By: Christopher Whaley PhD
The more frequently injections are given and the higher the toxin dose at each treatment arthritis back facet cheap 4mg medrol overnight delivery, the greater is the tendency for an indi vidual to arthritis pain in hips and legs purchase generic medrol online develop resistance antibodies arthritis pain at rest cheap medrol express. Therefore arthritis nos definition medrol 16mg online, it is recom mended that injections be given no more frequently than every three months and that the lowest effective dose be used at each treatment arthritis pain how to treat buy discount medrol 16mg line. Patients who develop resistance to one type of toxin may subse quently respond to injection of a different type. As with any injected medication, a local skin infection or allergic medication reaction is possible. However, sterile needles and alco hol wipes have nearly eliminated the occurrence of infection. Allergic reactions to botulinum toxin are very rare with the purified formulations currently used. Side effects from the botulinum toxin 66 / the Spasmodic Torticollis Handbook injections include local redness and slight bruising from the injec tion needle. The toxin may also spread from the point of injection through tissues of the neck to the larynx, or voice box. The usual result is mild swallowing difficulty or hoarse ness of the voice, requiring a soft or pureed diet for several days. When they are stacked together to form the cervical spine, the holes form the central spinal canal, through which runs the spinal cord (Figure 22). At each vertebral level, the spinal cord gives off a pair of right and left nerve roots that contain the outflow axons of neurons of the motor system. The nerve roots exit the cervical spine through gaps between the vertebrae called foramina. Either before or after merging, they branch into motor nerves that terminate in various muscles. One single nerve root may supply signals to a number of muscles, but each mus cle receives its signals mainly through one single terminal motor nerve branch. One easy way to stop overactive agonist muscles would be to cut those nerve roots that supply them, a procedure known as rhizo tomy (Figure 23). There are drawbacks to such an approach, how 67 / Chemodenervation and Surgery Figure 22 the cervical spine and spinal cord. Since one root supplies several muscles, many more than just the targeted agonists would become severely weakened or paralyzed, causing excessive neck weakness. Although there are variants of rhizotomy that involve only partial cutting of a nerve root, this procedure has largely been superseded by a technique known as selective peripheral denervation. The technique of selective peripheral denervation was developed in the 1970s by Dr. In this proce dure, a surgeon must locate motor nerve branches supplying the tar geted agonist muscles, follow them to their termination point in the muscle, and cut them just at that point (Figure 23). Selective periph eral denervation is a highly specialized procedure; it should be per formed by an experienced neurosurgeon in conjunction with a movement disorders specialist. Our strategy, for some of our more complex patients, has been to first perform a partial oper ation, targeting only those muscles that are obviously involved. We then allow the patient to recover out of the hospital, after which we carefully reassess him to select target muscles for a second surgery. The goal is to abolish the abnormal contraction in most of the mus cles producing the unwanted movement, while preserving nerve con nections to adjacent normally acting muscles. Selective peripheral denervation works best for patients with rotational torticollis and least for patients with retrocollis. Physical therapy is required to recover the full range of motion of the neck following surgery. Adverse effects from surgery include a permanent weakness of adjacent neck muscles that causes difficulty in holding up the head or in swallowing. Rarely, weakness of the diaphragm can occur, caus ing a breathing impairment, because the nerve that controls this muscle passes close to some target muscles. Fortunately, we have been able to substantially reduce the occurrence of these adverse effects in recent years by refinements in surgical technique. For instance, we use an electrical nerve stimulation technique that allows us to identify and cut a nerve at a point just before it enters 69 / Chemodenervation and Surgery the target muscle, well after it has already given off branches to adja cent muscles, such as those involved in swallowing. Despite all refinements, however, there are anatomic and physiologic variations among patients, and adverse events may still occur. Myotomy involves the cutting or removal of portions of the overactive agonist muscles. Because of the greater amount of tissue trauma from this procedure, internal scar tissue may form and adhere to adjacent muscles and lig aments, limiting the range of neck motion or causing pain. Although myotomy may still be applied in certain cases, selective peripheral denervation is becoming the surgical procedure of choice. Thalamotomy is a technique in which a surgeon inserts a probe deep in the brain to destroy a small piece of brain tissue in the basal ganglia (see Figure 5). This destructive lesion alters the output of the extrapyramidal motor system to achieve the desired effect on a patient’s symptoms. Sometimes, the result obtained after an initial operation is inade quate, but repeating the procedure with an attempt to make a larger lesion may bring further improvement. Paralysis similar to that seen in a stroke may occur if the target is missed by a fraction of an inch. Thalamotomy has more recently been superseded by a nonde structive technique known as deep brain stimulation. This involves insertion of a thin electrical wire into specific targets within the basal ganglia. The wire is attached to a battery-powered device simi lar to a pacemaker that is implanted under the skin. Low-level elec trical impulses from this device disrupt the electrical output of the basal ganglia that is causing unwanted movements. If the effects of stimulation are not desirable, the device can simply be turned off or removed if necessary. They are especially useful for Parkinson’s patients in whom the disease is characterized by an inordinate amount of tremor and who respond