By: Christopher Whaley PhD
One of these is C5a peptidase upper back pain treatment exercises order rizact with a visa, an enzyme that cleaves the human chemotactic factor pain management for dogs with bone cancer discount rizact 10 mg without prescription, C5a pain treatment center orland park il purchase cheap rizact on-line, and thus interferes with the inux of polymorphonuclear neutrophils at the sites of inammation (24) tuomey pain treatment center generic rizact 5mg line. Intranasal immunization of mice with a defective form of the streptococcal C5a peptidase reduced the colo nizing potential of several different streptococcal M-serotypes (25) pain medication for dogs hydrocodone order rizact american express. A second potential vaccine target is streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB), a cysteine protease that is present in virtually all group A streptococci. Mice passively or actively immunized with the cysteine protease lived longer than non-immunized animals after infection with group A streptococci (26). Epidemiological considerations Once a safe and effective streptococcal vaccine is available many practical issues would need to be addressed. Other issues, such as cost, route of administration, number and frequency of required doses, potential side-effects, stability of the material under eld conditions, and dura bility of immunity, would all inuence the usefulness of any vaccine. The most promising approaches are M-protein-based, including those using multivalent type-specic vaccines, and those directed at non-type-specic, highly conserved portions of the molecule. Success in developing vaccines may be achieved in the next 5–10 years, but this success would have to contend with important questions about the safest, most economical and most efcacious way in which to employ them, as well as their cost-effectiveness in a variety of epidemilogic and socio-economic conditions. A review of past attempts and present concepts of producing streptococcal immunity in humans. Intravenous vaccination with hemolytic streptococci: its inuence on the incidence of rheumatic fever in children. Persistence of type-specic antibodies in man following infection with group A streptococci. Epitopes of group A streptococcal M protein shared with antigens of articular cartilage and synovium. Rheumatic fever: a model for the pathological consequences of microbial-host mimicry. Streptococcal M protein: alpha-helical coiled-coil structure and arrangement on the cell surface. Alternate complement pathway activation by group A streptococci: role of M-protein. Inhibition of alternative complement pathway opsonization by group A streptococcal M protein. Streptococcal infections: clinical aspects, microbiology, and molecular pathogenesis. Type-specic immunogenicity of a chemically synthesized peptide fragment of type 5 streptococcal M protein. Multivalent group A streptococcal vaccine designed to optimize the immunogenicity of six tandem M protein fragments. Protection against streptococcal pharyngeal colonization with a vaccinia:M protein recombinant. Intranasal immunization with C5a peptidase prevents nasopharyngeal colonization of mice by the group A Streptococcus. Vaccination with streptococcal extracellular cysteine protease (interleukin-1 beta convertase) protects mice against challenge with heterologous group A streptococci. Adding to the burden on health systems of developing countries are the costs of outside referrals that are often required during the course of treatment. The socioeconomic costs were also borne by the parents of the patients, with 22% exhibiting absenteeism from work, and about 5% losing their jobs. As a programme design strategy, it is advisable to attempt small-scale pilot programmes before initiating large-scale national control programmes, as the lessons learnt from pilot schemes can, in addition to many other benets, prevent the waste of scarce resources (2, 7). These studies emphasize that national prevention programmes based on secondary prophylaxis have the potential for considerable cost savings, which could be used to improve the spread and gains of a programme. Evidence has been presented from a simulation study suggested that the most cost-effective strat egy was to treat all pharyngitis patients with penicillin (particularly those within an at-risk group), without a strict policy of waiting for the disease to be conrmed by bacterial culture (7, 11). However, this approach has not been conrmed and cannot be advocated until more thorough studies are carried out. In hospital settings where facilities are available, the “culture and treat” strategy has been shown to be cost-effective (12). Analysis of costs of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Auckland. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of pharyngitis management and acute rheumatic fever prevention. It is important to implement such programmes through the existing national infrastructure of the ministry of health and the ministry of education without building a new administrative mechanism. This would minimize additional costs and prevent unsus tainable monolithic programmes (2, 3, 6, 11, 12). Based upon previous experience (1, 2, 11, 12), planning and implementation of national programmes should be based on the following principles: • There should be a strong commitment at policy level, particularly in the ministries of health and education. A central or a local referral or registration centre should be established in participating areas. Attention should be given to patients who have difculties in adhering to long-term secondary prophylaxis regimes, or who drop out of the prevention regime. Primary prevention activities Primary prevention is based on the early detection, correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of individual patients with Group A strep tococcal pharyngitis. Such programmes need to part of the routine medical care available and should be integrated in to the existing health infrastructure. Health education to the public, teachers and health personnel would enhance the impact of a primary prevention programme. Health education activities Health education activities should address both primary and second ary prevention. The activities may be organized by trained doctors, nurses or teachers and should be directed at the public, teachers and parents of school-age children. Health education activities should focus on the importance of recognizing and reporting sore throats early; on methods that minimize and avoid the spread of infection; on the benets of treating sore throats properly; and on the importance of complying with prescribed treatment regimes. Health messages could be transmitted to parents indirectly by targeting schoolchildren. Patient group meetings are also a potent means of transmitting and network ing health information. Training should be given to physicians, as well as to non-physician health-care providers who are involved in primary or secondary prevention activities. Training courses should also include procedures for penicillin skin testing and for treating anaphylactic reactions. Community and school involvement the success of a prevention programme depends on the cooperation, effectiveness and dedication of health personnel at all levels, as well 117 as of other members of the community. Most importantly, potential patients themselves and their families must be involved in the control strategies adopted by communities. As schools play a large part in spreading streptococcal infection, they can also play a large role in its control. Teachers and pupils should also be involved in efforts to improve patient adherence to secondary prophylaxis, as well as in follow-up procedures. Rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease in Yarrabah aboriginal community, North Queensland. Although proven inexpensive cost-effective strategies for the prevention and control of streptococcal infections and their non suppurative sequelae, acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, are available, these diseases remain signicant public health problems in the world today, particularly in developing countries. Available data suggest that the incidence of group A streptococ cal pharyngitis and other infections as well as the prevalence of the asymptomatic carrier state have remained unchanged in both developed and developing countries. In addition, weak infrastructure and limited resources for health care also contribute to the poor status of control. Although progress has been made in the understanding of pos sible pathogenic mechanism(s) responsible for the epidemiology and the development of these non-suppurative sequelae of strep tococcal infections, the precise pathogenic mechanism(s) are not identied or