serotonin reaches the right side cardiac failure supervenes, there is dilatation as well as of the heart and causes the lesions but serotonin is inactivated hypertrophy of the left ventricle (eccentric hypertrophy). Exertional bradykinin may play contributory role in carcinoid heart dyspnoea results from elevation of pulmonary capillary disease. Angina pectoris usually results from elevation of in experimental animals has not succeeded in producing pulmonary capillary pressure and usually develops due to cardiac lesions; hence the exact pathogenesis of carcinoid increased demand of hypertrophied myocardial mass. Similar plaques may occur About three-fourth of all patients with aortic insufficiency on the intima of the great veins, the coronary sinus and are males with some having family history of Marfan’s the great arteries. Other causes include syphilitic leaflets of the valves of the outflow tracts of the right heart valvulitis, infective endocarditis, congenital subaortic result mainly in pulmonary stenosis and tricuspid stenosis (congenitally bicuspid aortic valve), myxomatous regurgitation, and to a lesser extent, pulmonary regurgitation degeneration of aortic valve (floppy valve syndrome), and tricuspid stenosis. There Myxomatous or mucoid degeneration of the valves of the is generally distension and distortion of the ring heart is a peculiar condition occurring in young patients (Fig. The condition is also known by other increase of the left ventricular end-diastolic volume. This synonyms like ‘floppy valve syndrome’ or ‘mitral valve leads to hypertrophy and dilatation of the left ventricle prolapse’. Failure of the left ventricle some cases it may be genetically determined collagen increases the pressure in the left atrium and eventually disorder. Association with Marfan’s syndrome has been pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure occurs. Others have noted myxomatous the characteristic physical findings in a patient of aortic degeneration in cases of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and in insufficiency are awareness of the beatings of the heart, myotonic dystrophy. However, the myxomatous valvular poundings in the head with each heartbeat, low diastolic and high pulse pressure, rapidly rising and collapsing water changes seen in the aged patients are not related to this entity. Any cardiac valve may be murmur heard over the femoral artery when it is lightly involved but mitral valve is affected most frequently. Sometimes, angina pectoris disease is usually most severe and most common in the occurs due to increased myocardial demand or due to posterior leaflet of the mitral valve. Carcinoid syndrome developing in patients affected leaflet and hence the name ‘mitral valve prolapse’ with extensive hepatic metastases from a carcinoid tumour and ‘floppy valve syndrome’. Infective granulomatous myocarditis is recognised during life by the characteristic mid-systolic 5. Rickettsial myocarditis incompetent mitral valve caused by the mitral valve prolapse. Fungal myocarditis superimposed infective endocarditis, mitral insufficiency and arrhythmias. Its exact incidence is difficult to ascertain as the Viral myocarditis usually appears after a few days to a few histological examination has been largely confined to autopsy weeks of viral infections elsewhere in the body. Reports from different studies have estimated the to the myocardium is caused either by direct viral cytotoxi incidence of myocarditis in 1 to 4% of all autopsies. Regardless of the A number of classifications of myocarditis have been type of virus, the pathologic changes are similar. There may be focal or patchy areas whether the inflammation is confined to interstitial tissue or of necrosis. Specific and non-specific type, depending upon whether the Initially, there is oedema and infiltration of the interstitial inflammation is granulomatous or non-specific type. Later, there is Acute, subacute and chronic type, depending upon the necrosis of individual myocardial fibres and the infiltrate duration of inflammatory response.