inadequately to medications. These techniques have been applied to more wide spread or generalized dystonia with limited success. Experimental trials are currently underway for torticollis patients and may yield another alternative treatment for severe cases. Basically, this involves the harvesting of pieces of shaved bone from other parts of the body, then grafting them into place as bridges across adjacent cervical vertebral bones. The grafted pieces of bone fuse into place, locking adjacent vertebrae together into a rigid unbendable col umn. This may seem like a logical way to keep the head straight, but think about this: the abnormally contracting muscles will continue to exert their pulling force. The difference is that they will now exert tension and torsion forces on joints that cannot bend or give way. In such patients, pain may become so severe that they are forced to use narcotics on a chronic basis. We have attempted to treat such patients by chemodenervation with botulinum toxin injections or with selective peripheral dener vation. However, these two treatments often fail to relieve pain symp toms in patients who have had spinal fusion. Even this small residual pulling force is enough to produce pain when it is applied against a rigid, unyielding spinal column. All surgical procedures carry the risk of producing excessive weak ness or paralysis, causing infection or internal bleeding, complica tions of anesthesia, or simply not being effective. Surgery is never considered as a first-line or early treatment, even in fairly severe cases of dystonia, because some cases may resolve spontaneously, given time. Additionally, the specific muscles involved at the beginning may change over time. The proper muscles to target may not become obvious until the disorder stabilizes. As discussed previously, some patients may develop resistance to botulinum toxin after years of repeated injections. Those patients for whom chemodenervation is no longer effective may be considered for surgery. Among those patients, surgery works best for those with rotational torticollis, and less well for those who predominantly have retrocollis or anterocollis. The coexistence of med ical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, lung or breathing problems, or blood clotting abnormalities will add to the risk of adverse outcomes from surgery. Selective peripheral denervation is becoming the procedure of choice for those patients who are appropriate candidates for surgery. Note that, as opposed to surgical denervation, the injection of phenol or botulinum toxin achieves a chemical denervation. Peripheral surgeries on the nerves and muscles do not alter the abnormality in the extrapyramidal system of the brain. Patients who undergo surgery do not usually become free from the need for continued treat ment. Many of them must continue receiving botulinum toxin injec tions and/or medications. All of the factors discussed above must be considered together in selecting any one patient for surgery. The goals of physical therapy include bringing the head position back toward normal, increasing the range of motion, and decreasing pain, thereby increasing functional ability. Primarily, he will gently move the neck through its range of motion, stretching the spasming agonist muscles. He may take advantage of the effect of geste antagoniste, stimulating the skin by gentle stroking or by applying ice to decrease the con traction of agonists during neck maneuvers. For some patients, gen tle neck traction using a mechanical device may alleviate pain. Physical therapy techniques such as ultrasound or diathermy also may help with pain. Neck strengthening exercises should be limited to the antagonist muscles and will be discussed in Chapter 9. While it almost always feels good while being performed, pain control is very short-lived. In some patients, massage, especially deep massage, aggravates the spasms and con tractions of agonist muscles. However, we have found that an acupressure type treatment, in which the point of an elbow is applied to a spas ming trapezius muscle, or to muscles in the back of the neck, is often beneficial. Pressure should not be applied to the sternocleido mastoid muscle, which runs along the front and side of the neck, 73 74 / the Spasmodic Torticollis Handbook since doing so is ineffective and may even cause injury. Overall, we have found that properly applied acupressure is a most economical and effective pain relief measure with very low risk or side effects, and it may be performed at home by a spouse or family member. It is dan gerous only in a cervical spine that has been fractured, that has an unstable dislocation of one or more vertebrae; or that has arthritic changes that may predispose to damaging an important artery dur ing manipulation, resulting in a stroke.
Intensity: from sence of an organic or delusional cause or tension mild to treating arthritis of the back best buy medrol severe arthritis pain relief uk generic medrol 16 mg free shipping. Site Associated Symptoms and Modifying Factors May be symmetrical; if lateralized osteo arthritis in my foot generic 16 mg medrol free shipping, possibly more often May be exacerbated by psychological stress arthritis & feet & on top buy medrol 16 mg low price, relieved by on the left precordium arthritis clinic discount medrol 16 mg without a prescription, genitals; may be at any single treatment causing remission of illness. No physical signs point over the cranium or face, can involve tongue or or laboratory findings. Complications In accordance with causal condition; usually lasts for a Main Features few weeks in manic-depressive or schizo-affective psy Prevalence: true population prevalence unknown. Fre choses, may be sustained for months or years in estab quency increases from general practice populations to lished schizophrenia if resistant to treatment. Estimates of 11% and 43% have been found remits to be succeeded by a paranoid or schizophrenic in psychiatric departments, depending on the sample. Sex Ratio: estimated female to male ratio 2:1 or greater particularly if multiple complaints occur. Onset: may be Social and Physical Disabilities at any time from childhood onward but most often in In accordance with the mental state and its conse late adolescence. Time Pattern: Pain is usually con Etiology tinuous throughout most of the waking hours but fluctu