understood. Two-dimensional echo-Doppler and colour ow Doppler echocardiography have a role to play in establishing and clinically following rheumatic carditis and rheu matic valvular heart disease. The clinical microbiology laboratory plays an essential role in rheumatic fever control programs, by facilitating the iden tication of group A streptococcal infections and providing infor mation of streptococcal types causing the disease. National and regional streptococcal reference laboratories are lacking in many parts of the world and attention needs to be given to establish such laboratories and to assure quality control. Patients with rheumatic valvular disease need timely referral for operative intervention when clinical or echocardiographic criteria are met. Primary prevention of rheumatic fever consists of the effective treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis, with the goal of preventing the rst attack of rheumatic fever. While it is not always feasible to implement broad-based primary prevention programs in most developing countries, a provision for the prompt diagnosis and effective therapy of streptococcal pharyngitis should be integrated into the existing healthcare facilities. Secondary prevention of rheumatic fever is dened as regular administration of antibiotics (usually benzathine penicillin G given intramuscularly) to patients with a previous history of rheu matic fever/rheumatic heart disease in order to prevent group A streptococcal pharyngitis and a recurrence of acute rheumatic fever. Establishment of registries of known patients has proven effective in reducing morbidity and mortality. Infective endocarditis remains a major threat for individuals with chronic rheumatic valvular disease and also for patients with prosthetic valves. Individuals with rheumatic valvular disease should be given prophylaxis for dental procedures and for surgery of infected or contaminated areas. It is important to include such programs in national health development plans, and to implement them through the existing national infrastructure of ministries of health and of education without requiring a new administrative framework or health care delivery infrastructure. This can result in the targeting of high risk indi viduals and populations to make more effective use of often lim ited nancial and human resources. Basic research studies are also needed to further elucidate the pathogenesis mechanisms responsible for the development of the disease process and for development of a cost-effective vaccine. He appears acutely toxic with a temperature of 104°, rapid respirations and agitation. Examination of his skin reveals a petechial rash and a small soft tissue abscess at his injection site. One week into therapy he is feeling better, however he has noticed some increased left upper quadrant pain and on examination you are able to palpate his spleen. He also has developed a soft systolic murmur at his left lower sternalsystolic murmur at his left lower sternal border that is increased with inspiration. What finally brings her to medical attention is the development of red, painful swelling on the dorsum ofp p g her left foot. Her physician notes Roth spots in both eyes and a loud mitral insufficiency murmur. Her laboratory studies reveal anemia of chronic disease and a positive rheumatoid factor test. Depression in Heart Failure Keywords: Depression-heart failure-assessment patients depression risk factors Christos Lefteriotis Corresponding author: Lefteriotis Christos, Artemidos 6, Petroupoli, 13231, Athens. Depression incidence is higher in population and improved survival of patients with hospitalized patients with heart failure than in heart failure, the burden of the disease will likely stabilized outpatients. The estimated prevalence failure patients such as age, gender, educational of depression is 100 cases per 1000 persons in the and economic status, amount of receiving 1 population more than 65 years old. Anaemia, scheduling including accurate information to renal dysfunction and diabetes were once patients as well as constant assessment of the considered only as conditions that caused or 1,9 outcome of the disease. In addition, heart exacerbated heart failure, but are now recognized failure imposes a tremendous financial burden on to be a consequence of heart failure and a Nation Health System of each country due to 9 potential target for treatment. The estimated direct and the stage of heart failure based on the symptoms indirect costs of the disease in the U. The traditional objective in the treatment of Class I : No limitation of physical activity.
No studies have reported an association between nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and teratogenicity (Klebanoff & Mills 1986) opioid treatment guidelines journal of pain buy rizact amex. However pain center treatment for fibromyalgia quality rizact 10 mg, despite reassurance that nausea and vomiting do not have harmful effects on pregnancy outcomes blue sky pain treatment center/health services discount rizact 5 mg, these symptoms can have a severe impact on a pregnant woman’s quality of life pain management for dogs with arthritis buy rizact paypal. Two observational studies have reported on the detrimental impact that nausea and vomiting may have on women’s day-to-day activities georgia pain treatment center canton ga cheap rizact 10 mg otc, relationships, use of healthcare resources and need for time off work (Smith et al 2000; Attard et al 2002). The highest quality study, a Cochrane review (Matthews et al 2010) examined 27 trials of interventions including acustimulation, acupuncture, ginger, vitamin B6 and several antiemetic medicines. Dosages of up to 250 mg four times a day appear to be safe (Vutyavanich et al 2001). It is currently not possible to identify with certainty interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy that are both safe and effective (Matthews et al 2010). Women who experience nausea and vomiting in pregnancy can be advised that, while it may be distressing, it usually resolves spontaneously by 16 to 20 weeks pregnancy and is not generally associated with a poor pregnancy outcome. The systematic review conducted for these Guidelines identified a prospective cohort study (Gill et al 2009) in which 63 of 97 (p=0. If multivitamins are discontinued, consideration should be given to ensuring folate and iodine intake remain sufficient. Discontinuing iron-containing multivitamins for the period that women have symptoms of nausea and vomiting may improve symptoms. Avoiding iron-containing multivitamins while nausea and vomiting are present may also help. The safety and effectiveness of antiemetics should be discussed with women with more severe symptoms who choose to consider medication. Ebrahimi N, Maltepe C, Einarson A (2010) Optimal management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Jewell D & Young G (2001) Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Smith C, Crowther C, Beilby J et al (2000) the impact of nausea and vomiting on women: a burden of early pregnancy. Vutyavanich T, Kraisarin T, Ruangsri R (2001) Ginger for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: randomized, double-masked, placebo controlled trial. Guidance about increasing dietary fibre and appropriate use of laxatives may assist women to treat constipation and reduce the risk of further episodes. Rising levels of progesterone in pregnancy can cause a reduction in gastric motility and increased gastric transit time. Poor dietary fibre intake can contribute to women experiencing constipation during pregnancy, as at any time of life. Iron supplementation, common during pregnancy, is also associated with constipation (Bradley et al 2007). In Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities with a high prevalence of anaemia, iron supplementation is common. Dietary fibre intake can be improved by eating more wholegrain foods, fruit and vegetables, or through wheat or bran fibre supplementation. Where fibre supplementation does not alleviate symptoms, laxatives (stimulant, bulk-forming or osmotic) may be helpful in the short-term, although they can cause adverse side effects such as abdominal pain and diarrhoea. In spite of the lack of high-level evidence, increased fluid intake should be recommended as one of the first measures to relieve constipation in pregnancy. Increasing fluid intake is not expensive, is readily available and has several other beneficial effects during pregnancy (Vasquez 2008). Recommendations Grade C 54 Offer women who are experiencing constipation information about increasing dietary fibre intake and taking bran or wheat fibre supplementation. Water is a good source of fluids as it hydrates without adding additional energy to the diet. Bran or wheat fibre