By: Edward T. F. Wei PhD
Food a higher firmness in the samples heated by microwave and elec particles with large size and density need more time for size re tric cooker antiviral restriction factor transgenesis in the domestic cat buy generic mebendazole 100mg. Cooking increased pasting temperatures and decreased duction in the antrum antivirus mac buy discount mebendazole 100mg, consequently requiring long time for emp peak viscosity hiv infection rates 2015 order 100 mg mebendazole with mastercard. Holm and oth and 117 ± 19 min for the 10 mm liver particles (Moore and oth ers (1989) also documented that incompletely gelatinized starch ers 1981) antiviral tea order 100mg mebendazole with mastercard. Spheres with specific gravity greater than 1 or less than products were digested more slowly in vitro andelicitedlower 1 may sink or float out of the central moving stream in the stom glucose responses in rats compared with completely gelatinized ach; both are emptied more slowly than spheres of the same size samples antiviral genes order mebendazole 100 mg overnight delivery. This princi ple has been used in the design of floating dosage form, which has Summary and Recommendations a density less than that of the gastric fluids and therefore can be for Future Research retained in the stomach for a prolonged period (Arora and others n the human stomach, mechanical and chemical actions work 2005). The rate of food References disintegration in stomach is a key factor influencing emptying rate Abrahamsson B, Alpesten M, Bake B, Larsson A, Sjogren J. Eur J Pharm Bio and subsequently affecting absorption of nutrients in the intestine. It is reported that faster disintegration and emptying of drug tablets Abrahamsson B, Albery T, Eriksson A, Gustafsson I, Sjoberg M. Food effects on is responsible for the faster absorption of drug ingredients in the in tablet disintegration. Studies in medicine, pharmacy, and in vitro and numerical analysis of shear-induced drug release from extended nutrition have demonstrated that food disintegration in stomach is release tablets in the fed stomach. Mechanical properties of foods re a complex process involving numerous variables, including particle sponsibleforresistingfoodbreakdowninthehumanmouth. Effects of gravity on gastric emptying, in testinal transit, and drug absorption. Determination of the mechan related factors, decide the time taken for food to be disintegrated ical impact force in the in vitro dissolution test and evaluation of the correlation between in vivo and in vitro release. Evaluation of the correla of systemic delivery of the food component for absorption. Gastric emptying of solids is tion and predict the digestion and subsequent metabolism. Gut36(6):825 ing will not only benefit food-processing industry in developing 30. The effect of guar gum on the viscosity of the gas Past studies on food digestion in stomach involved using scintig trointestinal contents and on glucose uptake from the perfused jejunum in the rat. A and distribution of bulk foods and its delivery from the stomach dynamic artificial gastrointestinal system for studying the behavior of orally ad ministered drug dosage forms under various physiological conditions. Use of echo planar imaging to demonstrate the effect of posture on the intragastric distribution and emptying of food disintegration, as well as the changes of rheological properties an oil/water meal. Axial forces during gastric emptying in health and rial properties such as texture and microstructure affect the gastric models of disease. Relation be tween antral motility and gastric emptying of solids and liquids in humans. Am J conducted on the effect of food processing on food digestion and Physiol 249(5 Pt 1):G5805. Gastric between food processing and the resultant physical and chemical emptying of solids and semi-solids in morbidly obese and non-obese subjects: an assessmentusingthe13C-octanoic acidand 13C-aceticacid breathtests. ObesSurg properties of foods, and subsequently their disintegration perfor 17(2):23641. Euro understanding of materials science, physical chemistry, and bio J Pharm Sci 14(4):34753. Effects of meal physics is needed, together with knowledge of how the processing size and correction technique on gastric emptying time: studies with two tracers of a food material affects its structure (Norton and others 2007). Effects of increas In vitro digestion models need to be developed to enable detailed ing solid component size of a mixed solid/liquid meal on solid and liquid gastric investigations of food disintegration kinetic as related to the influ emptying. Theaddition of locustbean gumbut not wa ences of hydrodynamic and mechanical contraction forces that are ter delayed the gastric emptying rate of a nutrient semisolid meal in healthy sub present in vivo. Approaches to assess the oral bioaccessibility of persistent or ganic pollutants: a critical review. Studies are needed to explore the relation De Boever P, Deplancke B, Verstraete W. Fermentation by gut microbiota cul ships between food texture, microstructure, and chemical proper tured in a simulator of the human intestinal micorbial ecosystem is improved by supplementing a soygerm powder. Furthermore, studies are necessary to un accommodation:overviewandevaluationofcurrentmethods. CritRev hydrates, and lipids during food processing and the role of these Food Sci Nutr 46(8):64963. The rheological properties of gastric tying and increases satiety in obese subjects. Dissolution testing as a prog to the development of innovative processing methods for optimal nostic tool for oral drug absorption: immediate release dosage forms. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of food compounds, applica Fosamax (alendronate) [letter]. Effects of meal consistency and ingested fluid volume on the intragastric Krul C, Luiten-Schuite A, Baandagger R, Verhagen H, Mohn G, Feron V, Havenaar R. Application of a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal tract model to study the iment Pharmacol Ther 16(2):21724. Guidance for industry, extended release oral dosage forms: development, vitro gastrointestinal model. Effect of texture of plastic and elastic model sucrose and maltose on gastric emptying rate and appetite. Role of viscous guar gums in lowering the to assess carotenoid bioavailability from meals. Effects of fat on gastric emptying of and the glycemic, insulin, ods on the physical properties of cooked rice and on in vitro starch hydrolysis and andincretinresponsestoacarbohydratemealintype2diabetes. An in vitro method to simulate gastric functions during digestion of ordinary solid meals in man. Gastroenterol phenolic compound release from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric response to increased meal viscosity as Changes in intragastric meal distribution are better predictors of gastric emptying sessed by echo-planar magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Effect of meal viscosity and nutrients on satiety, intragastric dilution, and Hedren E, Diaz V, Svanberg U. Physical and chemical transformations of cereal food Marshall T, Constable P, Crochik S, Wittek T. Effect of increasing the caloric/osmotic and fluid outflow on postcibal gastric emptying of solids. Am J Physiol 250(Gas content of the liquid component of a mixed solid and liquid meal on gastric emp trointest Liver Physiol 13):G1614. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man. Gastrointestinal digestion of food allergens: effect on their aller distribution in the food bolus after mastication of natural foods. Effects of from wholegrain foods measured using three different analytical methods. J Sci posture on gastric emptying, transpyloric flow and hunger after a glucose drink in Food Agr 85(7):117785. Product/process integration in food manufacture: evaluate the mechanical destructive force in the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding food structuring and breakdown: Kamba M, Seta Y, Kusai A, Nishimura K. Development of an in vitro digestion model for estimating the bioaccessibil surement of agitation force in dissolution test and mechanical destructive force in ity of soil contaminants. Gastric emptying of liquids and solids: roles of proximal and distal virtual stomach to evaluate gastric mixing and breakdown of solid food. Comparison of the rates of disintegration, gastric emptying, tric flow and mixing studied using computer simulation. Proc Royal Soc London: and drug absorption following administration of a new and a conventional parac Biol Sci 271:258794. Diabetes Care 24:371 ment of axial forces during emptying from the human stomach. Effect of thickening agent in the in vitro mouth, stomach and in assessing the bioaccessibility of contaminants from food. J Pharm Pharmacol 55:443 Vertzoni M, Dressman J, Butler J, Hempenstall J, Reppas C. Imaging and modeling of digestion in the stomach and the duode mined in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model. Magnetic resonance imaging for the assess sibility of isoflavones from soy bread during in vitro digestion. Impact of the intragastric location of extended re tion under fasted and fed conditions in humans. Knowledge of the different types of digestive systems is critical in selecting the proper feeds for livestock. Understanding the chemical and physical changes that occur during the digestion process leads to more efficient livestock feeding. The polygastric or ruminant digestive system has a large stomach divided into compartments. A pseudo-ruminant is an animal that eats large amounts of roughage but does not have a stomach with several compartments. Mouth and Esophagus the chewing action of the mouth and teeth breaks, cuts, and tears up the feed. Ruminant Stomach the four parts of the ruminant stomach are rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. It is the bacterial action in the rumen that allows ruminants to use large amounts of roughage. Monogastric Stomach When feed enters the stomach of monogastrics or the abomasum of ruminants, gastric juices begin to flow. Small intestine the partly digested feed that leaves the stomach enters the small intestine. Cecum the cecum or blind gut is found where the small intestine joins the large intestine. Large Intestine Continued: Feed materials that are not digested or absorbed are called feces. But think about this factyour intestines have a surface area about the size of a tennis court all coiled up inside your body. They fit inside of you because your large and small intestines are like a giant Slinky that scrunches up.
A smaller number of people will develop allergic contact dermatitis where a particular allergen can cause an inflammatory response hiv virus infection process video mebendazole 100 mg generic, usually hours to true hiv infection stories order mebendazole 100 mg without prescription days later hiv infection rate condom order mebendazole with amex, which clinically may appear similar to antiviral for shingles 100 mg mebendazole irritant contact dermatitis hiv male yeast infection best order mebendazole. It is important that any health care provider who has a significant allergic, asthmatic, or dermatitis history, or who develops symptoms that may be related to work exposures, be assessed by occupational 322 health and safety. Exposure to workplace chemicals may be reduced through the use of engineering controls. Caution should be taken when cleaning and disinfection is performed in small and/or poorly ventilated spaces to reduce the risk of irritation to exposed skin and respiratory tract, and to ensure that exposure limits are not exceeded. Facilities