By: Edward T. F. Wei PhD
There virus - buy cheap terramycin line, your nurse will check: • blood pressure and pulse • the puncture site • blood circulation to antibiotic drops for ear infection generic 250 mg terramycin otc your foot or hand You may have visitors once you are settled in your room antibiotics for uti chlamydia purchase terramycin without prescription. If the procedure was done through your groin: Your doctor will sometimes leave the introducer sheath in your leg for 4 hours after your procedure virus yontooc order terramycin 250mg with visa. If this happens: • You will need to antibiotic abuse discount terramycin 250mg fast delivery lie on your back with your leg straight for 4 hours. Preparing to go home the morning after You will have to do these things before you can go home: • You will have blood tests and an electrocardiogram. These tests will make sure that your heart muscle was not damaged during the procedure. If your cardiologist put a stent in your artery you may need to take clopidogrel (Plavix) or prasugrel for a while. During that time, the lining on the inside of your artery will grow over the stent. Your doctor will tell you when to stop taking the clopidogrel (Plavix) or prasugrel. Activities Do not do physically challenging activities during your frst week at home. Feelings and coping It is normal to feel anxious (worried) about your health after having problems with your heart. You might start to think about how you can change your lifestyle to prevent more problems. Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Angioplasty uses a balloon-tipped catheter to open a blocked blood vessel and improve blood flow. Angioplasty is minimally invasive and usually does not require general anesthesia. Your doctor will tell you how to prepare and if you should take your regular medication. Angioplasty, with or without vascular stenting, is a minimally invasive procedure. It is usually done in an interventional radiology suite rather than operating room. In angioplasty, x-ray fluoroscopy or other imaging is used to guide a balloon-tipped catheter (a long, thin plastic tube) into an artery or vein to where it is narrowed or blocked. A wire mesh tube called a stent may be permanently placed in the newly opened vessel to help keep it open. Angioplasty with or without stenting is commonly used to treat conditions that narrow or block blood vessels and interrupt blood flow. These conditions include: coronary artery disease, a narrowing of the arteries that carry blood and oxygen to the heart muscle. This is a build-up of cholesterol and other fatty deposits, called plaques, on the artery walls. Fistulas and grafts are artificial blood vessel connections doctors use in kidney dialysis. See the Dialysis and Fistula/Graft Declotting and Interventions page for more information. Tell your doctor about all the medications you take, including herbal supplements. List any allergies, especially to local anesthetic, general anesthesia or to contrast materials. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to radiation. If an x-ray is necessary, precautions will be taken to minimize radiation exposure to the baby. In most cases, you should take your usual medications, especially blood pressure medications. Other than medications, your doctor may tell you to not eat or drink anything for several hours before your procedure. In these procedures, x-ray imaging equipment, a balloon catheter, sheath, stent and guide wire are used. The equipment typically used for this examination consists of a radiographic table, one or two x-ray tubes and a television-like monitor that is located in the examining room. Fluoroscopy, which converts x-rays into video images, is used to watch and guide progress of the procedure. The video is produced by the x-ray machine and a detector that is suspended over a table on which the patient lies. A guide wire is a thin wire used to guide the placement of the diagnostic catheter, angioplasty balloon catheter and the vascular stent. A sheath is a vascular tube placed into the access artery, such as the femoral artery in the groin. Balloons and stents come in different sizes to match the size of the diseased artery. Stents are specially designed mesh, metal tubes that are inserted into the body in a collapsed state on a catheter. Using image guidance, the balloon catheter is inserted through the skin into an artery. It is advanced to the site of the blockage where the balloon is inflated to open the vessel. In this process, the balloon expands the artery wall, increasing blood flow through the artery. Angioplasty and stenting should only be performed by a physician specially trained in these minimally invasive techniques. You may be connected to monitors that track your heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen level and pulse. The area of your body where the catheter is to be inserted will be sterilized and covered with a surgical drape. This may briefly burn or sting before the area Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Page 3 of 8 Copyright© 2019, RadiologyInfo. Guided by live x-rays, the doctor inserts the catheter through the skin and guides it through the blood vessels until it reaches the blockage. Once the catheter is in place, contrast material will be injected into the artery to perform an angiogram. Using x-ray guidance, the doctor crosses the narrowing or blockage with a guide wire. Many times, stents need to be permanently placed inside the blood vessel to help keep it open. When the