supplementation is safe and effective during pregnancy and may relieve symptoms. Fibre supplements should be introduced slowly and plenty of water consumed while they are being taken. Derbyshire E, Davies J, Costarelli V et al (2006) Diet, physical inactivity and the prevalence of constipation throughout and after pregnancy. Neri I, Blasi I, Castro P et al (2004) Polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (Isocolan) for constipation during pregnancy: an observational open-label study. Women with persistent or more severe symptoms may also require advice about specific treatments. While it is considered a normal part of a healthy pregnancy, symptoms may be frequent and distressing to women. Acid regurgitation may also reach the pharynx, resulting in a bitter or sour taste in the mouth. While the exact causes of the increase in reflux during pregnancy are not clear, it is thought that hormonal effects on antireflux barriers in the lower oesophagus and on gastric function may play a part (Ali & Egan 2007; Majithia & Johnson 2012). When symptoms persist, further investigation may identify other causes (eg bariatric surgery, stomach cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection (Tiong et al 2006; Cherian et al 2008)) and treatment after the birth may be needed. There is also evidence suggesting that pre-pregnancy heartburn and weight gain during pregnancy increase the risk of heartburn during pregnancy (Rey et al 2007). There is limited evidence on the effectiveness and safety of current interventions. Generally, the first approach is advice on diet and lifestyle, either to reduce acid production or avoid reflux associated with postural change (Richter 2005). Offer women experiencing mild symptoms of heartburn advice on lifestyle modifications and avoiding foods that cause symptoms on repeated occasions. Available evidence from lower level studies suggests that the use of antacids, proton pump inhibitors and H2 blockers for reflux during pregnancy presents no known significant safety concern for either the mother or baby: • antacids are considered safe in pregnancy and may be preferred by women as they give immediate relief; calcium-based formulations are preferable to those that contain aluminium (Tytgat et al 2003) • the use of proton pump inhibitors during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk for major congenital birth defects, spontaneous miscarriage, preterm birth, perinatal mortality or morbidity (Diav Citrin et al 2005; Gill et al 2009a; Gill et al 2009b; Pasternak & Hviid 2010; Majithia & Johnson 2012; Matok et al 2012) • the use of H2 blockers in pregnancy is not associated with any increase in risk of spontaneous miscarriage, preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age baby (Gill et al 2009b). Recommendation Grade C 56 Give women who have persistent reflux information about treatments. Sleeping on the left side, raising the head of the bed, and not lying down after eating may also help. Reassure women that symptoms usually subside after pregnancy, but may recur in a subsequent pregnancy. Advise women that if symptoms persist or become more severe, medication can be considered. Cherian S, Forbes D, Sanfilippo F et al (2008) the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in African refugee children resettled in Australia. Diav-Citrin O, Arnon J, Shechtman S et al (2005) the safety of proton pump inhibitors in pregnancy: a multicentre prospective controlled study. Matok I, Levy A, Wiznitzer A et al (2012) the safety of fetal exposure to proton-pump inhibitors during pregnancy. Pasternak B & Hviid A (2010) Use of proton-pump inhibitors in early pregnancy and the risk of birth defects. Advice on avoiding constipation may assist women to prevent or lessen the effects of haemorrhoids. While the mechanism is not clear, this is thought to be a result of prolapse of the anal canal cushions, which play a role in maintaining continence. Pregnancy also facilitates development or exacerbation of haemorrhoids, due to increased pressure in rectal veins caused by restriction of venous return by a woman’s enlarged uterus (Avsar & Keskin 2010). Haemorrhoidal symptoms are most common in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and after birth (Avsar & Keskin 2010). One observational study found that 8% of pregnant women (n=165) experienced thrombosed external haemorrhoids in the last 3 months of pregnancy (Abramowitz et al 2002). Digital rectal examination and endoscopy (sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy) may also be used. It is important to rule out more serious causes of bleeding (Avsar & Keskin 2010). Most evidence for the effectiveness of haemorrhoid treatments comes from studies of non-pregnant patients. Given the overall lack of evidence, there is consensus in clinical reviews for conservative management in pregnancy including avoiding constipation, dietary modification, dietary fibre supplementation and stool softeners (Avsar & Keskin 2010; Dietrich et al 2008; Wald 2003). Topical products with analgesics and anti-inflammatory effects provide short-term local relief of symptoms. There is no evidence on the effectiveness or safety of creams used in pregnancy; however, the small doses and limited systemic absorption mean that they are unlikely to harm the baby when used in the third trimester (Staroselsky et al 2008). While surgical removal of haemorrhoids may be a consideration in extreme circumstances, surgery is rarely an appropriate intervention for pregnant women as haemorrhoidal symptoms often resolve spontaneously after the birth (Staroselsky et al 2008). Offer women who have haemorrhoids information about increasing dietary fibre and fluid intake. If clinical symptoms remain, advise women that they can consider using standard haemorrhoid creams. Advise women who are increasing their fibre intake to make sure they drink adequate fluids. Buckshee K, Takkar D, Aggarwal N (1997) Micronized flavonoid therapy in internal hemorrhoids of pregnancy. Wald A (2003) Constipation, diarrhea, and symptomatic hemorrhoids during pregnancy. While there is little evidence to support any specific treatment, use of compression stockings may help to relieve symptoms. They can occur as blue swollen veins on the calves, the inside of the legs and the vulva, and may cause itching and aching. In 70–80% of women who develop problems with varicose veins during pregnancy, the symptoms appear during the first trimester, often within 2 to 3 weeks of gestation (Carr 2006). A family history of varicose veins, increasing number of full term pregnancies and increasing age have been found to be risk factors for the development of varicose veins (Dindelli et al 1993; Jawien 2003; Beebe-Dimmer et al 2005). Given the overall lack of evidence, there is consensus in clinical reviews that advice to women should be based on reassurance, conservative management and symptom relief. Avoiding long periods of standing, use of compression stockings and elevating the feet have been found to improve symptoms in the general population (Carr 2006). As symptoms of varicose veins often improve after the birth (Bamigboye & Smyth 2007), surgery is rarely considered an appropriate intervention for pregnant women. Advise women that varicose veins are common during pregnancy, vary in severity, will not generally cause harm and usually improve after the birth. Asking about itching or discomfort in the legs can assist in identifying varicose veins. Bamigboye A & Smyth R (2007) Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy. Dindelli M, Parazzini F, Basellini A et al (1993) Risk factors for varicose disease before and during pregnancy. Jawien A (2003) the influence of environmental factors in chronic venous insufficiency. Lenkovic M, Cabrijan L, Gruber F et al (2009) Effect of progesterone and pregnancy on the development of varicose veins.
Buy 5 mg rizact with amex. 5 Proven Exercises for Knee Osteoarthritis or Knee Pain- Do it Yourself.
