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Infants are frequently more attuned to pregnancy 50 effaced generic 0.5 mg cabergoline with visa the tone of voice of the person speaking than to women's health issues in uganda discount 0.25 mg cabergoline with visa the content of the words themselves breast cancer ultrasound results buy 0.25mg cabergoline amex, and are aware of the target of speech women health generic cabergoline 0.5 mg overnight delivery. Werker womens health medical group purchase cheap cabergoline online, Pegg, [13] and McLeod (1994) found that infants listened longer to a woman who was speaking to a baby than to a woman who was speaking to another adult. Children also use their knowledge of syntax to help them figure out what words mean. If a child hears an adult point to a strange object and say, this is a dirb,? they will infer that a dirb? is a thing, but if they hear them say, this is a one of those dirb things? they will infer that it refers to the color or other characteristic of the object. And if they hear the word [15] dirbing,? they will infer that dirbing? is something that we do (Waxman, 1990). How Children Learn Language: Theories of Language Acquisition Psychological theories of language learning differ in terms of the importance they place on nature versus nurture. On the other hand, human brains, unlike those of any other animal, are prewired in a way that leads them, almost effortlessly, to learn language. Perhaps the most straightforward explanation of language development is that it occurs through principles of learning, including association, reinforcement, and the observation of others [16] (Skinner, 1965). There must be at least some truth to the idea that language is learned, because children learn the language that they hear spoken around them rather than some other language. Also supporting this idea is the gradual improvement of language skills with time. It seems that children modify their language through imitation, reinforcement, and shaping, as would be predicted by learning theories. For one, children learn words too fast for them to be learned through reinforcement. Between the ages of 18 months and 5 years, children learn up to [17] 10 new words every day (Anglin, 1993). Generativity refers to the fact that speakers of a language can compose sentences to represent new ideas that they have never before been exposed to. Language is not a predefined set of ideas and sentences that we choose when we need them, but rather a system of rules and procedures that allows us to create an infinite number of statements, thoughts, and ideas, including those that have never previously occurred. When a child says that she swimmed? in the pool, for instance, she is showing generativity. No adult speaker of English would ever say swimmed,? yet it is easily generated from the normal system of producing language. Other evidence that refutes the idea that all language is learned through experience comes from the observation that children may learn languages better than they ever hear them. A group of deaf children in a school in Nicaragua, whose teachers could not sign, invented a way to communicate through made-up signs (Senghas, Senghas, & Pyers, [19] 2005). The development of this new Nicaraguan Sign Language has continued and changed as new generations of students have come to the school and started using the language. The linguist Noam Chomsky is a believer in the nature approach to language, arguing that human brains contain a language acquisition device that includes a universal grammar that underlies all [20] human language (Chomsky, 1965, 1972). According to this approach, each of the many languages spoken around the world (there are between 6,000 and 8,000) is an individual example of the same underlying set of procedures that are hardwired into human brains. Chomsky differentiates between the deep structure of an idea?how the idea is represented in the fundamental universal grammar that is common to all languages, and the surface structure of the idea?how it is expressed in any one language. Once we hear or express a thought in surface structure, we generally forget exactly how it happened. In their search they found languages that did not have noun or verb phrases, that did not have tenses. Bilingualism and Cognitive Development Although it is less common in the United States than in other countries,bilingualism (the ability to speak two languages) is becoming more and more frequent in the modern world. These laws are in part based on the idea that students will have a stronger identity with the school, the culture, and the government if they speak only English, and in part based on the idea that speaking two languages may interfere with cognitive development. Some early psychological research showed that, when compared with monolingual children, bilingual children performed more slowly when processing language, and their verbal scores were lower. More current research that has controlled for these factors has found that, although bilingual children may in some cases learn language somewhat slower than do monolingual children [23] (Oller & Pearson, 2002), bilingual and monolingual children do not significantly differ in the final depth of language learning, nor do they generally confuse the two languages (Nicoladis & [24] Genesee, 1997). In fact, participants who speak two languages have been found to have better cognitive functioning, cognitive flexibility, and analytic skills in comparison to monolinguals [25] (Bialystok, 2009). Furthermore, the increased density is stronger in those individuals who are most proficient in their second language and who learned the second language earlier. Thus, rather than slowing language development, learning a second language seems to increase cognitive abilities. Some species communicate using scents; others use visual displays, such as baring the teeth, puffing up the fur, or flapping the wings; and still others use vocal sounds. Male songbirds, such as canaries and finches, sing songs to attract mates and to protect territory, and chimpanzees use a combination of facial expressions, sounds, and actions, such as slapping the ground, to convey aggression (de [27] Waal, 1989). Honeybees