should periodically conduct an occupational hazards assessment with respect to cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment. The assessment should evaluate risks, and ensure that the safest cleaning agents, equipment and processes are selected; that appropriate training and access to personal protective equipment are in place; and that staff are aware of protocols to be 318 followed in the event of accidents, exposures or injuries. The use of automated dispensing systems or ready-to-use products is preferred over manual dilution and mixing, as automated systems reduce direct personal contact with concentrated products and reduce inhalation of volatile organic compounds from concentrated products. Automated systems also ensure that correct dilution ratios are obtained and eliminate the need for decanting. Applications of cleaning chemicals by aerosol or trigger sprays may cause eye injuries or induce or 141,144,222,317,323-331 compound respiratory problems or illness and must not be used. Repetitive movements, awkward work postures, heavy lifting, and application of high forces. Products that are lighter in weight, easily emptied and having proper handle length help reduce the risk of injury. Additionally, a variety of handle lengths should be available to ensure that differently sized cleaning staff have access 222 to appropriate ergonomically designed equipment. For more information about ergonomic design related to environmental cleaning, visit the Public Services Health & Safety Association website. There shall be policies and procedures in place that include a sharps injury prevention program, post-exposure prophylaxis and follow-up, and a respiratory protection program for staff who may be required to enter an airborne infection isolation room accommodating a patient with tuberculosis. There must be appropriate attendance management policies in place that establish a clear expectation that staff members do not come into work when acutely ill with a probable infection or symptoms of an infection. Environmental Cleaning for Specialized Areas In this section, guidance is provided regarding cleaning and upkeep of specific facility areas including the cleaning of clean and soiled utility rooms, the upkeep of environmental cleaning equipment and supply rooms. Each client/patient/resident care area should be equipped with a room dedicated as a soiled utility room that may be used to clean soiled patient/resident 340 equipment that is not sent for central reprocessing. A separate room 80 shall be dedicated to the storage of clean supplies and equipment. A soiled utility room is used for temporary storage of supplies and equipment that will be removed for 80 341 cleaning, reprocessing or destruction, for the disposal of small amounts of liquid human waste, and 81 for rinsing and gross cleaning of medical instruments. Soiled utility rooms should: 80,81 Be physically separate from other areas, including clean supply/storage areas. If a soiled utility room is used only for temporary holding of soiled materials, the work counter and 81 clinical sink is not required; however, facilities for cleaning bedpans must be provided elsewhere. A clean utility/supply room for storing sterile supplies and equipment should: 80,81 Be separate from and have no direct connection with soiled workrooms or soiled holding areas. If feasible, the toilet brush may remain in the patients bathroom for the duration of the patients stay; if not, consideration should be given to using disposable toilet swabs. Toilet cleaning and disinfecting equipment should be discarded when the patient/resident leaves or sooner if required. In multi-bed rooms, a system should be developed for replacement of toilet brushes on a regular basis or as required. When choosing a tool for cleaning toilets, consideration should be given to equipment that will minimize splashing. To facilitate this, facilities shall have a sufficient number of rooms that are dedicated to the storage of cleaning equipment and supplies required for daily cleaning 80,340,341 (housekeeping closets) and are located conveniently throughout the facility. These rooms are 80,341 used for the storage, preparation and disposal of cleaning supplies and equipment, and are distinct from the clean utility/supply rooms described in 6. Facilities may also have centralized housekeeping rooms for storing bulky cleaning equipment and large 80,341 volume of supplies for distribution to local areas. At a minimum, there shall be at least one 80,340 housekeeping closet in all major care areas. In addition, housekeeping closets: Must be dedicated for use as a cleaning supply room where cleaning solution is prepared, and 80,341 dirty cleaning solution is disposed; and must not be used for other purposes. Infection prevention and control must assess construction and maintenance projects during planning, work, and after completion to verify that 31,86 infection prevention and control recommendations are followed throughout the process. Infection prevention and 31 control and occupational health and safety have the authority to halt projects if there is a safety risk. Cleaning is of particular importance both during construction and after completion of the construction project. This should be done as frequently as is necessary to avoid accumulation of dust and dispersion of dust to other areas of the facility, and at least daily. It is important that there is good liaison between the contractor, environmental services, infection prevention and control, and occupational health and safety. The level of cleaning that is expected during construction and at commissioning must be stated in the contract and the responsibility for cleaning 86 both the job site and adjacent areas shall be clearly defined. Where there is transport of construction