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For phlegm antiviral drug list purchase medex pills in toronto, add nine grams each of Ban Xia Fu Ling (Poria) 9g (Rhizoma Pinelliae) and Fu Ling (Poria) antiviral netflix buy medex canada, and 15 grams of Ze Xie (Rhizoma Alismatis) 6g Gua Lou (Fructus Trichosanthis) hiv infection time purchase medex without prescription. For sores which endure and Chuan Lian Zi (Fructus Toosendan) 6g do not close hiv infection by swallowing blood order medex 5mg amex, add nine grams of Mu Hu Die (Semen Oroxyli) Dan Pi (Cortex Moutan) 6g and 15 grams of Ma Bo (Lasiosphera Calvatia) hiv infection rates texas order medex with paypal. Fu Ling seeps dampness and for Bai (Sp 3), Yin Ling Quan (Sp 9) tifies the spleen. Dang Gui and Dan Pi quicken the blood Bai fortifies the spleen, boosts the qi, and prevents further and transform stasis. For concomitant dampness, add 15 grams slightly painful eyes, a somber white facial complexion, dizzi each of Tu Fu Ling (Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae) and Bi Xie ness, head distention, fatigue, torpid intake, loose stools, (Rhizoma Dioscoreae Hypoglaucae). For painful joints, add abdominal pain with a liking for warmth and pressure, lower 12 grams each of Ren Dong Teng (Ramulus Lonicerae), Luo and upper back aching and pain, aversion to cold, chilled Shi Teng (Caulis Trachelospermi), and Chuan Niu Xi (Radix limbs, easy lower limb and/or facial edema, a pale, watery, Cyathulae). For reduced appetite, add nine grams each of glossy tongue with thin, white fur, and a deep, fine or deep, Chen Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae) and Shan Zha slow, forceless pulse (Fructus Crataegi). For insomnia, add 20 grams each of Suan Shu Di (cooked Radix Rehmanniae) 15g Zao Ren (Semen Zizyphi Spinosae) and Ye Jiao Teng (Caulis Shan Zhu Yu (Fructus Corni) 15g Polygoni Multiflori). For scanty, dark urine, add 15 grams of Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) 9g Che Qian Zi (Semen Plantaginis). For concomitant kidney Gou Qi Zi (Fructus Lycii) 9g yang vacuity, add 12 grams each of Yin Yang Huo (Herba Shan Yao (Radix Dioscoreae) 9g Epimedii) and Ba Ji Tian (Radix Morindae Officinalis). For Du Zhong (Cortex Eucommiae) 9g nodular skin lesions, add nine grams each of Hong Hua (Flos Zhi Fu Zi (Radix Lateralis Praeparatus Aconiti Carthami), Chuan Xiong (Rhizoma Chuanxiong), and Dan Carmichaeli) 9g Shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae). Bai Zhu, Shan Yao, Ren Shen, treats genital sores, draining Da Ling clears heat and treats mix-fried Gan Cao, and Gan Jiang together warm and sup oral sores, and draining Tai Yang clears heat and treats eye plement spleen yang. For concomitant dampness, add Yin Ling quent stools, add nine grams each of Qian Shi (Semen Quan (Sp 9). For reduced appetite, add blood and pus in the stools, add 12 grams each of Bai Tou Liang Men (St 21). For sore throat or mouth sores, add Zhao Weng (Radix Pulsatillae) and Di Yu (Radix Sanguisorbae). For external genital sores, add nine grams of Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis). For leukopenia, add 12 grams each of Huang Qi (Radix scanty, dark urine, add Yin Ling Quan (Sp 9). For oral sores, add 15 grams each of Tai Zi the fall, oral and genital sores which are not particularly Shen (Radix Pseudostellariae) and Bie Jia (Carapax painful or may be accompanied by chilly pain, sores which Trionycis). For edema in the lower limbs, add nine grams each of Dang Shen (Radix Codonopsitis) 9g Wu Jia Pi (Cortex Acanthopanacis) and Han Fang Ji (Radix Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) 9g Stephaniae). For undigested food in stools and fifth watch or Fu Ling (Poria) 9g cockcrow diarrhea, add three grams of Wu Zhu Yu (Fructus Tao Ren (Semen Persicae) 9g Evodiae) and nine grams of Rou Dou Kou (Semen Hong Hua (Flos Carthami) 9g Myristicae). Supplementing Ming Men and Shen Shu with moxi Chai Hu (Radix Bupleuri) 6g bustion warms and supplements kidney yang. For sore throat or mouth sores, add Zhao Dang Gui nourish the blood to fill the