procedure is complete, the catheter is removed and pressure is applied to stop any bleeding. Sometimes, your doctor may use a closure device to seal the small hole in the artery. When an arm or wrist was used for access, you may have activity restrictions to follow. When the procedure is done, you will be transferred to a recovery room or to a hospital room. You may feel slight pressure when the catheter is inserted, but no serious discomfort. It is common for patients to feel some mild discomfort when the balloon is inflated. Bleeding at the site where the catheter entered the vein when veins are treated is less likely. Therefore, you may be discharged earlier if the procedure is performed for vein disease such as dialysis fistula. Your doctor may prescribe medicine to relax your arteries, protect against artery spasm and prevent blood clots. Tell your doctor right away if your leg changes color or if you feel pain or warm where the catheter was inserted. The interventional radiologist can tell you whether the procedure was a success by comparing your Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Page 5 of 8 Copyright© 2019, RadiologyInfo. During your follow-up visit, tell your doctor about any side effects or changes you have noticed. Benefits Compared to bypass surgery, balloon angioplasty and stent placement are much less invasive and relatively low-risk, low-cost procedures. Because general anesthetic is not required in most patients, there is no extended stay in the hospital. No surgical incision is necessary—only a small nick in the skin that does not need stitches. This can also occur when a stent is placed in the artery at the time of the angioplasty. Heavy bleeding from the catheter insertion site may require special medication or a blood transfusion. There is a risk of stroke when angioplasty and/or stenting are performed on the carotid artery. This blockage in the treated area typically occurs within 24 hours of the procedure. If it happens, medication to dissolve clots followed by angioplasty or stenting may be used. There is a very slight risk of an allergic reaction if contrast material is injected. These risks include damage to the blood vessel, bruising or bleeding at the puncture site, and infection. Contrast material may cause a decrease in kidney function, particularly if it already exists. Your Angioplasty and Vascular Stenting Page 6 of 8 Copyright© 2019, RadiologyInfo. Your doctor will check your kidney function before the procedure in order to lower this risk. Angioplasty with vascular stenting is just one way to treat narrowed or blocked arteries. It is very important for patients to make lifestyle changes, including eating a healthy diet that is low in saturated fat, exercising and not smoking. Patients with diabetes, high blood pressure and/or high cholesterol need to follow the treatment plan prescribed by their doctors. Angioplasty may have to be repeated if the same artery becomes blocked again, a condition called restenosis. Only about half of patients with renal vascular hypertension caused by atherosclerosis have their blood pressure successfully treated or improved by angioplasty/stenting. By the time it is done, many of these patients have disease in small arteries within the kidney that does not respond to angioplasty.
The hope is that one day the technology will exist to bacteria in urinalysis buy terramycin 250mg amex carefully thaw – and then revive – the people in this community antibiotic quinolone purchase terramycin 250mg on line. Civilizations in the distant future antibiotic vs virus purchase terramycin with a visa, it is presumed antibiotic overdose purchase terramycin with american express, will command the technology to antibiotic resistance concept map buy terramycin without a prescription cure the diseases that ravaged these bodies and brought them to a halt. Each of these dewars stores four bodies and up to five heads, all stored at 196°C. Each person dwelling in the Alcor dewars took a leap of faith, hoping and dreaming that someday the technology will materialize to thaw them out, revive them, and give them a second chance at life. I spoke to a member of the community (who awaits his eventual entry into the dewars when the time comes), and he allowed the whole conception was a wager. But, he pointed out, at least it gives him a better-than-zero chance of cheating death – better odds than the rest of us. Instead, he says, Alcor is about giving people a second chance at life, with the potential to live thousands of years or longer. Digital immortality Not everyone with a penchant for life extension has a fondness for cryopreservation. Others have moved along a different line of enquiry: what if there were other ways to access the information stored in a brain Not by bringing a deceased person back to life, but instead by finding a way to read out the data directly. After all, the sub microscopically detailed structure of your brain contains all your knowledge and memories – so why couldn’t that book be decrypted To begin, we’d need extraordinarily powerful computers to store the detailed data of an individual brain. Fortunately, our exponentially growing computational power hints at profound possibilities. The processing power of computer chips has doubled approximately every eighteen months, and this trend continues. The technologies of our modern era allow us to store unimaginable amounts of data and run gargantuan simulations. Twenty years ago, this supercomputer was equivalent to all the computer