use a waggle dance? to direct other bees to the location of food [28] sources (von Frisch, 1956). The language of vervet monkeys is relatively advanced in the sense that they use specific sounds to communicate specific meanings. Vervets make different calls to signify that they have seen either a leopard, a snake, or a hawk (Seyfarth & Cheney, [29] 1997). Despite their wide abilities to communicate, efforts to teach animals to use language have had only limited success. One of the early efforts was made by Catherine and Keith Hayes, who raised a chimpanzee named Viki in their home along with their own children. Washoe, who lived to be 42 years old, could label up to 250 different objects and make simple requests and comments, such as please tickle? and me sorry? (Fouts, [31] 1997). He learned faster when he was younger than when he got older, he learns by observation, and he can use symbols to comment on social interactions, rather than simply for food treats. Kanzi can also create elementary syntax and understand relatively complex commands. Video Clip: Language Recognition in Bonobos the bonobo Kanzi is the most proficient known nonhuman language speaker. Kanzi usually requires many trials to learn a new sign, whereas human babies can speak words after only one exposure. Although he can combine words, he generates few new phrases and cannot master syntactic rules beyond the level [33] of about a 2-year-old human child (Greenfield & Savage-Rumbaugh, 1991). With some exceptions, the information that can be communicated in nonhuman species is limited primarily to displays of liking or disliking, and related to basic motivations of aggression and mating. Humans also use this more primitive type of communication, in the form of nonverbal behaviorssuch as eye contact, touch, hand signs, and interpersonal distance, to communicate their like or dislike for others, but they (unlike animals) also supplant this more primitive communication with language. Although other animal brains share similarities to ours, only the human brain is complex enough to create language. What is perhaps most remarkable is that although language never appears in nonhumans, language is universal in humans. All humans, unless they have a profound brain abnormality or are completely isolated from other humans, learn language. The idea that language and its structures influence and limit human thought is called linguistic relativity. The most frequently cited example of this possibility was proposed by Benjamin Whorf (1897? 1941), an American linguist who was particularly interested in Native American languages. Whorf argued that the Inuit people of Canada (sometimes known as Eskimos) had many words for snow, whereas English speakers have only one, and that this difference influenced how the different cultures perceived snow. Whorf argued that the Inuit perceived and categorized snow in finer details than English speakers possibly could, because the English language constrained perception. Although the idea of linguistic relativism seemed reasonable, research has suggested that language has less influence on thinking than might be expected. For one, in terms of perceptions of snow, although it is true that the Inuit do make more distinctions among types of snow than do English speakers, the latter also make some distinctions (think powder,? slush,? whiteout,? and so forth). And it is also possible that thinking about snow may influence language, rather than the other way around. In a more direct test of the possibility that language influences thinking, Eleanor Rosch [34] (1973) compared people from the Dani culture of New Guinea, who have only two terms for color (?dark? and bright?), with English speakers who use many more terms. Rosch hypothesized that if language constrains perception and categorization, then the Dani should have a harder time distinguishing colors than would English speakers. But her research found that when the Dani were asked to categorize colors using new categories, they did so in almost the same way that English speakers did. Similar results were found by Frank, Everett, [35] Fedorenko, and Gibson (2008), who showed that the Amazonian tribe known as the Piraha, who have no linguistic method for expressing exact quantities (not even the number one?), were nevertheless able to perform matches with large numbers without problem. Roberson, Davies, and Davidoff [36] (2000) conducted another study with Dani participants and found that, at least for some colors, the names that they used to describe colors did influence their perceptions of the colors. Other researchers continue to test the possibility that our language influences our perceptions, [37] and perhaps even our thoughts (Levinson, 1998), and yet the evidence for this possibility is, as of now, mixed. Some languages are sign languages, in which the communication is expressed by movements of the hands. Chomsky differentiates between the deep structure and the surface structure of an idea. Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Critical period effects in second language learning: the influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Critical evidence: A test of the critical-period hypothesis for second-language acquisition. A cross-language investigation of infant preference for infant-directed communication. Early referential understanding: Infants? ability to recognize referential acts for what they are. Linguistic biases and the establishment of conceptual hierarchies: Evidence from preschool children. The emergence of Nicaraguan Sign Language: Questions of development, acquisition, and evolution. The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain: Proficiency in a second language and age at acquisition affect grey-matter density. Color categories are not universal: Replications and new evidence from a stone-age culture. Studying spatial conceptualization across cultures: Anthropology and cognitive science. The French psychologist Alfred Binet and his colleague Henri Simon developed the first intelligence test in the early 1900s. Charles Spearman called the construct that the different abilities and skills measured on intelligence tests have in common the general intelligence factor, or simply g.