vessels and thus pre Hai (Ki 6). For frequent mix-fried Gan Cao boost the qi to move the qi and quicken stools, add Tian Shu (St 25). Zhi Ke and Chai Hu move and rectify the qi to add Xue Hai (Sp 10) and Shang Ju Xu (St 37). For reduced excessive treatment with antibiotics or bitter, cold Chinese appetite, add Liang Men (St 21). As with most chronic, enduring conditions, liver depres effects of those Western medicines as well as achieve a better sion qi stagnation typically plays a part in this disease even therapeutic effect eventually leading to a reduction in dose or though no Chinese sources suggest a liver qi pattern of this discontinuation of use of those Westerns medicines. Hesitancy and intermittency with decreased size and damage by the seven affects, and unregulated eating and force of the urinary stream occur. Sensations of incomplete drinking emptying, terminal dribbling, almost continuous overflow incontinence, and complete urinary retention may ensue. First, there may be prolonged attempts to retain urine, immobolization, expo spleen and/or kidney vacuity. It is the qi which moves the sure to cold, anesthetic agents, anticholinergic and sympatho excess fluids outside the body as well as keeps righteous flu mimetic drugs, and ingestion of alcohol. Therefore, either spleen or kidney qi retention, whether partial or complete, may cause progres vacuity may cause lack of force to discharge the urine and/or sive renal failure and azotemia. This may be catheterization after voiding to measure residual urine and either or any combination of qi stagnation, blood stasis, or cystoscopy to estimate gland size. And third, damp heat may cause uri ed by secondary chronic bacterial prostatitis, antibiotics may nary urgency, frequency, burning, and pain. Catheter drainage, whether urethral or suprapubic, may be used to treat acute Because the lungs also play a role in water metabolism in the urinary retention. Although new drugs (finasteride, Proscar) body, there is one other disease mechanism which may play have shown some success in shrinking enlarged prostates, till a part in this condition. If phlegm heat obstructs the diffus recently, surgery (transurethral resection of the prostate) has ing and downbearing of the lungs, the lungs may lose con been the definitive treatment. For inhibited urination, urination with a thin or cleft stream, the kidney vacuity, add nine grams each of Gou Qi Zi (Fructus necessity of urinating several times to empty the bladder or Lycii), Xu Duan (Radix Dipsaci), and Tu Si Zi (Semen incomplete urination, dribbling urination, lower abdominal Cuscutae). With even supplement Ju He (Semen Citri Reticulatae) 15g ing-even draining method, Hui Yin frees the network vessels in Chuan Lian Zi (Fructus Toosendan) 15g the perineal area, eliminates distention, and stops pain. If heat is more pro Hai Dai (Thallus Laminariae) 12g nounced, add Nei Ting (St 44) and Xing Jian (Liv 2). If cold Mu Xiang (Radix Auklandiae) 9g is marked, add indirect moxibustion to Hui Yin, Zhong Ji, Mu Tong (Caulis Akebiae) 9g and Guan Yuan. For Hou Po (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis) 9g stabbing pain in the genitals, add Da Dun (Liv 1). For stab Zhi Shi (Fructus Immaturus Aurantii) 6g bing, or piercing pain during urination, add Shui Dao (St 28) Rou Gui (Cortex Cinnamomi) 6g and Zhi Bian (Bl 54). For concomitant damp heat, lence, a normal or slightly dark tongue with white, slimy fur, delete Rou Gui and add nine grams each of Che Qian Zi and a bowstring, slippery pulse (Semen Plantagis), Ze Xie (Rhizoma Alismatis), and Tu Fu Ling (Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae). Xia Ku Cao, Xuan Shen, Mu Li, Hai Fu Tao Ren (Semen Persicae) 9g Shi, Kun Bu, Hai Zao, and Zhe Bei Mu soften the hard and Sheng Ma (Rhizoma Cimicifugae) 9g scatter the nodulation. In addition, Xia Ku Cao clears the Bi Xie (Rhizoma Dioscoreae Hypogalucae) 9g liver, Mu Li quiets the ethereal soul, and Hai Fu Shi, Kun Bu, Qu Mai (Herba Dianthi) 9g Hai Zao, and Zhe Bei Mu transform phlegm. Dan Shen, Chi Hua Shi (Talcum) 9g Shao, Dang