power on the planet. Twenty years from now, this will be a modest force – the type you might shrink down and wear on your body. Given our computing potential, it seems likely that we’ll someday be able to scan a working copy of the human brain onto a computer substrate. The typical brain has about eighty-six billion neurons, each making about ten thousand connections. Your experiences, your memories, all the stuff that makes you you is represented by the unique pattern of the quadrillion connections between your brain cells. Sebastian Seung at Princeton is working with his team to excavate the fine details of a connectome. With a system this microscopic and complex, it’s inordinately difficult to map out the network of connectivity. Seung uses serial electron microscopy, which involves making a series of very thin slices of brain tissue using an extremely precise blade. The result of each scan is a picture known as an electron micrograph – and this represents a segment of brain magnified one hundred thousand times. Moore’s prediction has held true through the intervening decades, and has become shorthand for the exponentially accelerating pace of technological change. Moore’s Law is used by the computing industry to guide long-term planning and set goals for technological advancement. Because the law predicts that technological progress will increase exponentially rather than linearly, some predict that at today’s rate there will be 20,000 years’ worth of progress in the next hundred years. At this pace we can expect to see radical advancements in the technology that we rely on. A slice of the connectome: these striking two-dimensional pictures are the first step toward working out the most complex circuit diagram in our known world. One very thin slice at a time, the borders of the cells are traced out – traditionally by hand, but increasingly by computer algorithms. Then the images are stacked atop one another, and an attempt is made to connect the full extent of individual cells across slices, to reveal them in their three-dimensional richness. This tiny chunk of brain tissue from a mouse contains about 300 connections (synapses). A chunk this size represents one 2,000,000,000th of a full mouse brain, and about one 5,000,000,000,000th of a human brain. The dense spaghetti of connections is just a few billionths of a meter across, about the size of the head of a pin. It’s not difficult to see why reconstructing the full picture of all the connections in a human brain is such a daunting task, and one that we have no real hope of accomplishing anytime soon. The amount of data required is gargantuan: to store a high-resolution architecture of a single human brain would require a zettabyte of capacity. Throwing far into the future, let’s imagine that we could get a scan of your connectome. Could this snapshot of all the circuitry of your brain actually have consciousness – your consciousness After all, the circuit diagram (which shows us what connects to what) is only half of the magic of a functioning brain. The other half is all the electrical and chemical activity that runs on top of those connections. The alchemy of thought, of feeling, of awareness – this emerges from quadrillions of interactions between brain cells every second: the release of chemicals, the changes in the shapes of proteins, the traveling waves of electrical activity down the axons of neurons. Consider the enormity of the connectome, and then multiply that by the vast number of things happening every second at every one of those connections, and you’ll get a sense of the magnitude of the problem. Unfortunately for us, systems of this magnitude cannot be comprehended by the human brain. Fortunately for us, our computational power is moving in the right direction to eventually open up a possibility: a simulation of the system. Their goal is to deliver by 2023 a software and hardware infrastructure capable of running a whole human brain simulation. The Human Brain Project is an ambitious research mission that collects data from neuroscience laboratories across the globe – this includes data on individual cells (their contents and structure) to connectome data to information about large-scale activity patterns in groups of neurons. Slowly, one experiment at a time, each new finding on the planet provides a tiny piece of a titanic puzzle. The goal of the Human Brain Project is to achieve a simulation of a brain that uses detailed neurons, realistic in their structure and their behavior. Even with this ambitious goal and over a billion euros of funding from the European Union, the human brain is still totally out of reach. S E R I A L E L E C T R O N M I C R O S C O P Y A N D T H E C O N N E C T O M E Signals from the environment are translated into electrochemical signals carried by brain cells. It is the first step by which the brain taps into information from the world outside the body. Tracing the dense tangle of billions of interconnected neurons requires specialized technology, as well as the world’s sharpest blade. A technique called “serial block-face scanning electron microscopy” generates high resolution 3D models of complete neural pathways from tiny slices of brain tissue. It’s the first technique to yield 3D images of the brain at nanoscale resolution (one billionth of a meter). Like a deli-slicer, a high-precision diamond blade mounted inside a scanning microscope cuts layer after layer from a tiny block of brain, producing a filmstrip in which each frame is an ultra-thin slice. The