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However menstrual zimbabwe order cabergoline 0.5 mg with visa, it is also suggested menstruation vs ovulation purchase cabergoline with a mastercard, but not established women's health weight loss running buy cabergoline 0.25mg otc, that mood syndromes menstruation pronounce order cabergoline cheap, including depressive and manic/ hypomanie ones breast cancer 2b prognosis quality cabergoline 0.25mg, may be episodic. D ifferential Diagnosis Depressive disorders not due to another medical condition. Determination of whether a medical condition accompanying a depressive disorder is causing the disorder depends on a) the absence of an episode(s) of depressive episodes prior to the onset of the medical condition, b) the probability that the associated medical condition has a potential to pro? mote or cause a depressive disorder, and c) a course of the depressive symptoms shortly after the onset oi^worsening of the medical condition, especially if the depressive symp? toms remit near the time that the medical disorder is effectively treated or remits. An important caveat is that some medical con? ditions are treated with medications. In these cases, clinical judgment, based on all the evidence in hand, is the best way to try to separate the most likely and/or the most important of two etiological fac? tors. It is important to differentiate a depressive episode from an ad? justment disorder, as the onset of the medical condition is in itself a life stressor that could bring on either an adjustment disorder or an episode of major depression. The major dif? ferentiating elements are the pervasiveness the depressive picture and the number and quality of the depressive symptoms that the patient reports or demonstrates on the mental status examination. The differential diagnosis of the associated medical conditions is rel? evant but largely beyond the scope of the present manual. Comorbidity Conditions comorbid with depressive disorder due to another medical condition are those associated with the medical conditions of etiological relevance. The association of anxiety symptoms, usually generalized symptoms, is common in depressive disorders, regardless of cause. The other specified depressive disorder category is used in situations in which the clinician chooses to communicate the specific reason that the presentation does not meet the criteria for any specific depressive disorder. This is done by recording other specified depressive disorder?followed by the specific reason. Recurrent brief depression: Concurrent presence of depressed mood and at least four other symptoms of depression for 2-13 days at least once per month (not associ? ated with the menstrual cycle) for at least 12 consecutive months in an individual whose presentation has never met criteria for any other depressive or bipolar disorder and does not currently meet active or residual criteria for any psychotic disorder. Short-duration depressive episode (4-13 days): Depressed affect and at least four of the other eight symptoms of a major depressive episode associated with clinically significant distress or impairment that persists for more than 4 days, but less than 14 days, in an individual whose presentation has never met criteria for any other depressive or bipolar disorder, does not currently meet active or residual criteria for any psychotic dis? order, and does not meet criteria for recurrent brief depression. Depressive episode with insufficient symptoms: Depressed affect and at least one of the other eight symptoms of a major depressive episode associated with clinically significant distress or impairment tliat persist for at least 2 weeks in an individual whose presentation has never met criteria for any other depressive or bipolar disorder, does not currently meet active or residual criteria for any psychotic disorder, and does not meet criteria for mixed anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms. The unspecified depressive disorder category is used in situations in which the clinician chooses not to specify the reason that the criteria are not met for a specific depressive disorder, and includes presentations for which there is insuf? ficient information to make a more specific diagnosis. Specifiers for Depressive Disorders Specify if: With anxious distress: Anxious distress is defined as the presence of at least two of the following symptoms during the majority of days of a major depressive episode or persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia): 1. Note: Anxious distress has been noted as a prominent feature of both bipolar and ma? jor depressive disorder in both primary care and specialty mental health settings. High levels of anxiety have been associated with higher suicide risk, longer duration of ill? ness, and greater likelihood of treatment nonresponse. As a result, it is clinically useful to specify accurately the presence and severity levels of anxious distress for treatment planning and monitoring of response to treatment. At least three of the following manic/hypomanic symptoms are present nearly every day during the majority of days of a major depressive episode: 1. Increased or excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences. Decreased need for sleep (feeling rested despite sleeping less than usual; to be contrasted with insomnia). The mixed symptoms are not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance. As a result, it is clinically useful to note the presence of this specifier for treatment planning and monitoring of response to treatment. One of the following is present during the most severe period of the current epi? sode: 1. Note: the specifier with