Manic-depressive, schizophrenic, or possibly other psy ates somewhat in intensity, does not wake the patient choses. Those required for diagnosis are pain, without a lesion Associated Symptoms or overt physical mechanism and founded upon a delu Loss of function without a physical basis (anesthesia, sional or hallucinatory state. There may be frequent visits to physicians to From undisclosed or missed lesions in psychotic pa obtain relief despite medical reassurance, or excessive tients, or migraine, giving rise to delusional misinterpre use of analgesics as well as other psychotropic drugs for tations; from tension headaches; from hysterical, complaints of depression, neither type of remedy prov hypochondriacal, or conversion states. X9a frequently not acceptable to the patient, although emo tional conflict may have provoked the condition. These Note: X = to be completed individually according to patients tend to marry but have poor marital relation circumstances in each case. The personality is often of a dependent-histrionic-labile type (“hysterical personality” or “passive dependent personality”). The and sometimes individual psychotherapy may promote first is largely monosymptomatic, is relatively rare, and recovery. Some patients who primarily have a cessive investigations; unsuccessful surgery, sometimes depressive illness also present with pain as the main repeatedly. Their pain may be interpreted delu Social and Physical Disability sionally or may be based on a tension pain, etc. In the history these often num Essential Features ber more than 10, including classical conversion or Pain without adequate organic or pathophysiological pseudoneurological symptoms (paralyses, weakness, explanation. Separate evidence other than the prime impairment of special senses, difficulty in swallowing, complaint to support the view that psychiatric illness is etc. Proof of the presence of psychological factors in ness of breath), disturbances in sexual function (impaired addition by virtue of both of the following: (1) an appro libido, reduced potency), etc. There may also be other signs of disorder other than the following, and it should conform preoccupation with somatic health. The most common (F45) in the International Classification of Diseases, pattern in pain clinics is the second one described. A 10th edition, or to those for somatization disorder hypochondriacal pattern may be observed either alone or (300. In the second and third types, a disorder of emotional development is often pre Differential Diagnosis sent. This is done because there does not disseminated lupus erythematosis, multiple sclerosis, seem to be a single mechanism for pain associated with porphyria; (3) from schizophrenia, endogenous depres depression, even though such pain is frequent. The differential diagnosis Emotional stress may be a predisposing factor and is from tension headache usually will be based on one or almost always important in the monosymptomatic type. X9b Muscle tension pain with depression, delusional, or hal lucinatory pain; in depression or with schizophrenia, References muscle spasm provoked by local disease; and other International Classification of Diseases, 10th ed. It is important not to confuse the situation of depression causing pain as a secondary phenomenon with depres sion which commonly occurs when chronic pain arising Pain of Psychological Origin: Asso for physical reasons is troublesome. X9d Pain occurring in the course of a depressive illness, usu Note: Unlike muscle contraction pain, hysterical pain, or ally not preceding the depression and not attributable to delusional pain, no clear mechanism is recognized for any other cause. If the patient has a depressive illness with delusions, the pain should be classified under Pain of Site Psychological Origin: Delusional or Hallucinatory. Patients with anxiety and depression who do Main Features not have evident muscle contraction may have pain in Prevalence: probably common. Previously, depressive pain was distrib majority of patients with an independent depressive ill uted between other types of pain of psychological origin, ness, more often in nonendogenous depression, and less including delusional and tension pain groups and hys often in illness with an endogenous pattern. Pain Quality: may be sensory was the lack of a definite mechanism with good support or affective, or both, not necessarily bizarre; worse with ing evidence for a separate category of depressive pain. The pain may oc While the evidence that there is a specific mechanism is cur at the site of previous trauma (accidental or surgical) still poor, the occurrence of pain in consequence of de and may therefore be confused with a recurrence of the pression is common, and was not adequately covered by original condition. Associated Symptoms A Note on Factitious Illness and Anxiety and irritability are common. Malingering (1-17) Signs Tenderness may occur, but may also be found in other Factitious illness is of concern to psychiatrists because conditions and in normal individuals. Physicians in any discipline may Relief encounter the problem in differential diagnosis. No cod Improvement in the pain occurs with the improvement ing is given for pain in these circumstances because it of the depression. The response to psychological treat will be either induced by physical change or counterfeit. In the second case, the complaint of Social and Physical Disability pain does not represent the presence of pain. The role of the doctor in this task may be lim monoamine receptors has been suggested. Page 57 ited to drawing attention to discrepancies and inconsis Painful Scar (1-26) tencies in the history and clinical findings. Xld Systemic Lupus Erythematosis, Systemic Sclerosis and Fibrosclerosis, Polymyositis, and Dermatomyositis Sickle Cell Arthropathy (1-19) (1-27) Code X34. X5c Psoriatic Arthropathy and Other Osteoporosis (1-33) Secondary Arthropathies (1-25) Code Code X32. X8c Page 58 Muscle Spasm (1-34) Signs Extremity weakness and areflexia are essential features of the neuropathy. Back and leg pain are commonly ex Code acerbated by nerve root traction maneuvers such as X37. Cerebrospinal fluid Code shows elevated protein with relatively normal cell count. X8e Usual Course Aching back and extremity pain, sometimes of a severe Guillain-Barre Syndrome (1-36) nature, usually resolves over the first four weeks. Dys