scans are then digitally layered on top of one another to create a high-resolution 3D model of the original block. By tracing features from slice to slice, a model emerges of the tangle of neurons that criss-cross and intertwine. Given that an average neuron can be between 4–100 billionths of a meter in length and have 10,000 different branches, it’s a formidable task. The challenge of mapping a full human connectome is expected to take several decades. The Human Brain Project: a large research team in Switzerland is compiling data from laboratories around the world – with the eventual goal of building a working simulation of a full brain. We are only at the beginning of our endeavor to map and simulate a full human brain, but there’s no theoretical reason why we can’t get there. If the details were captured and simulated correctly, would we be looking at a sentient being In the same way that computer software can run on different hardware, it may be that the software of the mind can run on other platforms as well. Consider the possibility this way: what if there is nothing special about biological neurons themselves, and instead it’s only how they communicate that makes a person who they are The idea is that the neurons and synapses and other biological matter aren’t the critical ingredients: it’s the computations they happen to be implementing. It may be that what the brain physically is doesn’t matter, but instead what it does. R A T B R A I N S the rat has had a terrible reputation for much of human history, but to modern neuroscience the rat (and the mouse) plays a crucial role in many areas of research. Rats have larger brains than mice, but both have important similarities to the human brain – in particular, the organization of the cerebral cortex, the outer layer that’s so important for abstract thinking. The outer layer of the human brain, the cortex, is folded over on itself to allow more of it to be packed into the skull. If you flattened the average adult cortex out it would cover 2,500 square centimeters (a small tablecloth). Despite these obvious differences in appearance and size, there are fundamental similarities between the two brains at the cellular level. Under a microscope it is almost impossible to tell the differences between a rat neuron and a human neuron. Both brains wire up in much the same way and go through the same developmental stages. Rats can be trained to do cognitive tasks – from distinguishing between scents to finding their way through a maze – and this allows researchers to correlate the details of their neural activity to specific tasks. If that turns out to be true, then in theory you could run the brain on any substrate. As long as the computations chug along in the right way, then all your thoughts, emotions, and complexities should arise as a product of the complex communications within the new material. In theory, you might swap cells for circuitry, or oxygen for electricity: the medium doesn’t matter, provided that all the pieces and parts are connecting and interacting in the right way. In this way, we may be able to “run” a fully functioning simulation of you without a biological brain. According to the computational hypothesis, such a simulation would actually be you.
Finally antimicrobial compounds terramycin 250 mg low price, Janicki antimicrobial qualities cheap terramycin 250mg otc, Kamarck medicine for uti yahoo discount 250mg terramycin visa, Shiffman prescribed antibiotics for sinus infection order cheap terramycin line, and Gwaltney (2006) showed that the intensity of conflict with a spouse predicted marital satisfaction unless there was a record of positive partner interactions antibiotics for uti in elderly order line terramycin, in which case the conflict did not matter as much. Again, it seems as though having a positive balance through prior positive deposits helps to keep relationships strong even in the midst of conflict. Relationships today are riddled with problems including divorce, infidelity, intimate partner violence, and chronic conflict. If you want to avoid some of these common pitfalls of relationships, if you want to build a good relationship with a partner or with your friends, it is crucial to make daily positive deposits in your relationship bank accounts. Doing so will help you enjoy each other more and also help you weather the inevitable conflicts that pop up over time. Some of the ways that have been most explored by researchers as a way to build your positive relationship bank account are through building intimacy by active constructive responding, expressing gratitude to the others, forgiving, and spending time in engaging joint activities. Although these are not the only ways that you can make positive deposits in one’s Positive Relationships 844 relationship bank accounts, they are some of the best examined. Consider how you might do more to make positive relationship deposits through these or other means for the survival and improvement of your relationships. What do you think are the most effective ways for making positive relationship deposits What are some of the most powerful relationship deposits that others have made into your relationship bank account What would you consider to be some challenging or engaging activities that you would consider doing more of with a close relationship partner Are there relationships of yours that have gotten into a negative spiral and could profit from positive relationship deposits Positive Relationships 846 Vocabulary Active-constructive responding Demonstrating sincere interest and enthusiasm for the good news of another person. Relationship bank account An account you hold with every person in which a positive deposit or a negative withdrawal can be made during every interaction you have with the person. Self-expansion model Seeking to increase one’s capacity often through an intimate relationship. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual factors in engaging in and responding to extramarital involvement. Couples’ shared participation in novel and arousing activities and experienced relationship quality. Daily marital interactions and positive affect during marital conflict among newlywed couples. Dealing with betrayal in close relationships: Does commitment promote forgiveness Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, Positive Relationships 848 904–917. Marital processes predictive of later dissolution: Behavior, physiology and health. Application of ecological momentary assessment to the study of marital adjustment and social interactions during daily life. Forgiveness in interpersonal relationships: Its malleability and powerful consequences. Expressing gratitude to a partner leads to more relationship maintenance behavior. Benefits of expressing gratitude: Expressing gratitude to a partner changes one’s view of the relationship. Intimacy, differentiation, and personality variables as predictors of marital satisfaction. The death of “till death us do part”: the transformation of pair-bonding in the 20th century. Subjective health, intimacy, and perceived self-efficacy after heart attack: Predicting life quality five years afterwards. Franklin & Leslie Zebrowitz More attractive people elicit more positive first impressions. This effect is called the attractiveness halo, and it is shown when judging those with more attractive faces, bodies, or voices. Moreover, it yields significant social outcomes, including advantages to attractive people in domains as far-reaching as romance, friendships, family relations, education, work, and criminal justice. Physical qualities that increase attractiveness include youthfulness, symmetry, averageness, masculinity in men, and femininity in women. Positive expressions and behaviors also raise evaluations of a person’s attractiveness. Cultural, cognitive, evolutionary, and overgeneralization explanations have been offered to explain why we find certain people attractive. Whereas the evolutionary explanation predicts that the impressions associated with the halo effect will be accurate, the other explanations do not. Although the research evidence does show some accuracy, it is too weak to satisfactorily account for the positive responses shown to more attractive people. Learning Objectives • Learn the advantages of attractiveness in social situations. We are enjoined not to “judge a book by its cover,” and told that “beauty is only skin deep. The attractiveness of peoples’ faces, as well as their bodies and voices, not only influences our choice of romantic partners, but also our impressions of people’s traits and important social outcomes in areas that have nothing to do with romance. This module reviews these effects of attractiveness and examines what physical qualities increase attractiveness and why. Although it may be no surprise that attractiveness is important in romantic settings, its benefits are found in many other social domains. More attractive people are perceived more positively on a wide variety of traits, being seen as more intelligent, healthy, trustworthy, and sociable. Although facial attractiveness has received the most research attention (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani, & Longo, 1991), people higher in body or vocal attractiveness also create more positive impressions (Riggio, Widaman, Tucker, & Salinas, 1991; Zuckerman & Driver, 1989). Not only are attractive adults judged more positively than their less attractive peers, but even attractive babies are viewed more positively by their own parents, and strangers consider them more healthy, affectionate, attached to mother, cheerful, responsive, likeable, and smart (Langlois et al. Teachers not only like attractive children better but also perceive them as less likely to misbehave, more intelligent, and even more likely to get advanced degrees. More positive impressions of those judged facially attractive are shown across many cultures, even within an isolated indigenous tribe in the Bolivian rainforest (Zebrowitz et al. Attractiveness not only elicits positive trait impressions, but it also provides advantages in a wide variety of social situations. In a classic study, attractiveness, rather than measures of personality or intelligence, predicted whether individuals randomly paired on a blind date wanted to contact their partner again (Walster, Aronson, Abrahams, & Rottman, 1966). Although attractiveness has a greater influence on men’s romantic preferences than women’s (Feingold, 1990), it has significant effects for both sexes. Attractive men and women become sexually active earlier than their less attractive peers. Also, attractiveness Attraction and Beauty 851 in men is positively related to the number of short-term, but not long-term, sexual partners, whereas the reverse is true for women (Rhodes, Simmons, & Peters, 2005). These results suggest that attractiveness in both sexes is associated with greater reproductive success, since success for men depends more on short-term mating opportunities—more mates increases the