melancholic features? is applied if these features are present at the most severe stage of the episode. There is a near-complete absence of the ca? pacity for pleasure, not merely a diminution. A guideline for evaluating the lack of reac? tivity of mood is that even highly desired events are not associated with marked brightening of mood. The distinct quality?of mood that is characteristic of the with melancholic features?specifier is experienced as qual? itatively different from that during a nonmelancholic depressive episode. A depressed mood that is described as merely more severe, longer lasting, or present without a rea? son is not considered distinct in quality. They are more frequent in inpatients, as opposed to outpatients; are less likely to occur in milder than in more severe major depressive episodes; and are more likely to occur in those with psychotic features. With atypical features: this specifier can be applied when these features predomi? nate during the majority of days of the current or most recent major depressive episode or persistent depressive disorder. A long-standing pattern of interpersonal rejection sensitivity (not limited to epi? sodes of mood disturbance) that results in significant social or occupational im? pairment. Mood may become euthymie (not sad) even for extended periods of time if the external circumstances remain favorable. Increased appetite may be manifested by an obvious increase in food intake or by weight gain. Leaden paralysis is defined as feeling heavy, leaden, or weighted down, usually in the arms or legs. This sensation is generally present for at least an hour a day but often lasts for many hours at a time. Unlike the other atypical features, pathological sensitivity to perceived interpersonal rejection is a trait that has an early onset and persists throughout most of adult life. Rejection sensitivity occurs both when the person is and is not depressed, though it may be exacerbated during depressive periods. With mood-congruent psychotic features: the content of all delusions and hal? lucinations is consistent with the typical depressive themes of personal inade? quacy, guilt, disease, death, nihilism, or deserved punishment. With mood-incongruent psychotic features: the content of the delusions or hal? lucinations does not involve typical depressive themes of personal inadequacy, guilt, disease, death, nihilism, or deserved punishment, or the content is a mixture of mood-incongruent and mood-congruent themes. With catatonia: the catatonia specifier can apply to an episode of depression if cata? tonic features are present during most of the episode. See criteria for catatonia asso? ciated with a mental disorder (for a description of catatonia, see the chapter Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders?). With peripartum onset: this specifier can be applied to the current or, if full criteria are not currently met for a major depressive episode, most recent episode of major de? pression if onset of mood symptoms occurs during pregnancy or inthe 4 weeks follow? ing delivery. Although the estimates differ according to the period of follow-up after delivery, be? tween 3% and 6% of women will experience the onset of a major depressive epi? sode during pregnancy or in the weeks or months following delivery. Women with peripartum major depressive episodes often have severe anxiety and even panic attacl

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Providing research on human behavior and performance in which workers are exposed to women's health center waco tx discount 0.5mg cabergoline with visa prolonged overtime that causes excessive fatigue; adverse working conditions womens health 21740 discount cabergoline 0.5mg on line, such as interruptions breast cancer org generic 0.5 mg cabergoline with mastercard, distractions caused by abnormal noise womens health kaley cuoco buy cabergoline 0.5 mg without a prescription, adverse environmental conditions and numerous other circumstances that negatively impact worker attention; and the ability to women's health clinic miami order cabergoline 0.5mg with visa focus, concentrate, and perform error-free work. Thoughtful organizations have used the results of these research findings to revise hiring and training practices in order to reduce excessive overtime, to better organize work, and to better control the work environment. Definitions of organizational development penned in more recent times when organizations recognized the need to adapt to changing economic and social dynamics include the following:? He is known for his work in organizational learning, theories of action, and double-loop learning. Books on organizational development and its subsets (management development, leadership development, development of teams, etc. Seminars and workshops designed to help organizations improve their effectiveness are ubiquitous. Over the years, a wide variety of organizational plans, schemes, and methodologies have been adopted and described. This is often done to reduce overhead costs?to save money?but it has also been shown to be effective in improving vertical communication within larger organizations, which leads to improved overall proficiency and effectiveness. Because the workers are given more responsibility, greater decision-making power, and trust, a greater synergism develops, and individual team members demonstrate an increased personal ownership for their work. In highly technical operations, especially, replacement of workers who retire or resign has become a major management consideration to ensuring that the organization can continue to function safely and efficiently. Recruiting, qualifying, hiring, and training large numbers