esthetic extremity pain persists indefinitely in 5-10% of Definition patients. Acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs System for mild to moderate pain. Active and passive exercise Deep aching pain involving the low back region, but program. Pad tocks, thighs, and calves is common (> 50%) in the first ding to prevent pressure palsies. Pain may also occur in the shoulder girdle and upper extremity but is less frequent. Complications Beyond the first month, burning tingling extremity pain Persistent weakness and contractures from incomplete occurs in about 25% of patients. Ulnar and peroneal pressure palsies from im Note: While in the Guillain-Barre syndrome weakness mobilization. Peripheral nerve demyelination with secondary axonal Associated Symptoms degeneration. During the acute phase there may be muscle pain and Differential Diagnosis pains of cramps in the extremities associated with mus Pain secondary to neuropathies stimulating Guillain cle tenderness. Constipation can produce lower abdomi Barre syndrome: porphyria, diphtheritic infection, toxic nal and pelvic pain. No par Sudden, usually unilateral, severe brief stabbing recur ticular aggravating factors. Site If medical measures fail, radio-frequency treatment of Strictly limited to the distribution of the Vth nerve; uni the ganglion or microsurgical decompression of the tri lateral in about 95% of the cases. The second, third, and first branches of the Usual Course Vth cranial nerve are involved in the foregoing order of Recurrent bouts over months to years, interspersed with frequency. In patients with multiple sclerosis, there is also an Pathology increased incidence of tic douloureux. Sex Ratio: women When present, always involves the peripheral trigeminal affected perhaps more commonly than men. Impingement on the root by set: after fourth decade, with peak onset in fifth to sev vascular loops, etc. No sensory or reflex deficit detectable by tern: paroxysms may occur at intervals or many times routine neurologic testing. Periodicity is characteristic, with episodes Differential Diagnosis occurring for a few weeks to a month or two, followed Must be differentiated from symptomatic trigeminal by a pain-free interval of months or years and then re neuralgia due to a small tumor such as an epidermoid or currence of another bout. Intensity: extremely severe, small meningioma involving either the root or the gan probably one of the most intense of all acute pains. Sensory and reflex deficits in the face may be detected in a significant proportion of such cases. Dif Precipitation ferential diagnosis between trigeminal neuralgia of man Pain paroxysms can be triggered by trivial sensations dibular division and glossopharyngeal neuralgia may, in from various trigger zones, that is, areas with increased rare instances, be difficult. Jabs and Jolts syndrome sensitivity, which are located within the area of trigemi (“multiple jabs,” “ice-pick pain”). The trigger phenomenon can be elicited by light touch, shaving, washing, chewing, etc. Meningioma of Meckel’s cave, epidermoid cyst, and less frequently vascular malformation (arterio-venous aneu rysm or tortuous basilar artery) of cerebello-pontine an gle are among the most frequent causes of this rare Secondary Neuralgia (Trigeminal) condition. Pain Qual ity: paroxysmal pain may be indistinguishable from “true” tic douloureux. Nonparoxysmal pain of dull or Secondary Trigeminal Neuralgia more constant type may occur. Attack pattern may be less typical from Facial Trauma (11-3) with longer-lasting paroxysms or nonparoxysmal pain. Chronic throbbing or burning pain with paroxysmal ex acerbations in the distribution of a peripheral trigeminal Associated Symptoms and Signs and Laboratory nerve subsequent to injury. Findings Sensory changes (hypoesthesia in trigeminal area) or Site loss of corneal reflex. Main Features Occasionally, partial relief from drugs for “essential” Prevalence: 5-10% following facial fractures; common trigeminal neuralgia. Pain Quality: biphasic with Usual Course sharp, triggered paroxysms and dull throbbing or burn Progression, usually very gradual. Page 61 Signs Usual Course Tender palpable nodules over peripheral nerves; neuro Spontaneous and permanent remission. Usual Course Progressive for six months, then stable until treated with Complications microsurgery, graft-repair reanastomosis; transcutaneous Acute glaucoma and corneal ulceration due to vesicles stimulation and anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy.
Vision and hearing are used to rheumatoid arthritis flare order 16mg medrol visa identify and interpret changes in vehicle performance extensive arthritis in neck purchase medrol 4 mg. When a fatal crash involves at least one large truck arthritis knee orthotics buy genuine medrol on-line, regardless of the cause arthritis natural treatments diet medrol 16 mg on-line, the occupants of passenger vehicles are more likely to rheumatoid arthritis prevention 4 mg medrol with mastercard sustain serious injury or die than the occupants of the large truck. The answer is found in basic physics: injury severity equals relative velocity change. The crash of a vehicle having twice the mass with a lighter vehicle equals a six-fold risk of death Page 21 of 260 to persons in the lighter vehicle. In addition to the grievous toll in human life and survivor suffering, the economic cost of these crashes is exceedingly high. As a medical examiner, your fundamental obligation is to establish whether a driver has a disease, disorder, or injury resulting in a higher than acceptable likelihood for gradual or sudden incapacitation or sudden death, thus endangering public safety. As a medical examiner, any time you answer “yes“ to this question, you should not certify the driver as medically fit for duty. Public Safety Consider Safety Implications As you conduct the physical examination to determine if the driver is medically fit to perform the job of commercial driving, you must consider: • Physical condition o Symptoms — Does a benign underlying condition with an excellent prognosis have symptoms that interfere with the ability to drive. Is the onset of incapacitating symptoms so gradual that the driver is unaware of diminished capabilities, thus adversely impacting safe driving Nonetheless, you have a responsibility to educate and refer the driver for Page 24 of 260 further evaluation