The Leydig cells produce testosterone foot pain treatment video order 10mg rizact with mastercard, which stimulates further development of the seminal vesicle neuropathic pain treatment guidelines and updates buy rizact online pills, vas deferens rush pain treatment center meridian ms buy rizact on line amex, and epididymis pain treatment for bladder infection cheap rizact 10mg with amex. A derivative of testosterone sacroiliac pain treatment uk cheap rizact 5 mg otc, dihy drotestosterone, induces differentiation of the penis, scrotum, and prostate. The Sertoli cells produce the Mullerian inhibiting factor, which causes the Mullerian ducts to regress. The Sertoli cells begin to secrete at 45–50 days; the Leydig cells at about 60 days. Ambiguous genitalia in infant with congenital adrenal by 8–9 weeks, the gonad can no longer respond by becoming a hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Abnormalities of the genital system are divided into those with external manifestations and those with internal abnormalities. Abnormal External Genitalia the most common male abnormalities are hypospadias and small penis. Fe males with an enlarged clitoris are included in ambiguous genitalia (Figures 19. They are usually found as a component of a complex malformation syndrome, such as sirenomelia (Figures 19. The urethral opening is male karyotype, abnormalities of the internal reproductive tract include absent on the inferior surface of the penis. In male fetuses with a normal male karyotype, anorchia and Wolfan aplasia can be seen. Syndrome Features Inheritance 200110 Ablepharon-macrostomia Absent eyelids, eyebrows, eyelashes, external ears; fusion In any infant with atypical genitalia, consideration must be given to the cause of the ambiguity before assigning the sex of rearing. Ambiguous genitalia, one dysgenetic testis, and a streak gonad are most commonly present in these patients. True hermaphroditism – these patients have ambiguity of external genitalia or internal genitalia, or both, as well as histologic evidence of both ovarian and testicular tissue A (either as separate structures or as an ovotestis). Female pseudohermaphroditism – In the female pseudohermaphrodite, the external genitalia are masculinized; the internal genitalia are feminine in the majority of B individuals and ambiguous in a few patients. The Mullerian ducts are well differ entiated and the ovaries are appropriately developed for the gestational age. Loss of ova and an increase in brous tissue usually occur after 20 weeks gestation. In oligohydramnios due to renal agenesis, adrenals may be mistaken testes (arrows) in hydrocele sac. Recommendations for a follow-up evaluation if renal pelvic dilation (py electasis) is noted on initial sonography >4 mm at 15–20 weeks gestation >8 mm at 20–30 weeks gestation >10 mm at >30 weeks gestation (From Mandel J: Radiology 178:193, 1991) G. Aneuploidy present in 11% of cases (usually trisomy 21, trisomy 18, or trisomy 13) a. Renal function can be evaluated antenatally: Prognosis Poor Good Findings: Amniotic uid Moderate to severely Normal or moderately volume decreased decreased Appearance Echogenic or cystic Normal or echogenic Urinary electrolytes Na >100 <100 C1 >90 <90 Osmolarity >210 <210 Urine output <2mL/h >2mL/h (From Glick J: Pediatr Surg 20:376, 1985) I. Multiple cysts of varying size replace the renal parenchyma, with bilateral disease always present. Similar to adult polycystic disease in appearance, but family history will usually provide ability to distinguish the two c. Neonatal – Onset occurring after 1 month of life with less signif icant renal enlargement, 60% renal involvement, mild hepatic brosis, and death occurs within 1 year of life iii. Infantile – Disease presents at 3–6 months of age, with less renal involvement and a disease course similar to the infantile form. Bilateral, unilateral, or segmental dysplasia of the renal parenchyma correspondingtodilationofthecollectingtubuleswhichhaveachar acteristic ultrasonic appearance. Multiple, round, peripheral cysts of variable size, enlarged kidneys (usually) with the appearance of grape-like clusters of cysts which do not communicate and obliter ate the renal parenchyma. With bilateral disease, the fetal bladder does not ll over time, or with administration of furosemide. Usually occurs sporadically or within families, and occasionally re ported with maternal diabetes i. Often occurs in association with autosomal recessive (Meckel, Dandy-Walker, Zellweger, Roberts, Fryns, Smith-Lemli-Opitz, others)anddominant(Apert)syndromes,andwithaneuploidy(tri somy 9) j. The differential diagnosis includes infantile polycystic kidney dis ease and ureteropelvic junction obstruction k. Bilateral disease is a fatal condition, while those with unilateral dis ease are at increased risk for hypertension Determine the presence of a bladder Presence of the bladder (and amniotic uid after 16 weeks gestation) indi cates some degree of renal function was present in the past Emptying and lling of the bladder can be quantitated An absent bladder indicates either poor fetal status (resulting in anuria), or genitourinary disease in proximal structures Determine presence of a single umbilical artery Higher frequencies note in autopsy series More common in white fetuses More common in placentas with marginal or velamentous insertion More common in twins • Monozygotictwinfetusesareusuallydiscordantforsingleumbilicalartery May result from primary agenesis of one of the arteries, secondary atrophy of an umbilical artery, or persistence of the original single allantoic artery of the body stalk Umbilical artery evaluation should be performed near the abdominal cord insertion in the fetal abdomen. Dodd S: the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial diseases and mechanisms of brosis. Neuroblastoma develops from neural crest cells that migrate into the gland during embryonic and fetal life. Anumberoftumorsinthe young are associated with congenital malformations and growth disturbances. Malignant neoplasms are seldom seen in the new born and only infrequently are responsible for neonatal death or spontaneous abortion. Benign Hemangiomas Capillary hemangioma usually manifests at birth, grows steadily for 6–8 months, then stabilizes, and eventually regresses, although complete disap pearance may take several years. Because childhood hemangiomas are tumors that evolve in time, a capillary hemangioma is thought to originate from a more primitive form. In a cellular angioma (infantile hemangioendothelioma), the number of tumor cells greatly exceeds the number of vascular lumina present. Pyogenic granuloma is similar to capillary hemangioma but occurs at mu cosal sites, is pedunculated, and has an epithelial collarette at the stalk. Half the neonatal tumors arise caudally: buttock/ Embryonal 50 sacrococcygeal, perirectal, bladder, and vagina. The nuclei are Undiff 10 smaller than those of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells, and the nucleoli are inconspicuous. Subtypes of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with favorable prognosis (95% survival at 5 years) include the following: 1. Botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma – a polypoid growth projects into a mucosa lined body cavity (Figure 20. Microscopic features are (1) presence of an intact epithelium at the surface, a feature required to evaluate the supercial condensation of cells; (2) pres ence of a well preserved, pluricellular layer of tumor cells under the surface epithelium (cambium layer). The cells are arranged against brous septa that par tition the tumor into an alveolar pattern. The nuclei are round or oval with distinct nuclear membranes; the number of nucleoli is variable. Undifferentiatedsarcomasarecomposedofcloselypacked,roundcellswith a scant to moderate amount of cytoplasm. The nuclei are irregular in contour, vesicular, with a single or a few prominent nucleoli. Lymphangiomas the usual location of cystic lymphangioma is the neck (cystic hygroma), axilla, inguinal region, or retroperitoneum (Figure 20. Cystic lymphangioma of the mesentery arises from the mesentery of the ileocecal region and terminal ileum, the jejunal mesentery, omentum, mesocolon, and retroperitoneum. Yolk sac tumor (endodermal Variants – Polyvesicular vitelline tumor sinus tumor) – hepatoid – glandular (“endometroid”) 3. Mature Solid Cystic (dermoid cyst) With secondary tumor (specify type) Fetiform (homunculus) 3. Monodermal Stroma ovarii Carcinoid Mucinous carcinoid Neuroectodermal tumors (specify type) Sebaceous tumors Others 4. By denition, teratomas are composed of tissues re presenting each of the three layers of the embryonic disk. The immature teratoma consists primarily of embryonic-appearing neu roglial or neuroepithelial components, which may coexist along with mature tissues. Fetusinfetuhasvertebraeornotochordandastructuralorganization that exceeds that of a teratoma. An abdominal retroperitoneal mass is the most common clinical nding but may be found in other locations. Sacrococcygeal Teratoma Sacrococcygeal teratoma is the most common neoplasm in the fetus and new born with an estimated incidence of 1/20,000 to 1/40,000 births, with a female predominance (Figures 20. More arise from the sacrococcygeal area than from any other location during the rst year of life. The head and neck, testis, pelvic retroperitoneum,vagina,and,seldom,theovaryareothersites. Childhoodyolk sac tumors have deletions in chromosomes 1 (Ip) and 6 (6q) but no evidence of i(12p) deletion, which is described in adult germ cell tumors. Yolk sac tumors have a slimy, pale tan-yellow appearance with foci of necrosis and small cyst formations. Several histologic patterns include papillary, vesicular, and glandular, including the endometroid-like pattern. Intracellular and extracellular hyaline droplets are present in most yolk sac tumors. Embryonal Carcinoma Embryonal carcinoma is a malignant germ cell tumor that may be found in the rst year of life. Embryonal carcinoma is a poorly differentiated malignant lesion composed of embryonal-appearing epithelial cells with characteristic large nucleoli (Figure 20. Ovarian Tumors of Childhood Ovarian tumors of childhood include: teratoma, yolk sac tumor, granuloma (theca cell tumor), Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, dysgerminoma, and gonadoblas toma. Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumor Juvenile granulosa cell tumor is the most common ovarian tumor, overall, Table 20. Microscopically, the tumor is composed of myxoid nerve trunks with waxy bundles of spindle-shaped cells. Fibromatosis/Myobromatosis Fibromatosis (juvenile or infantile desmoid bromatosis) is a benign, brous, connective tissue tumor that presents as a palpable mass in the fascia, skeletal muscle, or periosteum (Figure 20. Fibromatosis consists of a rm, light gray or white mass with a rubbery, whorled, cut surface. Fibromatoses tend to be smaller than brosarcomas, averaging 2 cm in greatest dimension. Fibromatoses are spindle cell neoplasms with moderate variation in cellularity and the amount of inter cellular collagen. The tumors stain positively with vimentin but do not react with desmin, S-100 protein, actin, or cytokeratin. Infantile Digital Fibromatosis this tumor involves the dorsolateral aspect of the distal pha langes of the ngers and toes (Figure 20. Gonadoblastoma showing tumor composed of nests of large germ cells with smaller, dark round to oval granulosa within the rst month of life.
Anesthesia personnel with privileges to fibromyalgia treatment guidelines pain best 5 mg rizact administer obstetric anesthesia should be available according to advanced pain treatment center ohio buy discount rizact 5 mg hospital policy pain treatment center rochester ny buy rizact 10 mg overnight delivery. Policies should be developed regard ing the provision of obstetric anesthesia back pain treatment urdu purchase 10mg rizact otc, including the necessary qualifications of personnel who are to hartford hospital pain treatment center ct buy generic rizact 5mg on line administer anesthesia and their availability for both routine and emergency deliveries. The director of the maternal–fetal medicine service of a hospital providing subspe cialty care should be a full-time, board-certified obstetrician with subspecialty certification in maternal–fetal medicine. As co-directors of the peri natal service, these physicians are responsible for maintaining practice guidelines and, in cooperation with nursing and hospital administration, are responsible for developing the operating budget; evaluating and purchasing equipment; planning, developing, and coordinating in-hospital and outreach educational 26 Guidelines for Perinatal Care programs; and participating in the evaluation of perinatal care. Other maternal–fetal medicine specialists and neonatologists who practice in the subspecialty care facility should have qualifications similar to those of the chief of their service. A maternal–fetal medicine specialist and a neonatologist should be continuously available for consultation 24 hours per day. A board-certified anesthesiologist with special training or experience in maternal–fetal anesthesia should be in charge of obstetric anesthesia services at a hospital delivering subspecialty perinatal care. Personnel with privileges in the administration of obstetric anesthesia should be available in the hospital 24 hours per day. In addition, advanced diagnostic imaging facilities with inter pretation on an urgent basis should be available 24 hours per day. Inpatient Perinatal Care ServicesCare of the Newborn 2727 Perinatal Nurse Practitioners ^ Nursing responsibilities in individual hospitals vary according to the level of care provided by the facility, practice procedures, number of professional regis tered nurses and ancillary staff, and professional nursing activities in continuing education and research. Trends in medical management and technologic advances influence and may increase the nursing workload. Each hospital should determine the scope of nursing practice for each nursing unit and specialty department. Included in this category are the neonatal, perinatal, and women’s health clinical nurse specialist and the neonatal and women’s health nurse practitioner (described later in this section). Nurses without a graduate degree who entered the profession before the year 2000, but are credentialed advanced practice registered nurses or certificate prepared (nongraduate) nurse practitioners, should be allowed to maintain their practice and are encouraged to complete their formal graduate education. A neonatal, perinatal, and women’s health clini cal nurse specialist is a registered nurse with a master’s degree who, through study and supervised practice at the graduate level, has become an expert in the theory and practice of neonatal, perinatal, and women’s health nursing. Responsibilities of the clinical nurse specialist include fostering continuous quality improvement in nursing care and developing and educating staff. Using their acquired knowledge of pathophysiology, pharmacology, and advanced assessment, nurse practitioners exercise independent judgment in the assessment and diag nosis of patients and in the performance of certain procedures. Neonatal nurse practitioners manage a caseload of neonatal patients in collaboration with a physician, usually a pediatrician or neonatologist. This training includes both didactic and clinical education and includes a demonstrated competency in pharmacology. Each institution must ensure that the advanced prac tice registered nurse has the formal education to function within the neonatal scope of practice. Clinical care by the advanced practice registered nurse for neonates receiving level I neonatal care is provided in collaboration with, or under the supervision of a physician with special interest and experience in neonatal medicine, usually this is a pediatrician or neonatologist. Perinatal nursing care in a facility at this level of care should be under the direction of a registered nurse. The registered nurse’s responsibilities include directing perinatal nursing ser vices, guiding the development and implementation of perinatal policies and procedures, collaborating with medical staff, and consulting with hospitals that provide higher levels of care in the region or system. Responsibilities of the registered nurse include initial evaluation and admission of patients in labor; continuing assessment and evaluation of patients in labor, including checking the status of the fetus, recording vital signs, monitoring the fetal heart rate, performing obstetric examinations, observing uterine contractions, and supporting the patient; determining the presence or absence of complications; supervising the performance of nurses with less training and experience and of ancillary personnel; and staffing of the delivery room at the time of delivery. Inpatient Perinatal Care ServicesCare of the Newborn 3131 Postpartum care of the woman and her newborn should be supervised by a registered nurse whose responsibilities include initial and ongoing assessment, newborn care education, support for the attachment process and breastfeeding, preparation for healthy parenting, preparation for discharge, and follow-up of the woman and her newborn within the context of the family. Routine newborn care delivered by the registered nurse is provided in col laboration with a pediatrician. The nurse monitors the infant’s adaptation to extrauterine life and then, ideally, assists in the transition of the healthy new born to the mother’s room. Hospitals at this level of care should have a director of perinatal and neonatal nursing services who has overall responsibility for inpatient activities in the respective obstetric and neonatal areas. In addition to fulfilling basic perinatal care nursing responsibilities, nurs ing staff in the labor, delivery, and recovery unit should be able to identify and respond to the obstetric and medical complications of pregnancy, labor, and delivery. The nurse should be specially trained and able to initiate, modify, or stop treatment when appropriate, according to established protocols, even when a physician or advanced practice nurse is not present. The nursing staff should be formally trained and com petent in neonatal resuscitation. The direc tor of perinatal and neonatal nursing services at a facility