materials (both clean and used materials) through the health care setting, a clear plan for traffic flow 86 that bypasses care areas as much as possible shall be established and adhered to. Responsibility for construction clean and hotel/health care clean must be clearly defined within the health care setting: Components of Construction Clean Performed by construction workers inside the construction zone/hoarding: Floors are swept to remove debris. Components of Hotel Clean in Areas of Active Construction Performed by facility cleaning staff in areas outside the construction zone/hoarding: Floors and baseboards are free of stains, visible dusts, spills and streaks. Until confirmed as a clean water source, all staff should assume that the water is contaminated. Immediate contamination may occur if the source of water harbours pathogenic bacteria. Regardless of the water source, the area will need to be cordoned off until cleaning and disinfection are completed. Persistent moisture following floods can lead to mould growth on plaster, drywall, carpeting and 124 86 furnishings. Wet carpets, if present, must be dried completely within 48 hours as the risk of mould growth increases substantially 86 after that point. If moisture persists beyond 48 hours, carpeting in a care area must be removed and 86 should not be replaced with carpeting (see 1. If the flooding involves a food preparation area, all food products that have come into contact with water must be discarded and the public health unit notified. Public health units must also be notified if vaccine refrigerators are involved in a flood or if flooding leads to a prolonged power outage that compromises food or vaccine refrigeration. Food service areas cannot re-open until the flood is controlled, the area has been cleaned, disinfected, and approval for food preparation has been obtained from public health units. Clean water Broken pipes, tub overflows, sink overflows, many Allow materials to dry appliance malfunctions, falling rainwater, broken completely before use. Gray water Overflow from a dishwater, washing machine or a Allow materials to dry Some degree of clean toilet bowl. Includes overflow Remove and discard wet Heavily and from a toilet bowl containing faeces, broken carpet, drywall, furniture and grossly sewer line, backed up sewage, all forms of ground other porous materials. A sample procedure for dealing with a flood in a health care setting may be found in Appendix 25. Shall be physically separate from other areas, including clean supply/storage areas. Must contain a utility sink if rinsing or gross cleaning of medical instruments or equipment is performed within the room. Shall contain personal protective equipment for staff protection during cleaning and disinfection procedures. Shall be dedicated for storage of cleaning supplies and the preparation and disposal of cleaning solution; and shall not be used for other purposes. Shall be appropriately sized to the amount of materials, equipment, machinery and chemicals stored in the room/closet, and allow for proper ergonomic movement within the room/closet. Shall have chemical storage that ensures chemicals are not damaged and may be safely accessed. Cleaning agents and disinfectants shall be stored in a safe manner in storage rooms or closets. Health care settings must have a plan in place to deal with the containment and transport of construction materials, as well as clearly defined roles and expectations of environmental service and construction staff related to cleaning of the construction site and areas adjacent to the site. Environmental microorganisms are the most frequently implicated, including Bacillus cereus and environmental fungi. Such outbreaks have been caused by errors in the washing process, contamination 347 during post-cleaning transportation and inappropriate storage conditions. In addition to outbreaks affecting patients, exposure of staff to harmful microorganisms can occur if soiled linens are not handled appropriately. In most staff exposures, failure to use appropriate personal protective equipment and/or inappropriate sorting of linens resulting in aerosolization contributed to 351-353 the transmission of microorganisms. Policies and procedures should address the collection, transport, handling, washing and drying of soiled 304 linen, including protection of staff. Published laundry regulations must be followed if the facility does its own laundry. In addition, carts shall be cleaned and disinfected before being 304 used to transport clean or sterile linen. If their use is unavoidable, ensure that they are properly 304 designed, maintained, cleaned, disinfected, and used in a manner that minimizes dispersion 92,218 of aerosols from contaminated laundry: Ensure that laundry bags are securely bagged and tightly closed before placing the filled bag 3,92 into the chute. Special handling of linen for clients/patients/residents on Additional Precautions is not 92,218,358 routinely required. Cloth linen bags should washed after each use and can be washed in the 3 same cycle as the linen contained in them. Laundered items should be taken out of the washer as soon 92,347 as feasible to reduce the risk of contaminating the washer and formation of biofilm. There should be 3,92 posted instructions on washing and drying patient/resident laundry. Using a disinfectant (such as bleach) may not offer additional advantage when soiling is at 347 low levels. However, a disinfectant can be used to enhance the overall disinfection of the laundry process when there is heavy soiling of the items to be laundered, or when resettling of microorganisms 347 in the wash or rinse water onto the laundered items is a concern. If a closed cart system is used, storage of clean linen carts in an 80,81 alcove is permitted if it is out