if you suspect an undiagnosed or worsening medical problem. Medical Examination Report Form Overview As a medical examiner, you must perform the driver physical examination and record the findings in accordance with the instructions on the Medical Examination Report form. The purpose of this overview is to familiarize you with the sections and data elements on the Medical Examination Report form, including, but not limited to: • Organization of the form. You are encouraged to have a copy of the Medical Examination Report form for reference as you review the remaining topics. As a medical examiner, you are responsible for determining medical fitness for duty and driver certification status. Health History the Driver completes and signs section 2, and the Medical Examiner reviews and adds comments: Figure 5 Medical Examination Report Form: Health History Health History — Driver Instructions the driver is instructed to indicate either an affirmative or negative history for each statement in the health history by checking either the "Yes" or "No" box. The driver is also instructed to provide additional information for "Yes" responses, including: • Onset date. Health History — Driver Signature Verify that the Driver signs Medical Examination Report Form: Figure 6 Medical Examination Report Form: Driver Signature Page 27 of 260 By signing the Medical Examination Report form, the driver: • Certifies that information is “complete and true. Regulations — You must review and discuss with the driver any "Yes" answers For each "Yes" answer: • Ask about history, diagnosis, treatment, and response to treatment. As needed, you should also educate the driver regarding drug interactions with other prescription and nonprescription drugs and alcohol. Recommendations — Questions that you may ask include: Does the driver have: • Symptoms that interfere with safe driving because of: o Frequency Page 28 of 260 Health History (Column 1) — Overview In addition to the guidance provided in the section above, directions specific to each category in Column 1 for each "Yes" answer are listed below. Feel free to ask other questions to help you gather sufficient information to make your qualification/disqualification decision. Any illness or injury in the last 5 years A driver must report any condition for which he/she is currently under treatment. The driver is also asked to report any illness/injury he/she has sustained within the last 5 years, whether or not currently under treatment. Seizures, epilepsy Ask questions to ascertain whether the driver has a diagnosis of epilepsy (two or more unprovoked seizures), or whether the driver has had one seizure. Gather information regarding type of seizure, duration, frequency of seizure activity, and date of last seizure. Eye disorders or impaired vision (except corrective lenses) Ask about changes in vision, diagnosis of eye disorder, and diagnoses commonly associated with secondary eye changes that interfere with driving. Complaints of glare or near-crashes are driver responses that may be the first warning signs of an eye disorder that interferes with safe driving. Ear disorders, loss of hearing or balance Ask about changes in hearing, ringing in the ears, difficulties with balance, or dizziness. Loss of balance while performing nondriving tasks can lead to serious injury of the driver. Obtain heart surgery information, including such pertinent operative reports as copies of the original cardiac catheterization report, Page 29 of 260 stress tests, worksheets, and original tracings, as needed, to adequately assess medical fitness for duty. High blood pressure Ask about the history, diagnosis, and treatment of hypertension. In addition, talk with the driver about his/her response to prescribed medications. The likelihood increases, however, when there is target organ damage, particularly cerebral vascular disease. As a medical examiner, though, you are concerned with the blood pressure response to treatment, and whether the driver is free of any effects or side effects that could impair job performance. Muscular disease Ask the driver about history, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions, such as rheumatic, arthritic, orthopedic, and neuromuscular diseases. Does the diagnosis indicate that the driver is at risk for sudden, incapacitating episodes of muscle weakness, ataxia, paresthesia, hypotonia, or pain However, most commercial drivers are not short of breath while driving their vehicles. Health History (Column 2) — Overview In addition to the guidance provided in the section above, directions specific to each category in Column 2 are listed below for each "Yes" answer. Lung disease, emphysema, asthma, chronic bronchitis Ask about emergency room visits, hospitalizations, supplemental use of oxygen, use of inhalers and other medications, risk of exposure to allergens, etc. Even the slightest impairment in respiratory function under emergency conditions (when greater oxygen supply is necessary for performance) may be detrimental to safe driving. Page 30 of 260 Kidney disease, dialysis Ask about the degree and stability of renal impairment, ability to maintain treatment schedules, and the presence and status of any co-existing diseases. Digestive problems Refer to the guidance found in Regulations You must review and discuss with the driver any "Yes" answers. Diabetes or elevated blood glucose controlled by diet, pills, or insulin Ask about treatment, whether by diet, oral medications, Byetta, or insulin. To do so, the medical examiner must complete the examination and check the following boxes: • Meets standards but periodic monitoring required due to (write in: insulin treatment). Loss of or altered consciousness Loss of consciousness while driving endangers the driver and the public. Your discussion with the driver should include cause, duration, initial treatment, and any evidence of recurrence or prior episodes of loss of or altered consciousness. You may, on a case-by-case basis, obtain additional tests and/or consultation to adequately assess driver medical fitness for duty. Health History (Column 3) — Overview In addition to the guidance provided in the section above, directions specific to each category in Column 3 are listed below for each "Yes" answer. Fainting, dizziness Note whether the driver checked “Yes” due to fainting or dizziness. Ask about episode