providing this level of care should have overall responsibility for inpatient activities in the maternity– newborn care units. This registered nurse should have experience and training in obstetric nursing, neonatal nursing, or both, as well as in the care of patients at high risk. An advanced practice registered nurse who has been educated and prepared at the master’s degree level should be on staff to coordinate education. This registered nurse should be skilled in the recognition and nursing manage ment of complications in women and newborns. The neona tal nurse provides direct care for the premature or term infant who requires com plex care, including neonates requiring intensive life-support techniques, such as mechanical ventilation. In these units, the nurse also should be able to provide care for infants requiring inhaled nitric oxide therapy and high-frequency venti lation as well as care for the chronically technology-dependent infant. An advanced practice registered nurse should be available to the staff for consultation and support on nursing care issues. Assessment and monitoring activities should remain the responsibility of a registered nurse or an advanced practice registered nurse in obstetric–neonatal nursing, even when personnel with a mixture of skills are used. Physician Assistants Trends in neonatal care also have resulted in an increased use of physician assis tants in addition to advanced practice registered nurses. Physician assistants are health care professionals licensed to practice medicine with physician supervi sion. Within the physician–physician assistant relationship, physician assistants exercise autonomy in medical decision making and provide a broad range of diagnostic and therapeutic services. A physician assistant’s responsibilities also may include education, research, and administrative services. The length of physician assistant programs averages approximately 26 months, and students must complete more than 2,000 hours of supervised clinical practice before graduation. Graduation from an accredited physician assistant program and passage of the national certifying examination are required for state licensure. Support Health Care Providers ^ All Facilities Personnel who are capable of determining blood type, crossmatching blood, and performing antibody testing should be available on a 24-hour basis. The hospital’s infection control personnel should be responsible for surveillance of infections in women and neonates as well as for the development of an appropriate environmental control program (see also Chapter 11, “Infection Control”). A radiologic technician should be available 24 hours per day to per form portable X-rays. Availability of a postpartum care provider with expertise in lactation is essential. An organized plan of action that includes personnel and equipment should be established for identification and immediate resuscitation of neonates in need of intervention (see also Chapter 8 for information on neonatal resuscitation). Education In-Service and Continuing Education the medical and nursing staff of any hospital providing perinatal care at any level should maintain knowledge about and competency in current maternal and neonatal care through joint in-service sessions. Such assistance may include periodic visits to those hospitals as well as periodic review of the quality of patient care provided by those hospitals. The medical and nursing staff of hospitals that provide higher level care (ie, beyond basic and level I) 36 Guidelines for Perinatal Care should participate in formal courses or conferences. Ideally, a maternal–fetal medicine specialist, a certified nurse–midwife or certified midwife, an obstetric nurse, a neonatologist, and a neonatal nurse should be members of the perinatal outreach education team. Other profes sionals (eg, a social worker, respiratory therapist, occupational and physical therapist, or nutritionist) also may be assigned to the team. Each member should be responsible for teaching, consulting with community professionals as needed, and maintaining communication with the program coordinator and other team members. Each subspecialty care center in a regionalized or integrated system may organize an education program that is tailored to meet the needs of the peri natal health professionals and institutions within the network. Perinatal outreach education meetings should be held at a routine time and place to promote standardization and continuity of communication among community professionals and regional center personnel. Physical Facilities the physical facilities in which perinatal care is provided should be conducive to care that meets the unique physiologic and psychosocial needs of newborns and their families (see also “Patient-Centered and Family-Centered Health Care” in Chapter 1). When these facilities are distant from each other, provisions should be made for appropriate transi tional areas. The following recommendations are intended as general guidelines and should be interpreted with consideration given to local needs. Individual limi tations of physical facilities for perinatal care may impede strict adherence to these recommendations. The service should be consolidated in a designated area that is physically arranged to prohibit unre lated traffic through the service units. The obstetric facility should incorporate the following components of maternity and newborn care: • Antepartum care for patient stabilization or hospitalization before labor • Fetal diagnostic testing (eg, nonstress and contraction stress testing, biophysical profile, amniocentesis, and ultrasound examinations) 38 Guidelines for Perinatal Care • Labor observation and evaluation for patients who are not yet in active labor or who must be observed to determine whether labor has actually begun; hospital obstetric services should develop a casual, comfortable area (“false-labor lounge”) for patients in prodromal labor • Labor • Delivery • Infant resuscitation and stabilization • Postpartum maternal and newborn care Where rooms are suitably sized, located, and equipped, some or all of the components of maternity care listed previously can be combined in one or more rooms. Combining functions into labor, delivery, and recovery rooms maximize economy and flexibility of staff and space. The traditional obstetric program model––with separate rooms for labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum care––has become obsolete in new construction guidelines, such as the 2010 Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health Care Facilities. Under all circumstances, however, labor and delivery patients must take precedence over nonobstetric patients in this area. Clean gynecologic operations may be performed in the delivery rooms if patients are adequately screened to eliminate infectious cases and if enough personnel are present to prevent any compromise in the quality of obstetric care. Combined Units Comprehensive obstetric and neonatal care is optimally provided for women at both low risk and high risk and their healthy newborns in a labor, delivery, and recovery unit that uses another room for mother–baby postpartum care. Registered nurses who are cross-trained in antepartum care, labor and delivery care, postpartum care, and neonatal care should staff this unit, increasing the continuity and quality of care. Each labor, delivery, and recovery room is a single-patient room containing a toilet and shower with optional bathtub. A window with an outside view is desirable in the labor, delivery, and recovery room. A des ignated area within the room, distinct from the laboring woman’s area, should be provided for neonatal stabilization and resuscitation and contain a radiant warmer (see also “Neonatal Functional Units” later in this chapter). Proper care of the woman in labor requires sufficient space for a sphyg momanometer, stethoscope, fetal monitor, infusion pump, regional anesthesia administration, and resuscitation equipment at the head of the bed. Equipment needed for labor, delivery, newborn resuscitation, and newborn care should be stored either in the room or in a nearby central storage or supply area and should be immediately available to the labor, delivery, and recovery room. For ease of movement, space below the foot of the bed should be ade quate to accommodate staff and equipment brought into the room. A unit equipped for neonatal stabilization and resuscitation (described in “Neonatal Functional Units” later in this chapter) should be available during delivery. Each labor, delivery, and recovery room should have the following equipment and supplies necessary for women in labor: • Sterilization equipment (if there is no central sterilization equipment) • X-ray view box or a computer and monitor to review digital images • Stretchers with side rails • Equipment for pelvic examinations • Emergency drugs • Suction apparatus, either operated from a wall outlet or portable equipment • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation cart (maternal and neonatal) • Protective gear for personnel exposed to body fluids • Warming cabinets for solutions and blankets Inpatient Perinatal Care ServicesCare of the Newborn 4141 • A labor or birthing bed and a footstool • A storage area for the patient’s clothing and personal belongings • Sufficient work space for information management systems • One or more comfortable chairs • Adjustable lighting that is pleasant for the patient and adequate for examinations • An emergency signal and intercommunication system • Adequate ventilation and temperature control • Equipment to measure and monitor blood pressure • Mechanical infusion equipment • Fetal monitoring equipment • Oxygen outlets • Adequate electrical outlets • Access to at least one shower for use by patients in labor • A writing surface for medical records, computer hookup for medical record purposes, or both • Storage facilities for supplies and equipment There should be adequate space for support persons, personnel, and equipment, and room for the patient to ambulate in labor.