of the path of normal traffic and under staff control. Disposable gloves are recommended and these should be sufficiently long to 304,322 cover the forearm and be tear-resistant. If reusable personal protective equipment is used, 304,322 it shall be cleaned daily at a minimum and designated to the individual. Any sharps found in linen shall be reported to management and documented to prevent future 304 incidents from happening. There shall be clear separation between clean and dirty laundry through all steps of the laundering process, including transportation and storage. It is estimated that about 60% of the waste generated by a health care facility is general (nonhazardous) waste, about one-third of the 361 waste is recyclable (including compost), and biomedical waste constitutes only about 7% of all waste. Responsibility for waste 296 management shall be clearly defined, with a commitment to sustainability by reducing the amount of 296,361,362 waste generated through waste segregation and diversion (reusing and recycling).
The right arm and is fed by local penetrating vessels from all andlegwereweakandatrophic four stages hiv infection order mebendazole online pills, consistentwithdis the major arteries hiv rates of infection in us order genuine mebendazole on-line. Stretch reexes below the neck were bilaterally hypothalamus above the pituitary gland results brisk keratitis hiv infection buy mebendazole cheap online, and the right plantar response was extensor antiviral products purchase mebendazole no prescription. The hypothalamus also may the right side of the body and the appreciation of harbor primary lymphomas of brain nuevo xl3 antiviral cheap mebendazole 100mg amex, gliomas, or pinprick was reduced on the left. Patients with hypothalamic the next day she was still alert and responsive, lesions often appear to be hypersomnolent ra butshedevelopeddifcultyincoughingandspeak ther than comatose. An endotra sigh, features that are usually lacking in patients cheal tube was placed and mechanical ventilation with coma due to brainstem lesions. Several hypotensive crises were treated involving this territory bilaterally in which there promptly with infusions of pressor agents, but no was profound loss of consciousness (see Figure pressor drugs were needed during the last 2 weeks 111). Intermittently during those nal days, she had of consciousness with lesions conned to the briefperiodsofunresponsiveness,butthenawakened medulla or the caudal pons. This principle is and signaled quickly and appropriately to questions 34 Plum and Posners Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma demanding a yes or no answer and opened or tion of C1 on C2, and compression of the C2 root closed her eyes and moved them laterally when causing occipital neuralgia. There was no other voluntary tempted to inject the root with ethanol to elimi movement. Almost immediately after the injec oped ocular bobbing when commanded to look tion, the patient became accid and experienced a laterally, but although she consistently responded respiratory arrest. On arrival in the neurology in to commands by moving her eyes, it was difcult tensive care unit she was hypotensive and apneic. She died of gastrointestinal On examination she had spontaneous eye move hemorrhage 26 days after entering the hospital. There was complete ac amount of dark, old blood overlying the right lat cid paralysis of the hypoglossal, vagal, and acces eral medulla adjacent to the fourth ventricle. Shelivedanother12weeksinthissetting,with large hemorrhage extended forward to destroy the out regaining function, and rarely was observed to central medulla all the way to the pontine junction sleep. Microscopic study demonstrated However, the injection of ethanol had apparently that, at its most cranial end, the hemorrhage de entered the C2 root sleeve and xed the lower stroyed the caudal part of the right vestibular nuclei brainstem up through the facial and abducens nu and most of the adjacent lower pontine tegmen clei without clouding the state of consciousness of tum on the right. The margins of this lesion contained an used to differentiate these different causes of loss organizing clot with phagocytosis and reticulum of consciousness. Neuropsychiatric considered unlikely that the lesion had changed ndings in anti-Ma2-positive paraneoplastic limbic substantially in size or extent of destruction in the encephalitis. The toxic effects of carbon di oxide and acetazolamide in hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral blood ow and metabolism in the Wernicke-Korsakoff A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the neuro syndrome. She had rheumatoid arthritis with subluxa scan and cognitive ndings in subclinical hepatic Pathophysiology of Signs and Symptoms of Coma 35 encephalopathy. J Neurosci 8, 40074026, of cobalamin deciency in dementia, evaluated clin 1988. Hallucina ductionin reticularactivatingsystem,withspecialref tions and delusions following a right temporoparieto erence to the diencephalon. Sleep abnormalities in pa following inactivation of the lower brainstem by selec tients with brain stem lesions. Neurology 26, 769776, tive injection of barbiturate into the vertebral circu 1976. J Comp Neurol 262, 105124, states: consensus-based criteria for establishing diag 1987. Hum anterior hypothalamic neuronal activity in the control Pathol 4, 583594, 1973. Regularly occurring periods Physicians and endorsed by the Conference of Med of eye motility, and concomitant phenomena, during ical Royal Colleges and their Faculties in the United sleep. Exp Neurol 6, nuclei of the cat brain stem: a topographical atlas of 103117, 1962. Ueber das electroenkephalogramm des dopaminergic neurons in the ventral periaqueductal menschen. J Physiol 538, 619 waking discharge of neurons in the