characteristics, including frequency, factors leading to and surrounding an episode, and any associated neurologic symptoms. Sleep disorders, pauses in breathing while asleep, daytime sleepiness, loud snoring Ask the driver about sleep disorders. Also ask about such symptoms as daytime sleepiness, loud snoring, or pauses in breathing while asleep. Page 31 of 260 Stroke or paralysis Note any residual paresthesia, sensory deficit, or weakness as a result of stroke and consider both time and risk for seizure. Missing or impaired hand, arm, foot, leg, finger, toe Determine whether the missing limb affects driver power grasping, prehension, or ability to perform normal tasks, such as braking, clutching, accelerating, etc. Spinal injury or disease Refer to the guidance found in Regulations You must review and discuss with the driver any "Yes" answers. How does the pain affect the ability of the driver to perform driving and nondriving tasks You should refer the driver who shows signs of a current alcoholic illness to a specialist. Narcotic or habit-forming drug use Explore the use of the medication, whether or not it is prescribed, and the medication’s effect on driver reaction time, ability to focus, and concentration. Health History — Medical Examiner Comments Overview At a minimum, your comments should include: • Nature of a positive history and the effect on driving ability. Include a copy of any supplementary medical reports obtained to complete the health history. Page 32 of 260 Vision the Medical Examiner completes section 3: Figure 7 Medical Examination Report Form: Vision Vision — Medical Examiner Instructions To meet the Federal vision standard, the driver must meet the qualification requirements for vision with both eyes. Regulations — driver must have: • Distant visual acuity of at least 20/40 (Snellen) in each eye, with or without corrective lenses. Administer Vision Screening Tests • Use the Snellen chart for testing or give results in Snellen-comparable values. Page 33 of 260 • Use of contact lenses when one lens corrects distant visual acuity and the other lens corrects near visual acuity. Specialist Vision Certification the vision testing and certification may be completed by an ophthalmologist or optometrist. A specialist vision examination may be: • A requirement for obtaining and renewing a medical exemption. When the vision test is done by an ophthalmologist or optometrist, that provider must fill in the date, name, telephone number, license number, and State of issue, and sign the examination form. Additionally, ensure that any attached specialist report includes all required examination and provider information listed on the Medical Examination Report form. Hearing the Medical Examiner completes section 4: Figure 8 Medical Examination Report Form: Hearing Hearing — Medical Examiner Instructions To meet the Federal hearing standard, the driver must successfully complete one hearing test with one ear. Record use of a hearing aid: • If the driver uses a hearing aid while testing, mark the “Check if hearing aid used for tests” box. Record Hearing Tests Results • Forced whisper test — Record the distance, in feet, at which a whispered voice is first heard. Hearing — Hearing Test Example In the example above, the examiner has documented the test results for both hearing tests. The forced whisper test was administered first, and hearing measured by the test failed to meet the minimum five feet requirement in both ears. Therefore, the medical examiner also administered an audiometric test, resulting in: • Right ear 30 + 33 + 35 = 98/3 = 32. This three-month certificate is a one-time issuance for the recertification period and is not intended to mean once in the driver’s lifetime. The medical examiner may use his/her clinical expertise and results of the individual driver examination to determine the length of time between recertification examinations. Figure 10 Medical Examination Report Form: Blood Pressure/Pulse Rate Recommendation Table the following table corresponds to the first two columns of the recommendation table in the Medical Examination Report form. Column one has the blood pressure readings, and column two has the category classification. The next table corresponds to columns three and four of the recommendation table in the Medical Examination Report form. Use the Expiration Date and Recertification columns to assist you in determining driver certification decisions. Expiration Date Recertification 1 year 1 year if less than or equal to 140/90 1 year from date of examination if less than One-time certificate for 3 months or equal to 140/90 6 months from date of examination if less 6 months if less than or equal to 140/90 than or equal to 140/90 Table 3 Blood Pressure/Pulse Rate Recommendation Table Columns 3 and 4 A driver with Stage 3 hypertension (greater than or equal to 180/110) is at an unacceptable risk for an acute hypertensive event and should be disqualified.
Pain patients with central neuropathic pain measured by dipre Clinic arthritis pain in shoulder buy genuine medrol online, 14(3) arthritis in neck prognosis discount medrol 4mg fast delivery, 273–276 arthritis in the back relief generic 16mg medrol with mastercard. Prevalence and intensity of pain after tients: the inuence of spontaneous and provoked pain arthritis diet patrick holford buy generic medrol 4mg online. Diffusion tensor ber tracking in patients with cen post-stroke pain: A randomized arthritis pain on foot purchase genuine medrol online, double-blind, placebo tral post-stroke pain; Correlation with efcacy of repetitive controlled trial. Motor cortex stimulation studied by statistical quantitative sensory testing within in for post-stroke pain: Comparison of spinal cord and thalamic dividuals. European Journal of Pain, 16(8), Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 76(6), 1128–1136. Post-stroke central pain or paresthesia characteristics, therapeutic options and long-term follow-up. Lesions limited to the human thalamic Central Post-Stroke Pain (Review) 817 principal somatosensory nucleus (ventral caudal) are asso Maarrawi, J. Behavioural evidence for post-stroke pain: Clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, vestibular stimulation as a treatment for central post-stroke and management. Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 45(9), 1108– Thalamic hemorrhage: A prospective study of 100 patients. Amitriptyline in clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and somatosensory the prophylaxis of central poststroke pain. Amitriptyline for neuropathic pain and dynamic mechanical allodynia and dysesthesia in patients bromyalgia in adults. Motor cortex stimulation for neuropathic pain (Re stimulation for post stroke neuropathic pain. American Journal of Managed Care, stroke pain: Neurological symptoms and pain characteris 12(9 Suppl), S256–S262. Deep brain stroke pain in a lateral medullary infarction: Two case stimulation for the alleviation of post stroke neuropathic reports and literature review. A beta-ber mediated activation of the treatment of central post-stroke pain: A retrospective cingulate cortex as correlate of central post-stroke pain. Risk effects of lamotrigine on pain, sleep, and mood in refractory factors for stroke-related pain 1 year after rst-ever stroke. Analgesia in conjunction (central post-stroke pain) in a patient presenting with right with normalization of thermal sensation following upper limb pain: A case report. Rapid relief of thalamic pain syndrome Sensory abnormalities in consecutive, unselected pa induced by vestibular caloric stimulation. Treatment of central post central post-stroke pain with associated dizziness and stroke pain with oral ketamine. New England stroke and the inuence of long-term pain on everyday Journal of Medicine, 348, 1223–1232. Lamotrigine and diffusion tensor imaging in a case of central poststroke for acute and chronic pain. Lamotrigine for acute and the complexities of pain after stroke: A review with a focus chronic pain. Antiepileptic drugs for central post Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 14(1), 2–31. Understanding central post-stroke Central poststroke pain and reduced opioid receptor binding pain. Pharmacological classication of central post-stroke pain model using global cerebral ischaemic mice. Journal of pain: Comparison with the results of chronic motor cortex Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 65(4), 615–620. Cerebrovascu cacy of motor cortex stimulation for intractable central lar Disease, 16(1), 27–30. A history and physical exami nation should place patients into one of several categories: (1) nonspecifc low back pain; (2) back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis; (3) back pain referred from a nonspinal source; or (4) back pain associated with another specifc spinal cause. For patients who have back pain associated with radiculopathy, spinal stenosis, or another specifc spinal cause, magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography may establish the diagnosis and guide management. Because evidence of improved outcomes is lacking, lumbar spine radiog raphy should be delayed for at least one to two months in patients with nonspecifc pain. Acet aminophen and nonsteroidal anti-infammatory drugs are frst-line medications for chronic low back pain. Tramadol, opioids, and other adjunctive medications may beneft some patients who do not respond to nonsteroidal anti-infammatory drugs. Acupuncture, exercise therapy, multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs, massage, behavior therapy, and spinal manipula tion are effective in certain clinical situations. Patients with radicular symptoms may beneft from epidural steroid injections, but studies have produced mixed results. A surgical evaluation may be considered for select patients with functional disabilities or refractory pain despite multiple nonsurgical treatments. Acute episodes of back (3) back pain referred from a nonspinal source; able at. Patients with or (4) back pain associated with another spe org/afp/20090615/1067 persistent or fuctuating pain that lasts lon cifc spinal cause2 (Table 13). Review of systems should focus on of work productivity, treatment costs, and unexplained fevers, weight loss, morning disability payments. Estimates of these costs stiffness, gynecologic symptoms, and uri range from $12. The physical examination should include Evaluation the straight leg raise and a focused neuro the initial evaluation, including a history and muscular examination. A positive straight physical examination, of patients with chronic leg raise test (pain with the leg fully extended low back pain should attempt to place patients at the knee and fexed at the hip between June 15, 2009 Volume 79, Number 12 Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Low Back Pain Nonspecifc or Referred pain Nonmechanical idiopathic (2 percent) (1 percent) (70 percent) Aortic aneurysm Neoplasia rapidly progressive disease (Table 25,6) Lumbar sprain or strain Diseases of the Multiple myeloma or radicular symptoms that do not spon Mechanical pelvic organs Metastatic carcinoma taneously resolve after six weeks. Because (27 percent) Prostatitis Lymphoma and leukemia evidence of improved outcomes is lacking, Degenerative processes Endometriosis Spinal cord tumors imaging, such as lumbar spine radiogra of disks and facets Chronic pelvic Retroperitoneal tumors phy, should be delayed at least one to two Herniated disk infammatory Primary vertebral tumors months in patients with nonspecifc pain Osteoporotic fracture* disease 6 Infammatory arthritis, often without red fags for serious disease. Spinal stenosis Gastrointestinal associated with human disease Psychosocial issues play an important Traumatic fracture* leukocyte antigen-B27 Pancreatitis role in guiding the treatment of patients Congenital disease Ankylosing spondylitis Cholecystitis with chronic low back pain. One study Severe kyphosis Psoriatic spondylitis Penetrating found that patients with chronic low back Severe scoliosis Reiter syndrome ulcer pain who have a reduced sense of life con Transitional vertebrae Infammatory bowel disease Renal disease trol, disturbed mood, negative self-effcacy, Spondylosis Infection* Nephrolithiasis high anxiety levels, and mental health dis Internal disk disruption Osteomyelitis or discogenic pain Pyelonephritis* orders, and who engage in catastrophiz Septic diskitis Presumed instability Perinephric ing tend to not respond well to treatments Paraspinous abscess 8 abscess* such as epidural steroid injections. Evaluation of Scheuermann disease psychosocial problems and “yellow fags” (osteochondrosis) are useful in identifying patients with a Paget disease of bone 8,9 poor prognosis. Nonpharmacologic therapies are effective