probability of offspring—and success for women depends more on long-term mating opportunities—a committed mate increases the probability of offspring survival. Of course, not everyone can win the most attractive mate, and research shows a “matching” effect. More attractive people expect to date individuals higher in attractiveness than do unattractive people (Montoya, 2008), and actual romantic couples are similar in attractiveness (Feingold, 1988). More attractive people are more popular with their peers, and this is shown even in early childhood (Langlois et al. The attractiveness halo is also found in situations where one would not expect it to make such a difference. For example, research has shown that strangers are more likely to help an attractive than an unattractive person by mailing a lost letter containing a graduate school application with an attached photograph (Benson, Karabenick, & Lerner, 1976). More attractive job applicants are preferred in hiring decisions for a variety of jobs, and attractive people receive higher salaries (Dipboye, Arvey, & Terpstra, 1977; Hamermesh & Biddle, 1994; Hosoda, Stone-Romero, & Coats, 2003). More attractive congressional candidates are more likely to be elected, and more attractive defendants convicted of crimes receive lighter sentences (Stewart, 1980; Verhulst, Lodge, & Lavine, 2010). A smaller percentage of overweight than normal-weight college applicants are admitted despite similar high school records (Canning & Mayer, 1966), parents are less likely to pay for the education of their heavier weight children (Crandall, 1991), and overweight people are less highly recommended for jobs despite equal qualifications (Larkin & Pines, 1979). College undergraduates express a greater desire to affiliate with other students who have more attractive voices (Miyake & Zuckerman, 1993), and politicians with more attractive voices are more likely to win elections (Gregory & Gallagher, 2002; Tigue, Borak, O’Connor, Schandl, & Feinberg, 2012). These are but a few of the research findings clearly demonstrating that we are unable to adhere to the conventional wisdom not to judge a book by its cover. Most research investigating what makes a person attractive has focused on sexual attraction. We are attracted to infants (nurturant Attraction and Beauty 852 attraction), to friends (communal attraction), and to leaders (respectful attraction). Although some facial qualities may be universally attractive, others depend on the individual being judged as well as the “eye of the beholder. The fact that attractiveness is multifaceted is highlighted in research suggesting that attraction is a dual process, combining sexual and aesthetic preferences. More specifically, women’s overall ratings of men’s attractiveness are explained both by their ratings of how appealing a man is for a sexual situation, such as a potential date, and also by their ratings of how appealing he is for a nonsexual situation, such as a potential lab partner (Franklin & Adams, 2009). The dual process is further revealed in the finding that different brain regions are involved in judging sexual versus nonsexual attractiveness (Franklin & Adams, 2010). More attractive facial features include youthfulness, unblemished skin, symmetry, a facial configuration that is close to the population average, and femininity in women or masculinity in men, with smaller chins, higher eyebrows, and smaller noses being some of the features that are more feminine/ less masculine. Similarly, more feminine, higher-pitched voices are more attractive in women and more masculine, lower-pitched voices are more attractive in men (Collins, 2000; Puts, Barndt, Welling, Dawood, & Burriss, 2011). In the case of bodies, features that increase attractiveness include a more sex-typical waist-to-hip ratio—narrower waist than hips for women but not for men—as well as a physique that is not emaciated or grossly obese. For example, a classic study found that when children were asked to rank-order their preferences for children with various disabilities who were depicted in pictures, the overweight child was ranked the lowest, even lower than a child who was missing a hand, one who was seated in a wheelchair, and one with a facial scar (Richardson, Goodman, Hastorf, & Dornbusch, 1961). Attraction and Beauty 853 Although there are many physical qualities that influence attractiveness, no single quality seems to be a necessary or sufficient condition for high attractiveness. A person with a perfectly symmetrical face may not be attractive if the eyes are too close together or too far apart. One can also imagine a woman with beautiful skin or a man with a masculine facial features who is not attractive. Even a person with a perfectly average face may not be attractive if the face is the average of a population of 90-year-olds. These examples suggest that a combination of features are required for high attractiveness. In the case of men’s attraction to women, a desirable combination appears to include perceived youthfulness, sexual maturity, and approachability (Cunningham, 1986). In contrast, a single quality, like extreme distance from the average face, is sufficient for low attractiveness. Although certain physical qualities are generally viewed as more attractive, anatomy is not destiny. Attractiveness is positively related to smiling and facial expressivity (Riggio & Friedman, 1986), and there also is some truth to the maxim “pretty is as pretty does.
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