Gui, and Niu Xi quicken the blood and trans Zhi Zi (Fructus Gardeniae) 9g form stasis. If damp heat has damaged yin, add nine frees the flow of the network vessels in the bladder and per grams of E Jiao (Gelatinum Corii Asini). For spasmodic pain, add 15 grams of Bai Shao (Radix Paeoniae Albae) and nine grams of Shi Chang Pu (Rhizoma 3. For a damp, itchy scrotum, add nine grams Shan Yao (Radix Dioscoreae) 15g each of Ku Shen (Radix Sophorae Flavescentis) and Di Fu Zi Xu Duan (Radix Dipsaci) 15g (Fructus Kochiae). For nausea and stomach and abdominal Sang Ji Sheng (Herba Taxilli) 15g distention, add nine grams each of Ban Xia (Rhizoma Fu Ling (Poria) 15g Pinelliae) and Chen Pi (Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae). For Wu Yao (Radix Linderae) 15g concomitant spleen qi vacuity, add 15 grams each of Huang Fu Pen Zi (Fructus Rubi) 15g Qi (Radix Astragali) and nine grams each of Dang Shen Ze Xie (Rhizoma Alismatis) 9g (Radix Codonopsitis), Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Dan Pi (Cortex Moutan) 9g Macrocephalae), and Fu Ling (Poria). San Yin Jiao and Zhi Bian quicken the blood nine grams each of Rou Gui (Cortex Cinnamomi) and Zhi and disinhibit urination, free the flow of the network vessels Fu Zi (Radix Lateralis Praeparatus Aconiti Carmichaeli). Needle Zhi Bian with deep insertion in the more serious blood stasis, add 15 grams of Dan Shen (Radix direction of Gui Lai (St 29) or Shui Dao (St 28). For hema enlargement of the prostate which is, nevertheless still soft, turia, add Xue Hai (Sp 10). For an itchy, damp scrotum, add Li Gou and hardening of the prostate, add 12 grams of E Zhu (Liv 5). For con comitant qi stagnation, add Tai Chong (Liv 3) and Qu Quan comitant damp heat, add nine grams each of Zhi Mu (Liv 8). For pain and distention in the lower abdomen, add (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae) and Huang Bai (Cortex Gui Lai (St 29) and Qu Quan (Liv 8). For insomnia and restlessness, An alternative treatment is Bu Shen Li Niao Tang add Tong Li (Ht 5). For fatigue and lassitude of the spir Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) and nine grams of Dang Shen it, add Tai Bai (Sp 3). For concomitant damp heat, drain Yin Ling Quan (Sp comitant kidney yang vacuity, add 12 grams each of Yin Yang 9). Supplementing Guan Yuan and Phellodendron Rehmannia Pills with Additions & Shen Shu supplements the kidneys and secures and astringes. Subtractions) In addition, needling Guan Yuan leads ministerial fire back downward to its lower source. Supplementing Tian Men Dong (Tuber Asparagi) 12g Fu Liu, the metal-mother point of the kidney channel, sup Ze Xie (Rhizoma Alismatis) 12g plements the kidneys and enriches yin. Ze Xie, Bi Xie, and Fu Ling clear and disinhibit Boost the Qi Decoction with Additions & Subtractions) dampness and heat in the lower burner. Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) 20g Hu Po quickens the blood and quiets the spirit, disinhibits Dang Shen (Radix Codonopsitis) 15g dampness and stops pain. Rou Gui in a small dosage returns Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) 9g fire to its lower origin and strengthens the qi transformation Fu Ling (Poria) 9g of the bladder. For Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) 15g dribbling urination, add nine grams each of Yi Zhi Ren Shu Di (cooked Radix Rehmanniae) 12g (Fructus Alpiniae Oxyphyllae), Qian Shi (Semen Euryalis), Shan Yao (Radix Dioscoreae) 9g and Tu Si Zi (Semen Cuscutae). For severe enlargement of Fu Ling (Poria) 9g the prostate but which is still soft, add 12 grams each of Hai Bai Zhu (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) 9g Zao (Sargassum), Kun Bu (Thallus Algae), and Mu Li Dang Shen (Radix Codonopsitis) 9g (Concha Ostreae). For severe enlargement but which is hard, Dang Gui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis) 9g add 12 grams of E Zhu (Rhizoma Curcumae) and three Shan Zhu Yu (Fructus Corni) 9g grams of Shui Zhi (Hirudo), powdered and taken with the Ze Xie (Rhizoma Alismatis) 6g strained decoction. For concomitant damp heat, add