with chronic low back pain have nonspecifc fnd in certain clinical situations and can be added to the ings on imaging studies,7 and asymptomatic patients treatment program at any time. Psychosocial “Yellow Flags” Predicting Long-Term Acetaminophen is frst-line therapy Disability in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain because of its high safety profle. Stud Expectation that pain will increase with work and activity; pending litigation; ies demonstrate short-term improvements problems with worker’s compensation or claims; poor job satisfaction; unsupportive work environment in pain and function, but long-term data are lacking. Adverse effects include drowsi willow bark, topical cayenne) Presence of chronic low back pain without red ness, constipation, and nausea. Muscle relaxants (short-term use) fags for serious disease All muscle relaxants provide similar short Nonsteroidal anti-infammatory drugs term improvements in pain and function, but Opioids there is no evidence to support their long Advise to stay active Tramadol (Ultram) term use for chronic low back pain. Sedation Tricyclic antidepressants Discuss and agree on noninvasive treatment plan: is a common adverse effect, and chronic use If radiculopathy, gabapentin (Neurontin) Pharmacologic (see box) of benzodiazepines and carisoprodol (Soma) Nonpharmacologic options: Nonpharmacologic (see box) carries the risk of dependency. Harpagophytum procumbens Pain controlled and Viniyoga (devil’s claw) in a dosage of 50 mg daily, Salix no functional defcits Consider referral to pain management specialist There have been few high-quality trials to assess the effectiveness and potential risks of these medications in chronic low back pain. One of the challenges of treat radiography and pharmacologic and ing chronic low back pain is differentiating nonpharmacologic options (see box) among tolerance, opioid-induced hyperal For severe functional disabilities or nonresponse to multiple treatment gesia, and disease progression. Hyperalgesia options, consider multidisciplinary involves increasing pain despite increasing rehabilitation or referral to pain opioid treatment, pain that becomes more management specialist diffuse and beyond the distribution of the preexisting pain, and an apparent change Return to A in pain threshold or tolerability. Treatment algorithm for patients with chronic low back decreased, or patients should be weaned off pain. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical not been shown to help patients with chronic practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society [published correction appears in Ann Intern Med. Some of these medications are available at considerable savings through local and national pharmacy discount programs. Consistent evidence supports fags” are useful in identifying patients with cognitive behavior therapy and progres chronic low back pain who have a poor prognosis. Acupuncture A 2, 22-24 Multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs Multidisciplinary rehabilitation A 2, 27, 28 that include a physician and at least one addi Likely to be benefcial tional intervention (psychological, social, or Herbal medications (devil’s claw, white willow B 18 vocational) alleviate subjective disability, bark, topical cayenne) Tricyclic antidepressants B 2, 21 reduce pain, return persons to work fve Exercise therapy B 2, 25, 26 weeks earlier, and after returning to work, Behavior therapy B 2 reduce the amount of sick time in the frst Massage B 2, 29 year by seven days. Massage appears to be Antiepileptic medication (gabapentin C 2 most effective when combined with exercise, [Neurontin]) for radicular symptoms stretching, and education. Six weeks of yoga decreased medi A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence; B = inconsistent or limited cation use and provided more pain relief than quality patient-oriented evidence; C = consensus, disease-oriented evidence, usual exercise and self-care. She received her medical degree from Rosalind with stenotic lesions encompassing more than three Franklin University of Medicine and Science, Chicago (Ill. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American Col sion, nerve root decompression, and spinal fusion have lege of Physicians and the American Pain Society [published correction been extensively evaluated for the treatment of degen appears in Ann Intern Med. Wellington, ate for patients who continue to experience severe New Zealand; October 2004. Prognostic factors defne the indications and timing of referral, a decision for musculoskeletal pain in primary care: a systematic review. Universal precautions in pain medi cine: a rational approach to the treatment of chronic pain. Cochrane Data his medical degree from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine base Syst Rev. Effcacy of tramadol in treat development fellowship at the University of Pittsburgh (Pa. Prolotherapy injec native medical therapies for chronic low back pain: What treatments are tions for chronic low-back pain. Differences in outcome of a multidisciplinary treatment ment of chronic low back pain with intradiscal electrothermal therapy. These agents have a favorable safety prole and there is increasing evidence indicating their efcacy for a variety of pain disorders. The use of topical analgesics in the treatment of the most prevalent musculoskeletal pain syndromes is described, with a focus on mechanisms for drug delivery and clinical trials data. Key Words Counterirritants, local anesthetics, musculoskeletal pain, topical analgesics Introduction may provide a safe and effective therapeutic approach for some musculoskeletal pains. Musculoskeletal pain encompasses a wide spectrum of disorders from simple ligamen tous injuries. When chronic, the complex pathophysiology, often involving both musculoskeletal and neuropathic compo Address reprint requests to: Steven P. Cancer Pain Relief Committee 0885-3924/07/$esee front matter Published by Elsevier Inc. Nerve bers ignited intense debate within both popular localize densely within bone, and chronic and medical media starting from the end of pain is thought to arise from sensitized noci 12 2004 and still ongoing currently. Certainly, ceptors that become exposed due to the ero 6 the debates brought the issue of pharmaco sion of articular cartilage.
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