For infant mortality pain management shingles head rizact 10 mg for sale, the population at risk is approximated by live births that occur in a calendar year elbow pain treatment bursitis buy cheap rizact 5 mg. Interest sometimes focuses on two different periods in Appendix F 505 the first year of an infant’s life pain treatment for cats buy cheapest rizact and rizact, such as the very early period when the infant is younger than 28 days (up through 27 days kidney pain treatment buy rizact 10mg mastercard, 23 hours breakthrough pain treatment guidelines order rizact online from canada, and 59 minutes from the moment of birth), called the neonatal period; and the later period start ing at the end of the 28th day up to, but not including, age 1 year (364 days, 23 hours, and 59 minutes), called the postneonatal period. Accordingly, two indices reflect these differences, namely, the neonatal mortality rate and the postneonatal mortality rate. The denominator for the postneonatal mortality rate also can be calculated by subtracting the number of neonatal deaths from the number of live births. This denominator more accurately defines the population at risk of death in the postneonatal period. In addition, it should be noted that infant deaths can be broken down into birth weight categories, if desired, for comparative purposes when birth and death records are linked (see also “Reporting Requirements and Recommendations,” later in this appendix): Number of infant deaths (neonatal and postneonatal) during a period 1,000 Infant mortality rate = Number of live births during the same period Number of neonatal deaths during a period 1,000 Neonatal mortality rate = Number of live births during the same period Number of postneonatal deaths during a period 1,000 Postneonatal mortality rate = Number of live births during the same period Maternal Mortality Measures Measures of maternal mortality are designed to indicate the likelihood that a pregnant woman will die from complications of pregnancy, childbirth, or the 506 Guidelines for Perinatal Care puerperium. Accordingly, the population at risk is an approximation of the population of pregnant women in a year; the approximation usually is taken to be the number of live births. The mater nal mortality rate measures the risk of death from deliveries and complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium. The group exposed to risk consists of all women who have been pregnant at some time during the period. Therefore, the population at risk should theoreti cally include all fetal deaths (reported and unreported), all induced terminations of pregnancy, and all live births. Because most states do not require the report ing of all fetal deaths and a large number of states still do not require reporting of induced terminations of pregnancy, the entire population at risk cannot be included in the denominator. Therefore, the total number of live births has become the generally accepted denominator. It is recommended that when com plete ascertainment of the denominator (ie, the number of pregnant women) is achieved, a modified maternal mortality rate should be defined, in addition to the traditional rate. Caution should be used in interpreting rates in small geographic areas; it may not be possible to generate race-specific and age-specific rates. The population at risk of induced termination of preg nancy is taken to be live births in a year, which is used as a surrogate measure of pregnancies. Because this is not actually the total population at risk, this measure generally is considered to be a ratio. Reporting Requirements and Recommendations ^504^505 Reporting requirements for vital events related to reproductive health enable the collection of data that are essential to the calculation of statistical tabulations to examine trends and changes at the local, state, and national levels. The data used in statistical tabulations may be only a portion of those collected, because 508 Guidelines for Perinatal Care of the need for consistency in a tabulation and because of the variations in reporting requirements from state to state. For instance, although a few states require that all fetal deaths, regardless of length of gestation, be reported, statis tical tabulations of fetal death rates by the National Center for Health Statistics use only those fetal deaths occurring at 20 weeks or more of gestation. Live Birth It generally is recognized that all states report all live births, as defined in the definitions section of this document. It is recommended that all live births be reported, regardless of birth weight, length of gestation, or survival time. It generally is rec ognized that birth weight can be measured more accurately than can gestational age. It must be emphasized that a specific birth weight criterion for reporting of fetal deaths does not imply a point of viability and should be chosen instead for its feasibility in collecting useful data. Therefore, it is recommended that all state fetal death report forms include birth weight and gestational age. Perinatal Mortality Perinatal mortality indices generally combine fetal deaths and live births that survive only briefly (up to a few days or weeks). Because reporting require ments of fetal deaths vary from state to state, perinatal mortality reporting also will vary (see definitions of perinatal periods in “Perinatal Mortality Measures” earlier in this appendix). However, for purposes of comparability, knowledge of gestational age (based on last menstrual period) should be collected. Appendix F 509 Infant Mortality All states require that all infant deaths (neonatal plus postneonatal), as defined in the section “Definitions” in this appendix, be reported. However, because birth weight is reported on the birth certificate, it is possible to obtain information on infant deaths by birth weight by linking together the birth certificate and the death certificate for the same infant. A national linked birth certificate and infant death certificate file is now available. Case finding, together with individual review and analysis of risk factors contributing to maternal deaths, is of the highest importance. Collection of data regarding these rare events is criti cal, when combined, as it should be, with educational review by those closest to the case, usually the obstetrician–gynecologists in the hospital and the sur rounding region. Such analysis can yield clinical information about risk factors associated with, for example, detection and treatment of ectopic pregnancies or with anesthesia. This clinical information can then be gathered and exchanged to help practitioners identify risk factors that contribute to maternal death and associated conditions. For example, if a woman died of a hemorrhage that resulted from a ruptured ectopic pregnancy, the immedi ate cause of death would be classified as “hemorrhage,” the associated obstetric condition would be classified as “ruptured fallopian tube,” and the outcome of pregnancy would be “ectopic pregnancy. Induced Termination of Pregnancy the United States has no national system for reporting induced termination of pregnancy. State health departments vary greatly in their approaches to the 510 Guidelines for Perinatal Care compilation of these data, from compiling no data to periodically requesting hospitals, clinics, and physicians performing the procedures to voluntarily report total number of procedures performed; requiring (by legislative or regulatory authority) hospitals, clinics, and physicians