of people with the proper skill mixes within the required time frames demands special human resource skills. Training, mentoring, and coaching leaders and future leaders has become commonplace in American industry. Organizations that fail to do strategic planning loose their competitive edge, fall behind the competition, face operational obsolescence, and organizational irrelevance. Learning Organizations the concept of learning organizations? is the groundbreaking work of Dr. His research, described in the book, the Fifth Discipline (1990), is a seminal work that described successful organizations from a whole new perspective. The learning organization is one in which people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together. The first three disciplines have particular application for individuals; the last two disciplines are applicable to groups. Those in the organization who excel in these areas will be the natural leaders of the learning organizations. Systems-Thinking is the discipline of a shift of mind to seeing interrelationships, rather than linear cause-effect chains, and seeing processes of change rather than a snapshot. Systems thinking starts with understanding feedback? that shows how actions can reinforce or counteract (balance) each other. It builds to learning to recognize types of structures? that recur again and again. Systems-thinking forms a language for describing interrelationships and patterns of change. It simplifies life by helping us to see the deeper patterns lying behind the events and the details. Personal Mastery is the discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively. If we have a personal vision, and we also see current reality objectively, then the difference between the two causes creative tension. Creative tension is a motivator to help people create the results in life that they truly seek. Mental Models are deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action. The discipline of working with mental models starts with turning the mirror inward; learning to unearth our internal pictures of the world, to bring them to the surface and hold them to rigorous scrutiny. Mental models also include the ability to carry on learningful? conversations that balance inquiry and advocacy, where people expose their own thinking effectively and make that thinking open to the influence of others. Shared Vision is a practice that involves unearthing shared pictures of the future,? which help foster genuine commitment and enrollment rather than compliance. Team Learning is the discipline that involves mastering the practices of dialogue and discussion, the two distinct ways that teams converse. By contrast, in discussion, different views are presented and defended, and there is a search for the best view to support decisions that must be made at the present time. Dialogue and discussion are potentially complementary, but most teams lack ability to distinguish between the two and to move consciously between them. The ideas and concepts associated with a learning organization? resonated heavily with knowledge workers and with their employers. Unit Leaders and individual contributors became interested in and wanted to learn more about what other groups did and how they performed. Managers and 5-9 Department of Energy Human Performance Handbook Chapter 5 Human Performance Evolution supervisors aggressively started to use work teams to solve problems and make decisions. Organizations started benchmarking their programs against the programs of so called first in class? organizations to learn how they did things and how they managed a process or function. The sale of books on corporations that thrived in business and industry skyrocketed. The corporate leaders of companies like General Electric, Fed-Ex, Motorola, and others became superstars of the speaking circuit. Books on organizational development that aligned with the disciplines of the learning organization sold like hotcakes. Workers in both the public and the private sectors went back to college by the hundreds of thousands, if not to complete their degrees or do a masters,? to improve skills and strengthen their capabilities overall. Everyone it seemed was spending more time learning? and was in the pursuit of meaningful inquiry. Whereas training and education are critical to increasing competitiveness, meeting the educational challenge is only part of the answer. To improve human performance, it follows that organizations must manage the performance improvement system. The Three Mile Island nuclear accident, the Exxon Valdez oil spill, the Bhopal India gas leak, the Challenger disaster, and numerous airline accidents, among others, caused growing public concern over the terrible costs, loss of life, risk to the public, and threat to the environment. James Reason, studied human error for years (as did several others) and published his first book by that title in 1990. A central thesis of his work is that the relatively limited number of error types, ways in which errors actually manifest themselves, are conceptually tied to underlying (non-error producing) normal cognitive processes. He advocates that errors result 11 from normal cognitive processes, the same origin as comes success. Another thesis is that disasters are rarely the product of a single monumental error. Usually, they involve the collaboration of several, often quite minor, errors committed either by one person or, more often, by a number of people. Reason maintained that to understand how organizational accidents occur requires that we look deeper into the system. However, latent conditions within the organization, aligned with local workplace and task factors, contribute to