posterior lateral 631, 2002. Orexins and raphe cells across the sleep-waking cycle and during orexin receptors: a family of hypothalamic neuropep cataplexy in narcoleptic dogs. The hypo amines on neurons of the rat visual cortex: single-cell cretins: hypothalamus-specic peptides with neuro iontophoretic studies. Narcolepsy tophoretically appliedmonoamines onsomatosensory in orexin knockout mice: molecular genetics of sleep corticalneuronsofunanesthetizedrats. Diffuse cortical projection systems: anato case of early onset narcolepsy and a generalized ab mical organization and role in cortical function. Organization of cerebral cortical afferent acteristics of histidine decarboxylase knock-out mice: systems in the rat. Neurons from the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum: a biochem containing hypocretin (orexin) project tomultiple neu ical and electron microscopic study. Catecholami tribution of melanin-concentrating hormone in the nergic-cholinergic interaction in the basal forebrain. The melanin basal forebrain neurons burst with theta during concentrating hormone system of the rat brain: an waking and paradoxical sleep. J Neurosci 25, 4365 immuno and hybridization histochemical character 4369, 2005. Discharge of iden responses of primate nucleus basalis neuron in a go/ tied orexin/hypocretin neurons across the sleep no-go-go task. Conict of in preoptic nucleus contains sleep-active, galaninergic tentionsduetocallosaldisconnection. Long organization of functionally segregated circuits linking lasting insomnia induced by preoptic neuron lesions basal ganglia and cortex. Annu Rev Neurosci 9, 357 and its transient reversal by muscimol injection into 381, 1986. Selective activation failure of forebrain with sparing of brain-stem func of the extended ventrolateral preoptic nucleus dur tion. Cortical lation of orexin neurons in mice results in narcolepsy, laminar abnormalitiesoccurrence and clinical sig hypophagia, and obesity. The neuropathol of neostigmine into the pontine reticular formation of ogy of the vegetative state after an acute brain insult. New 31 patients with Behcets disease and neurological York: Oxford University Press, pp 291340, 1938. High-resolution 2 Mutism developing after bilateral thalamo-capsular deoxyglucose mapping of functional cortical columns lesions by neuro-Behcet disease. Columnar specicity of in pathological ndings in the brain of Karen Ann trinsic horizontal and corticocortical connections in Quinlan. The examina Coma, indeed any alteration of consciousness, tion begins by informally assessing the patients is a medical emergency. First, the physician ad tering such a patient must begin examination dresses the patient verbally. If the patient does 38 Examination of the Comatose Patient 39 not respond to the physicians voice, the phy Table 21 Examination of the sician may speak more loudly or shake the pa Comatose Patient tient. When this fails to produce a response, the physician begins a more formal coma eval History (from Relatives, Friends, or Attendants) uation. Onset of coma (abrupt, gradual) the examiner must systematically assess the Recent complaints. To determine if there is a focal weakness, vertigo) structural lesion involving those pathways, it is Recent injury necessary also to examine the function of brain Previous medical illnesses. In particular, be Previous psychiatric history cause the oculomotor circuitry enfolds and Access to drugs (sedatives, psychotropic drugs) surrounds most of the arousal system, this part General Physical Examination of the examination is particularly informative. Vital signs Fortunately, the examination of the comatose Evidence of trauma patient can usually beaccomplishedvery quickly Evidence of acute or chronic systemic illness because the patient has such a limited range of Evidence of drug ingestion (needle marks, responses. However,theexaminermustbecome alcohol on breath) conversant with the meaning of the signs elic Nuchal rigidity (assuming that cervical trauma ited in that examination, so that decisions that has been excluded) may save the patients life can then be made Neurologic Examination quickly and accurately. Verbal responses the evaluation of the patient with a reduced Eye opening level of consciousness, like that of any patient, Optic fundi requires a history (to the extent possible), phys Pupillary reactions ical examination, and laboratory evaluation. Oculocephalic responses (assuming cervical However, as soon as it is determined that a trauma has been excluded) patient has a depressed level of consciousness, Oculovestibular responses the next step is to ensure that the patients Corneal responses brain is receiving adequate blood and oxygen. Respiratory pattern the emergency treatment of the comatose pa Motor responses Deep tendon reexes tient is detailed in Chapter 7. The physiology Skeletal muscle tone and pathophysiology of the cerebral circulation and of respiration are considered in the para graphs below. A history of headache of recent onset from relatives, friends, or the individuals, points to a compressive lesion, whereas the his usually the emergency medical personnel, who tory of depression or psychiatric disease may brought the patient to the hospital. In a diabetes, renal failure, heart disease, or other previously healthy, young patient, the sudden chronic medical illness are more likely to be onset of coma may be due to drug poisoning, suffering from metabolic disorders or perhaps subarachnoid hemorrhage, or head trauma; in brainstem infarction. A history of premonitory the elderly, sudden coma is more likely caused signs, including focal weakness such asdragging 40 Plum and Posners Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma of the leg or complaints of unilateral sensory conduct a formal coma evaluation. In