to periodically report aggregate level data on number or number and characteristics of procedures; or requiring (by legal or regulatory authority) hospitals, clinics, and physicians to periodically report individual data on each procedure performed. Investigation and review of each related death by epidemiologists in the Division of Reproductive Health result in improved detailed nosological identification of abortion mortality by type of risk. Collecting information on the number of induced terminations of preg nancy, the characteristics of women having such procedures, and the number and characteristics of all deaths related to induced termination of pregnancy would be extremely valuable in identifying and evaluating risk factors for spe cific population groups and for the public in general. Knowing the outcomes could further the body of knowledge and ultimately reduce the risks. Reporting Requirements for Fetal Death According to State or Reporting Area, 2005 ^ Criteria State and Reporting Area Gestational age criteria only All periods Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Hawaii, New York,* Rhode Island, Virginia, Virgin Islands 16 weeks or greater Pennsylvania 20 weeks or greater Alabama, Alaska, California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Maryland,† Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Vermont,‡ Washington, West Virginia, Wyoming 5 months or greater Puerto Rico (continued) 512 Guidelines for Perinatal Care Table F-1. State definitions and reporting requirements for live births, fetal deaths, and induced termi nations of pregnancy. Since then, the patient screening and transfer law has undergone numerous refinements and revisions. Physicians should expect that this law will continue to evolve and that there will be additional modifications to it in the future. Requirements for an Appropriate Medical Screening Examination Federal law requires that all Medicare-participating hospitals with a dedicated emergency department must provide an “appropriate medical screening exami nation” for any individual who comes to the emergency department for medical treatment or examination to determine whether the patient has an emergency medical condition. For example, “[i]f a hospital has a department of obstetrics and gynecology, the hospital is responsible for adopting procedures under which the staff and resources of that department are available to treat a woman in labor who comes to its emergency department. Therefore, a hospital can determine *Data from Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act. Under the law, it is defined as: “A medical condition manifesting itself by acute symptoms of sufficient severity (including severe pain, psychiatric disturbances and/or symptoms of substance abuse) such that the absence of immediate attention could reasonably be expected to result in— (A) Placing the health of the individual (or, with respect to a pregnant woman, the health of the woman or her unborn child) in serious jeopardy; (B) Serious impairment to bodily functions; or (C) Serious dysfunction of any bodily organ or part. It provides that an emergency medical condition exists if a pregnant woman is having contractions and “ there is inadequate time to effect a safe transfer to another hospital before deliv ery; or that transfer may pose a threat to the health or safety of the woman or the unborn child. A woman experiencing contractions is in true labor unless a physician, certified nurse-midwife, or other qualified medical person acting within his or her scope of practice as defined in hospital medical Appendix G 515 staff bylaws and State law, certifies that, after a reasonable time of observation, the woman is in false labor. Under this definition, a qualified medical person must certify that a woman is in false labor before she can be released. Patients With Emergency Medical Conditions Once a patient comes to an emergency department, is appropriately screened, and is determined to have an emergency medical condition, the physician may do one of two things: 1. In situations in which a pregnant woman is in true labor, her condition will be considered stabilized once the newborn and the placenta have been delivered. If a patient refuses to consent to treatment, however, the following three steps must be taken: 1. The patient must be informed of the risks and benefits of the examina tion or treatment or both. The patient may request a transfer, in writing, after being informed of the hospital’s obligations under the law and the risks of transfer. The physician must countersign the certification as contemporane ously as possible. The hospital must take all reasonable steps to secure the patient’s writ ten informed refusal. The written document must indicate that the individual has been informed of the risks and benefits of the transfer and the reasons for the patient’s refusal. The receiving hospital must have space and qualified personnel to treat the patient and must have agreed to accept the transfer. A hospital with specialized capabilities, such as a neonatal intensive care unit, may not refuse to accept patients if space is available. The transferring hospital must minimize the risks to the patient’s health, and the transfer must be executed through the use of qualified personnel and transportation equipment. The transferring hospital must send to the receiving hospital all medical records related to the emergency condition that are available at the time of transfer. These records include available history, records related to the emergency medical condition, observations of signs or symptoms, preliminary diagnosis, results of diagnostic studies or telephone reports of the studies, treatment provided, results of any tests and informed written consent or certification, and the name of any on-call physician who has refused or failed to appear within a reasonable time to provide necessary stabilizing treatment. Medical records related to transfers must be retained by both the trans ferring and receiving hospitals for 5 years from the date of the transfer. Hospitals are required to report to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services or the state survey agency within 72 hours from the time of the transfer any time they have reason to believe they may have received a patient who was transferred in an unstable medical condi tion. Hospitals also are required to post signs stating whether the hospital participates in the Medicaid program under a state-approved plan. Hospitals must keep a list of physicians who are on call after the initial examination to provide treatment to stabilize a patient with an emer gency medical condition. Hospitals must keep a central log of all individuals who come to the emergency department seeking assistance and the result of each indi vidual’s visit. Enforcement and Penalties Physicians and hospitals violating these federal requirements for patient screen ing and transfer are subject to civil monetary penalties of up to $50,000 for each violation and to termination from the Medicare program. Congress enacted the Occupational Safety and Health Act to protect workers from unsafe and unhealthy conditions in the workplace. The regulations cover all employees in physician offices, hospitals, medical laboratories, and other health care facilities where workers could be “reasonably anticipated” as a result of performing their job duties to come into contact with blood and other poten tially infectious materials. The regulations were revised, effective April 2001, to comply with the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act of 2000. This plan must list all job clas sifications in which employees are likely to be exposed to infectious materials and the relevant tasks and procedures performed by these employees. The Exposure Control Plan must be reviewed annually and updated to reflect changes in technology that eliminate or reduce exposure to bloodborne patho gens. Employers must document, in the Exposure Control Plan, how they received input from employees. As defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the concept of universal precautions requires the employer and employee to assume that blood and other body fluids are infectious and must be handled accordingly. Employers are required to provide hand-washing facilities that are read ily accessible to employees; when this is not feasible, employees must be provided with an antiseptic hand cleanser with clean cloth/paper towels 522 Guidelines for Perinatal Care or antiseptic towelettes. It is the employer’s responsibility to ensure that employees wash their hands immediately after gloves and other protec tive garments are removed. Recapping or needle removal must be accomplished by a mechanical device or a one-handed technique.