nine Dan Pi (Cortex Moutan) 6g grams each of Ku Shen (Radix Sophorae Flavescentis) and mix-fried Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) 6g Huang Bai (Cortex Phellodendri). Shu Di, Shan Yao, Hai, and Bai Hui with moxibustion boosts the qi and and Shan Zhu Yu together enrich yin and supplement the upbears the clear. Dang Gui nourishes liver blood and quickens the fortifies the spleen, boosts the qi, and upbears the clear. Chen Pi dries Moxaing Hui Yin harmonizes the network vessels and sup dampness and rectifies the qi. If tant damp heat, add Yin Ling Quan (Sp 9) and Nei Ting (St there is phlegm nodulation, increase the Chen Pi to nine 44). For sagging pain in the genitals, add Da Dun (Liv 1) grams and add 15 grams each of Xiao Ku Cao (Spica with moxibustion. For distention and pain in the lower Prunellae), Xuan Shen (Radix Scrophulariae), and Ju He abdomen, groin, and genitals, add Qu Quan (Liv 8). For (Semen Citri Reticulatae), 12 grams of Mu Li (Concha food stagnation, add Liang Men (St 21). For concomitant Ostreae), and nine grams each of Kun Bu (Thallus Algae), kidney qi vacuity, add Tai Xi (Ki 3). For concomitant, kid Hai Zao (Sargassum), Zhe Bei Mu (Bulbus Fritillariae ney yin vacuity, add Fu Liu (Ki 7). For severe qi vacuity, add Tai back pain, add nine grams each of Niu Xi (Radix Achyranthis Bai (Sp 3).
The clinical symptoms of metabolic etiology into 4 groups: vascular hiv infection map 5mg medex free shipping, infectious hiv infection diagnosis and treatment discount medex 5mg line, toxic and acidosis include: compensatory Kussmaul breathing hiv infection flu like symptoms discount medex 5mg otc, obstructive antiviral imdb buy discount medex 5 mg on line. Hyperkalaemia is Nephrosclerosis causes progressive renal vascular occlusion further worsened by metabolic acidosis hiv infection after 2 years order medex pills in toronto. The most common juxtaglomerular apparatus further aggravates sodium and example is intake of high doses of analgesics such as water retention. The main symptoms referable to sodium and phenacetin, aspirin and acetaminophen (chronic analgesic water retention are: hypervolaemia and circulatory overload nephritis). Uric acid crystals may leads to progressive damage to the nephron due to fluid back be deposited in joints and soft tissues resulting in gout. The waste-products of protein metabolism stones, blood clots, tumours, strictures and enlarged prostate. At this stage, damage to renal manifestations of uraemia are related to toxic effects of these parenchyma is marginal and the kidneys remain functional. A are normal and the patients are usually asymptomatic except number of extra-renal systemic manifestations develop at times of stress. At this stage, about 90% of functional renal as urochrome in the skin causes sallow-yellow colour. As a evaporation of the perspiration, urea remains on the facial result, the regulation of sodium and water is lost resulting skin as powdery ‘uraemic frost’. Radiologically, uraemic pneumonitis shows characteristic central, butterfly-pattern of oedema and congestion in the chest radiograph. Azotaemia directly induces mucosal ulcerations in the lining of the stomach and intestines. The skeletal manifestations of renal failure are referred to as renal osteodystrophy (Chapter 28). Two major types of skeletal disorders may occur: i) Osteomalacia occurs from deficiency of a form of vitamin D which is normally activated by the kidney (page 248). Since vitamin D is essential for absorption of calcium, its deficiency results in inadequate deposits of calcium in bone tissue. Decreased calcium level triggers the secretion of parathormone which mobilises calcium from bone and increases renal tubular reabsorption of calcium thereby conserving it. However, if the process of resorption of calcium phosphate from bone continues for sufficient time, hypercalcaemia may be induced with deposits of excess calcium salts in joints and soft tissues and weakening of bones (renal osteodystrophy). Approximately 10% of all persons are born with potentially significant malformations