assessing symptoms or diplopia, suggests a cerebral or the level of consciousness of the patient, it is brainstem mass lesion. Several methods the general physical examination is an im for providing a sufciently painful stimulus to portant source of clues as to the cause of arouse the patient without causing tissue dam unconsciousness. It is best to (Chapter 7), one should search for signs of begin with a modest, lateralized stimulus, such head trauma. Bilateral symmetric black eyes as compression of the nail beds, the supraor suggest basal skull fracture, as does blood be bital ridge, or the temporomandibular joint. Resistance to neck the stimulus, a more vigorous midline stimulus exion in the presence of easy lateral move may be given by the sternal rub. By vigorously ment suggests meningeal inammation such as pressing the examiners knuckles into the pa meningitis or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Flex tients sternum and rubbing up and down the ion of the legs upon exing the neck (Brud chest, it is possible to create a sufciently pain zinskis sign) conrms meningismus. Examina ful stimulus to arouse any subject who is not tion of the skin is also useful. Petechiae may suggest the response of the patient is noted and meningitis or intravascular coagulation. The types of motor responses seen are sure sores or bullae indicate that the patient considered in the section on motor responses has been unconscious and lying in a single (page 73). However, the level of response is position for an extended period of time, and important to the initial consideration of the are especially frequent in patients with barbitu depth of impairment of consciousness. A patient whose best After conducting the brief history and exami response to deep pain is to attempt to push the nation as outlined above and stabilizing the examiners arm away is considered to be stu patients vital functions, the examiner should porous, with localizing responses. Noxious stimuli can be delivered with minimal trauma to the supraorbital ridge (A), the nail beds or the ngers or toes (B), the sternum (C) or the temporo mandibular joints (D).
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Ophthalmoplegia, chronic progressive external, Kearns Perivascular spaces Sayre syndrome vs. Pineocytoma, 524527 Pachymeningopathies (thickened dura) Pituicytoma, 10521053 chronic subdural hematoma vs. Sarcoma Primitive neuroectodermal tumor-medulloblastoma atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor vs. Shunts Radiation-induced injury, 916919 cerebrospinal fluid shunts and complications, diagnostic checklist, 918 10141017 differential diagnosis, 917918 Sickle cell disease of brain, 290293 staging, grading, and classification, 918 Siderosis, superficial, 228231 Ramsay Hunt syndrome Sigmoid sinus pseudolesion cerebellopontine angle-internal auditory canal, sinus-jugular foramen, dural arteriovenous fistula vs. See Cerebral ischemia Syntelencephaly (middle interhemispheric variant), 4851 infarction, acute. Expert Consult eBooks give you the power to browse and find content, view enhanced images, share notes and highlightsboth online and offline. He had a past history of Coeliac Disease, which up until now was asymptomatic on a gluten free diet. A 40 year old female presents with mediastinal hilar lymphadenopathy and she has recently noticed slight weight loss and a cough. A trucut biopsy reveals a lymphoma showing large cells with mirror image nuclei, lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils. A 55 year old male presents with a history of chronic dyspepsia and with recent weight loss. Investigation by gastroscopy reveals a reduction in specialised gastric glands and the presence of slender giemsa staining filaments on the mucosal surface. Three days later, when she was about to start chemotherapy, she developed a temperature of 39. Investigations (the following day): serum sodium 138 mmol/L (137144) serum potassium 6. A imipenem toxicity B intravenous contrast toxicity C kidney infiltration D septic shock E tumor lysis syndrome 6. A 67-year-old man in previously good health is hospitalized because of a 2-day history of fever and diminished consciousness. He has been having fatigue and recently developed dyspnea on exertion and intermittent chills. He takes thyroid hormone replacement when he remembers and has used fexofenadine as needed for allergic rhinitis for the past 5 years. A 43-year-old man with severe acquired aplastic anemia has not responded to immunosuppressive agents. Which of the following would be prevented by using irradiated cellular blood products for this patient A 34-year-old woman is evaluated because of progressive fatigue and recurrent attacks of abdominal pain. Laboratory studies: Hemoglobin 6 g/dL Hematocrit 20% Leukocyte count 2500/L Platelet count 80,000/L Reticulocyte count 10% Blood smear Anisocytosis and polychromatophilia Haptoglobin 0 mg/dL Serum lactate dehydrogenase 645 U/L There is high level of hemosiderin in the urine. In an office visit for an annual checkup, a 46-year-old man reports that he has had malaise and intermittent sweats for the past few months but has been able to continue his job as a high school teacher. He takes simvastatin for hypercholesterolemia and hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension. On physical examination, he has lymphadenopathy: a 3-cm right axillary node and a 2 cm right supraclavicular node. Laboratory evaluation shows mild normochromic, normocytic anemia and an elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase level. On physical examination, her pulse rate is 88/min, and her blood pressure is 155/85 mm Hg. A 43-year-old man is evaluated because of crushing substernal chest pain that developed during a pickup basketball game with colleagues at work. He takes