accidents in the form of process errors or as error-likely situations. Thus it is the combination of these latent conditions in conjunction with an active error that more correctly accounts for events. From this perspective, errors are the consequences, not the causes, of disturbances in the organization. However, events can be eliminated or controlled by changing the conditions in which people work. Managing the risks of organizational accidents requires that managers, supervisors, and staff work to eliminate latent organizational weaknesses. Reason proposes three compelling reasons why latent conditions have to be eliminated. The challenge is great for organizations trying to change the condition in which people work, to improve the operating system and lower the risk of accidents. Very few organizations can sustain levels of financial loss associated with product and materials damage, plant damage, building damage, tool and equipment damage, legal costs, and similar losses plus the loss of business, recruitment difficulties, and loss of 13 morale. Chapter 4 discusses tools for locating and eliminating latent organizational weaknesses and strengthening controls. Mindfulness and Performance Understanding mindfulness? and its application to performance is informed by the work of Dr. It does not matter whether what is noticed is important or trivial, as long as it is new to the viewer. Langer suggests that actively drawing these distinctions keeps people situated in the present, the here and now. It also makes people more aware of the context and perspective of their actions than if they rely upon distinctions and categories drawn in the past. Under this latter situation, rules and routines are more likely to govern behavior, irrespective of the current circumstances, and this can be construed as mindless? behavior. The process of drawing novel distinctions can lead to a number of diverse consequences important to performance, including:? The subjective feel? of mindfulness is that of a heightened state of involvement and wakefulness of being in the present. Langer shares this example to make her point: When many of us learned to drive, we were told to pump the brakes slowly while trying to stop on a slippery surface. With the advent of antilock brakes, however, the more appropriate response is to firmly press the brakes down and hold them there. Thus, accidents that could be prevented in the past by our learned behavior can now be caused by the same behavior. This is an example of mindlessness that can easily occur in everyday life, as well as the workplace. Langer contends that mindlessness can show up as the direct cause of human error in complex situations. Boredom and malaise, particularly, can be thought of as conditions brought on by mindlessness. Without noticing differences brought on by the passage of time within ourselves and the outside world, each day looks like every other. Employees in many occupations mechanically carry out the tasks that have been designed for them. The day when surgeons and airline pilots may check out psychologically because of standardization and routinization of their 15 work is perhaps not very far off, with potentially disastrous consequences. High Reliability Organizations In the early 1980s, Yale sociologist, Charles Perrow, investigated and wrote Normal Accidents: Living with High Risk Technologies (1984). Perrow concluded that while all organizations would eventually have accidents, because of their complexity and interdependence, some organizations were remarkably adapt at avoiding them. In the mid 1980s, a research group at the University of California at Berkeley (Dr. Karlene Roberts, Todd La Porte, and Gene Rochlin) began to study organizations in which errors can have catastrophic consequences.

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Nevertheless deep levels of the psyche were involved in this effort to breast cancer gift baskets generic 0.5mg cabergoline condense esoteric knowledge into meaningful symbols contemporary women's health issues for today and the future 4th edition pdf discount 0.5 mg cabergoline with amex. This in-depth study of the intuitive and emotional connections between consciousness and the external world has a built-in difficulty in that the exact conditions necessary to pregnancy yoga dvd order discount cabergoline on-line create subtle intuitions and visions do not readily repeat themselves women's health clinic queanbeyan order online cabergoline. Paracelsus Paracelsus Foremost among the occult scientists of his age was Phillipus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim otherwise known as Paracelsus women's health center federal way cabergoline 0.5mg for sale. He was born in Switzerland in 1493 and spent his entire life wandering throughout Europe and acquiring a great reputation for medical ability unorthodox views and a testy personality. It is very difficult to distinguish his work from that of his students, interpreters, translators and editors. Very little of his writing was published in his own lifetime and few of his original manuscripts survive today. His German 47 writings were only noticed for their originality about twenty years after his death when scholars saw in him an alternative to stale medieval and Latin learning. Today he is recognized as the first modern medical scientist, as the precursor of microchemistry, antisepsis, modern wound surgery, and homeopathy. He wrote the first comprehensive work on the causes, symptoms and treatment of syphilis. He proposed epileptics should be treated as sick persons and not as lunatics possessed by @emons. He studied bronchial illnesses in mining districts and was one of the first people to