of the urinary system. These range in severity from minor anomalies which may not produce to accompanied pulmonary hypoplasia), haemorrhage, and clinical manifestations to major anomalies which are neoplastic transformation. A simple classification including either elsewhere in the urinary tract or in other organs. Medullary cystic disease under the heading of ‘cystic diseases of the kidney’ described 1. Multifocal cystic change in Wilms’ tumour (page 696) include: abdominal mass, infection, respiratory distress (due neoplastic cystic lesions of the kidney are described later 657 (page 694). Renal dysplasia is the most common form of cystic renal disease in the newborn and infants. The condition may occur sporadically or maybe familial and part of a syndrome of other anomalies. There are cysts lined by flattened kidney or its affected part is replaced by disorderly mass epithelium while the intervening parenchyma consists of primitive of multiple cysts resembling a bunch of grapes. The true adult in the mass represent dilated tubules lined by flattened polycystic renal disease is always bilateral and diffuse. Glomeruli and tubules are retained, and symptoms appear in adult life, mostly between scanty, primitive or absent. Unilateral renal dysplasia is frequently discovered in newborn or infants as a flank mass. The cut surface shows cysts throughout the renal the prognosis of unilateral renal dysplasia following parenchyma varying in size from tiny cysts to 4-5 cm in removal of the abnormal kidney is excellent while bilateral diameter (Fig. The contents of the cysts vary from renal dysplasia results in death in infancy unless renal clear straw-yellow fluid to reddish-brown material. An adult type inherited as an autosomal dominant disease; Histologically, the cysts arise from all parts of nephron. An infantile type inherited as an autosomal recessive glomerular tufts reflecting their origin from Bowman’s disorder. It is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and the family history of similar disease is usually not present. The age at presentation may be perinatal, neonatal, infantile or juvenile, but frequently serious manifestations are present at birth and result in death from renal failure in early childhood. Grossly, the kidneys are bilaterally enlarged with smooth external surface and Figure 22. Cut surface reveals small, of comparison of gross appearance of the two main forms. The condition may become sectioned surface of the kidney sponge-like appearance clinically apparent at any age but most commonly manifests (Fig. The clinical manifestations depend are cysts in the pancreas, spleen, lungs and other organs. In severe form, the gross bilateral cystic Approximately 15% of patients have one or more intracranial renal enlargement may interfere with delivery. Almost all cases of infantile polycystic kidney disease have associated multiple epithelium-lined cysts in the liver or proliferation of portal bile ductules. In older children, associated hepatic changes evelop into what is termed congenital hepatic fibrosis which may lead to portal hypertension and splenomegaly. The contrasting features of the two main forms of the polycystic kidney disease are presented in Table 22. Medullary Cystic Disease Cystic disease of the renal medulla has two main types: A. Nephronophthiasis-medullary cystic disease complex, a common cause of chronic renal failure in juvenile age group. The condition occurs in loss of demarcation between cortex and medulla and replacement of the adults and may be recognised as an incidental radiographic entire renal parenchyma by cyst s varying in diameter from a few millimeters to 4-5 cm. These cysts are not communicating with the pelvi finding in asymptomatic cases, or the patients may complain calyceal system. The renal pelvis and calyces are distorted due to cystic of colicky flank pain, dysuria, haematuria and passage of change. G/A Symmetric bilateral enlargement Micro and macrocysts radiating from medulla to outer cortex 7. M/E Macrocysts Enlarged, sometimes asymmetric, sponge-like Cysts