thyroid medication because he developed hypothyroidism 2 years after completing his therapy for Hodgkins disease. Results of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy reveal diffuse gastritis, along with mucosal thickening in the gastric antrum associated with a mass lesion. What is the most appropriate next step in the management of this patients illness A 64-year-old man is evaluated because of fatigue and shortness of breath on exertion. He denies blood loss, and his stool is negative for occult blood on three measurements. The total serum protein level is elevated, and the serum albumin level is low normal. Testicular lymphoma is the most common testicular tumor in people aged over 60 years E. Seventeen years ago she developed stage I ductal adenocarcinoma (estrogen receptor-positive) of the left breast; her disease was managed with lumpectomy, breast radiation therapy, and 5 years of tamoxifen therapy. The lump she now has is separate from the breast, subcutaneous in location, fixed to the underlying 4th rib, and nontender. Salah Mabrouk Khallaf What is the relationship of this fibroscarcoma to her original cancer and its treatment A 70-year-old man with an 80-pack-year smoking history is evaluated because of a chronic cough of 6 months duration. Chest radiograph shows a 3-cm mass in the left perihilar region, and bronchoscopic biopsy confirms poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. There are no significant findings on physical examination, and all blood studies are normal. Positron emission tomography scan shows distinct uptake in the left perihilar mass but only faint focal activity in the right lobe of the liver. Her mother died of lung cancer at the age of 60 years, and her father has had a head and neck cancer. She is very worried about getting cancer and wants to know what she can do to reduce her risk, as much as possible, of getting either of these cancers. In addition to avoidance of tobacco, which of the following approaches has been demonstrated to decrease risk for one or both of these cancers A 69-year old black man is evaluated because of a history of steadily increasing upper abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and a 4. The patient had a 40-pack-year history of cigarette smoking, but quit smoking 4 years ago. A fine-needle aspirate of the mass reveals atypical cells that are suspicious for malignancy. Obtain a consultation for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and possible biopsy and biliary stent placement D. Refer the patient to a tertiary-care center with surgical expertise in the management of patients with pancreatic and hepatobiliary disease 25. Which of the following cancer screening tests has been shown in randomized trials to decrease the risk of death from the target cancer A 45-year-old woman is evaluated because of a palpable 2-cm right axillary lymph node. The lymph node is completely resected, and histologic study shows adenocarcinoma; hormone receptors are negative. Breast cancer is the most likely diagnosis, and optimal therapy for breast cancer paradigm should be initiated. Lung cancer is the most likely diagnosis, and optimal therapy for lung cancer paradigm should be initiated. All known disease has been resected, and the patient requires careful monitoring for possible future recurrence. Radiation therapy to the right axilla is required with fields encompassing the right breast. He had noticed no alteration in stool calibre, gastrointestinal bleeding or unintended weight loss. A sigmoidoscopy revealed a 4-mm polyp in the mid-rectum, which was removed with forceps, and histology revealed a tubular adenoma. A 42-year-old woman is evaluated because she has noticed a thickening in her left breast over the past few weeks. She noticed it a few months ago, but because it seems to come and go, she put off seeking medical attention. When she was 35 years, she had one child (whom she breast-fed) after a normal first full-term pregnancy. Salah Mabrouk Khallaf On physical examination, there appears to be some asymmetry in breast tissue density in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast compared with the right one, but no discrete mass. Reassurance that because her family history is negative and the mammogram is negative, no additional studies or treatment is required C. A 26-year-old man with testicular cancer who is receiving chemotherapy is evaluated in the emergency department. He has an indwelling central venous port, but there are no localizing symptoms to suggest a source of infection. Blood samples are obtained from a peripheral vein and through the port and sent for culture; a urine culture is also ordered. A repeat chest radiograph is normal, and blood and urine specimens are again sent for culture. A 68-year-old woman is evaluated because of rectal bleeding that began recently and a sense of fullness in the rectum. Flexible sigmoidoscopy shows a mass 11 cm from the anus, and biopsy reveals adenocarcinoma. The patient is referred to a colorectal surgeon, and a low anterior resection is performed. The primary tumor, a 4-cm moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, penetrates the bowel wall. A 58-year-old postmenopausal woman has been taking hormone replacement therapy with combined estrogen and progestin for the past 4 years because she was told it would decrease her risk for heart disease. Her father died at age 65 years of heart disease, and she is concerned that she is also at risk. Three years ago, the patient had a breast biopsy that showed atypical hyperplasia. The patient is considering chemoprevention for breast cancer, but is nonetheless concerned about heart disease. Continue hormone replacement therapy alone for primary prevention of heart disease B.
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