recognize the connection between an industrial environment and certain types of disease. Notwithstanding this accurate scientific bent, his work is in close accord with the mystical alchemical tradition. He wrote on furies in sleep, on ghosts appearing after death, on gnomes in mines and underground, of nymphs, pygmies, and magical salamanders. Invisible forces were always at work and the physician had to constantly be aware of this fourth dimension in which he was moving. He utilized various techniques for divination and astrology as well as magical amulets, talismans, and incantations. He believed in a vital force radiating around every person like a luminous sphere and acting at a distance. John Dee John Dee and Edmund Kelly evoking a spirit Another important occult scholar was John Dee (1527-1608) who was one of the most celebrated and remarkable men of the Elizabethan age. His world was half magical and half scientific; he was noted as a philosopher, mathematician, technologist, antiquarian, as well as a teacher and astrologer. He personally owned the largest library in sixteenth century England, which contained over 4,000 volumes. He wrote the preface for the first English translation of Euclid and is given credit for the revival of mathematical learning in renaissance England. According to Lynn Thorndike in the History of Magic and Experimental Science: For John Dee the world was a lyre from which a skillful player could draw new harmonies. Every thing and place in the world radiated force to all other parts and received rays from them. Species, both spiritual and natural, flowed off from objects with light or without it, impressing themselves not only on the sight but on the other senses, and especially coalescing in our imaginative spirit and working marvels in us. Moreover, the human soul and specific form of every thing has many more and more excellent virtues and operations than has the human body or the matter of the thing in question. Similarly the invisible rays of the planets or their secret influence surpass their sensible rays or light. He maintained these invisible influences could be made manifest through the art of crystal gazing, which involved entering into a trance-like consciousness. He conducted many experiments in which he claimed to be in contact with angels through the use of a medium. This book, which served as an important foundation of the Rosicrucian movement, attempted to synthesize and condense all of the then current mystical traditions within the symbolism characterizing the planet Mercury. She appointed him as her court philosopher and astrologer, and asked for personal instruction into the abstruse symbolic meanings of his book. Nevertheless he was still a very controversial figure because of his reputation as a conjurer. The Rosicrucians this same fusion of world views is to be found in the teachings of the Rosicrucian movement, which caused quite a public stir in seventeenth century England, France, Italy and Germany. Emphasizing earlier notions common to hermeticism, alchemy and the Cabala, the Rosicrucian documents proclaimed the existence of a hidden brotherhood of scholars and explorers who were united in teaching the deepest mysteries of nature, free from religious and political prejudice. The following excerpt is taken from the last paragraph of Fame of the Fraternity of the Rosie Cross an early manifesto first printed in 1614 and translated into English by Thomas Vaughan in 1652: And although at this time we make no mention either of our names, or meetings, yet nevertheless every ones opinion shal assuredly come to our hands, in what language soever it be; nor any body shal fail, who so gives but his name to speak with some of us, either by word of mouth, or else if there be some lett in writing. And this we say for a truth, That whosoever shal earnestly, and from his heart, bear affection unto us, it shal be beneficial to him in goods, body and soul; but he that is false-hearted, or only greedy of riches, the same first of all shal not be able in any manner of wise to hurt us, but bring himself to utter ruine and destruction. Also our building (although one hundred thousand people had very near seen and beheld the same) shal for ever remain untouched, undestroyed, and hidden to the wicked world, sub unibra alarum tuarum Jehova. During his association with King James in England, Bacon was careful never to publicly connect himself with 49 the Rosicrucians or any other occult movements. However, in a work published after his death, the New Atlantis, he describes his own version of a utopian society, revealing his sympathies and possible connection with this movement, and the Invisible College. There are those today who believe Bacon to have been a spiritual adept of the highest rank founder of the Rosicrucians, secret author of the works attributed to William Shakespeare, the prime mover behind the English rennaissance, a man who contributed thousands of words to the English language and who first articulated the spiritual ideals upon which the United States of America was founded. So as I take it to be denominate of the king of the Hebrews, which is famous with you, and no stranger to us; for we have some parts of his works which with you are lost; namely, that Natural History which he wrote of all plants, from the Cedar of Libanus to the moss that groweth out of the wall; and of all things that have life and motion. This maketh me think that our king finding himself to symbolize, in many things, with that king of the Hebrews (which lived many years before him) honoured him with the title of this foundation. The Rosicrucian Invisible College It was a building with wings, which existed nowhere and yet