derived from all parts of nephron Cysts from dilated collecting ducts (glomeruli, tubules) 8. Simple Renal Cysts with secondary complications of infection and calculus Simple renal cysts are a very common postmortem finding. Since these cysts are rare in infants and children, they be enlarged, normal or shrunken in size depending upon appear to be acquired rather than congenital lesions. The association between simple cysts and ducts, which may contain spherical calculi. They are cortex may show secondary pyelonephritis but cortical commonly located in the cortex. This form of medullary cystic disease, also called juvenile Microscopically, the lining of the cyst is by flattened nephronophthiasis or uraemic sponge kidney, is a progressive epithelium. It is classified into infantile, juvenile and collagenised fibrous tissue which may occasionally have adolescent type depending upon the age at presentation, deposits of haemosiderin or calcium salts. It is the most common form of genetic cause of end-stage renal disease in children V. The condition has an autosomal recessive A number of acquired conditions give rise to renal cysts. The clinical these include the following: manifestations are due to impaired urinary concentration 1. Patients with end-stage renal disease on prolonged consequent upon the medullary lesions and consist of poly dialysis (dialysis-associated cystic disease). Cut surface reveals minute cysts, majority of which are present at the cortico-medullary junction. Pararenal Cysts Microscopically, the cysts are lined by flattened or Cysts occurring adjacent to a kidney are termed pararenal cuboidal epithelium. These include the following: chronic inflammatory infiltrate and interstitial fibrosis. Hilar lymphangiectatic cysts more pronounced due to marked thickening of tubular 3. Glomerular diseases encompass a large and clinically A number of clinical syndromes are recognised in significant group of renal diseases. The following are six major glomerular or Bright’s disease is the term used for diseases that primarily syndromes commonly found in different glomerular diseases: involve the renal glomeruli. It is convenient to classify nephritic and nephrotic syndromes; glomerular diseases into 2 broad groups: acute and chronic renal failure; I. Primary glomerulonephritis in which the glomeruli are the asymptomatic proteinuria and haematuria. The haematuria is generally slight giving the urine smoky classifications of different types of glomerulonephiritis have appearance and erythrocytes are detectable by microscopy been described, but most widely accepted classification is or by chemical testing for haemoglobin. Appearance of red based on clinical presentation and pathologic changes in the cell casts is another classical feature of acute nephritic glomeruli given in Table 22. Hypertension is variable depending upon the severity the clinical presentation of glomerular disease is quite of the glomerular disease but is generally mild. Oedema in nephritic syndrome is usually mild and present in varying combinations depending upon the results from sodium and water retention (page 97). Minimal change disease pathogenesis; it is characterised by findings of massive 4. Amyloidosis (page 82) increased glomerular permeability to plasma proteins, excess 4. Polyarteritis nodosa (page 402) of protein is filtered out exceeding the capacity of tubules 5. Goodpasture’s syndrome (page 494) for reabsorption and, therefore, appears in the urine. Cryoglobulinaemia proteinuria unexpectedly in a patient may be unrelated to renal disease. Association of asymptomatic the concentration of other proteins in the plasma such as haematuria, hypertension or impaired renal function with immunoglobulins, clotting factors and antithrombin may fall asymptomatic proteinuria should raise strong suspicion of rendering these patients more vulnerable to infections and underlying glomerulonephritis. Oedema in nephrotic syndrome appears due to fall in microscopic haematuria is common in children and young colloid osmotic pressure consequent upon hypo albuminaemia.