united the entire secret movement. Brothers, were said to be invisible and were able to teach their knowledge of a higher social and scientific order to worthy disciples who themselves became invisible. The symbolism of the Invisible College is very complex and further complicated by the social furor that resulted from it. As adventurers and scholars desiring a new social order sought to make contact with the fabled R. In one sense, the Invisible College refers to that type of teaching and inspiration that occurs to one in dreams. An allegory, written in 1651 by Thomas Vaughan, is quite suggestive of this theory: 50 the Invisible Magic Mountain There is a mountain situated in the midst of the earth or center of the world, which is both small and great. This mountain by envy of the devil, who always opposes the glory of God and the happiness of man is compassed about with very cruel beasts and ravening bird which make the way thither both difficult and dangerous. And therefore until now because the time is not yet come the way thither could not be sought after nor found out. To this mountain you shall go in a certain night when it comes most long and most dark, and see that you prepare yourself by prayer. Insist upon the way that leads to the Mountain, but ask not of anywhere the way lies. Only follow your Guide, who will offer himself to you and will meet you in the way. This Guide will bring you to the Mountain at midnight, when all things are silent and dark. It is necessary that you arm yourself with a resolute and heroic courage, lest you fear those things that will happen, and so fall back. You need no sword nor any other bodily weapons; only call upon God sincerely and heartily. When you have discovered the Mountain the first miracle that will appear is this: A most vehement and very great wind will shake the Mountain and shatter the rocks to pieces. You will be encountered also by lions and dragons and other terrible beasts; but fear not any of these things. Be resolute and take heed that you turn not back, for your Guide who brought you thither will not suffer any evil to befall you. After these things and near the daybreak there will be a great calm, and you will see the Day-star arise, the dawn will appear, and you will perceive a great treasure. The most important thing in it and the most perfect is a certain exalted Tincture, with which the world if it served God and were worthy of such gifts might be touched and turned into most pure gold. This Tincture being used as your guide shall teach you will make you young when you are old, and you will perceive no disease in any part of your bodies. By means of this Tincture also you will find pearls of an excellence which cannot he imagined. But do not you arrogate anything to yourselves because of your present power, but be contented with what your Guide shall communicate to you. Praise God perpetually for this His gift, and have a special care that you do not use it for worldly pride, but employ it in such works as are contrary to the world. For know of a truth: whosoever abuses this Tincture and does not live exemplarily, purely and devoutly before men, will lose this benefit and scarcely any hope will be left of recovering it afterward. For example there is evidence connecting Robert Boyle, who developed the laws relating the pressure of a gas at a fixed temperature to the inverse of its volume, with the college. Sayed Idries Shah, the Secret Lore of Magic, New York: the Citadel Press, 1970, pp. A fascinating, yet scholarly, history regarding the controversial origins of the famous Rosicrucians. This volume is the first product of a wave of scholars who are attempting sociological analyses of esoteric movements, modern and historical. Thomas Vaughan, "The Holy Mountain, A Rosicrucian Allegory," in A Christian Rosenkreutz Anthology. The association of creativity with dreaaming apparently gave rise to public speculation about an actual college, perhaps diabolical, that dreamers visited in their sleep. He identified consciousness with mind or soul, which to him was a substance as real and as concrete as the substance he called body. Descartes defined body as extended (space-filling), physical material and defined mind as "thinking thing" (res cogitans), which was unextended (did not take up space) and was not made of any physical material, but was purely spiritual. He also posited that these two substances mutually affect each other, giving the name interactionism to his position. Leibnitz and Monadology Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz Carrying on the Pythagorean-Platonic doctrine of universal harmony, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz, who with Isaac Newton was the co-inventor of calculus, developed an elegant grand philosophy based on the concept of an evolving unit of consciousness called the monad. Monads for Leibnitz are the most fundamental metaphysical points which have always existed and can never be destroyed. The monad is the principle of continuity between the physical and the psychological realms. The same principle that expresses itself within our minds is active in inanimate matter, in plants, and in animals. Thus the nature of the monad is best understood by studying the spiritual and psychic forces within ourselves. Monads themselves vary in the amount of consciousness or clarity of their perceptions. Certain physical facts, such as the principle of least action, indicated to Leibnitz an intelligence within the most basic particles 53 in creation. On the other hand, the findings of psychology have indicated that there are areas of the mind that are unconscious in their nature.

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