By: Christopher Whaley PhD
These below-chance scores are seen as nothing else than the negative tail of the normal distribution of random guessing scores diabetes mellitus español buy prandin 0.5mg fast delivery. First diabetes symptoms with normal blood sugar prandin 1 mg lowest price, under this "normal curve" model the incidence of psi-missing data should be the same as that of psi-hitting results diabetes type 1 trials cheap prandin 2mg on line, yet in fact the former is much lower than the latter diabetes mellitus krankheitsbild generic prandin 0.5mg. Ramakrishna Rao has given further insight into the personality traits associated with psi-hitters and psi-missers diabetes type 1 family history purchase prandin overnight. In twelve of these studies, the difference between introverts and extraverts was statistically significant. Morris who holds the Arthur Koestler Chair of Parapsychology at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland has proposed that each target be viewed as having both physical and psychological characteristics. Morris the psychological characteristics seem to be more salient for psi research subjects than the physical. Morris has also suggested that researchers consider not only the targets themselves, but also the systems to determining and displaying the targets. The technical name for scoring well on some kind of targets and not on others is the differential effect and seems to follow a trend relating to emotional preferences, attitudes, and needs. Half of them were of a traumatic nature and half of them were of a pleasant nature. In this test, she showed psi-missing for the traumatic words and psi-hitting on the emotionally-positive targets. Psi Mediated Instrumental Response One of the most ingenious theories regarding the role of psi in everyday life was developed by Rex Stanford, who is currently teaching in the psychology department of St. For example, there is the story about a retired army colonel who found himself unconsciously getting off of the subway in New York at the wrong exit and then running into the very people he was intending to visit. In one such experiment, students in a psychology class were given an essay-type exam with the answers to half the questions sealed in opaque envelopes which were handed to them with the exam. They were told that the envelope contained carbon paper which would make copies of their answers. In fact, the students did better on the questions which were answered in the sealed envelopes. Furthermore, in a study where sealed answers were incorrect, the students did poorer on the corresponding questions. However, Stanford himself has abandoned the model because he found its "psychobiological" or cybernetic assumptions to be untenable. As further support for his view, Stanford cites evidence that psi success is independent of task complexity. If psi were akin to normal sensory-motor skills, Stanford argues, one would expect deterioration in psi performance when doing a multicomponent task. Had the subject been cheating, and thus relying on normal senses, one could anticipate deteriorating performance in the more compl p task. Further, labile systems characterized by a great deal of random fluctuation should produce more conformance behavior than more deterministic systems. There is still some controversy as to whether telepathy actually exists, or whether it is simply another form of clairvoyance. For example, in early studies with Hubert Pearce, the subject was able to guess what the order of cards in a pack would be after it was shuffled at the same high rate of scoring (up to 50% above chance levels) as in clairvoyance tests. Ironically, it is this determinism which violates the sensibilities of twentieth-century science. In fact, precognition is very difficult to prove; although its alternatives are not exactly palatable. For example in the precognitive card guessing studies, one might say that the subject psychokinetically caused the order of the cards to conform to his guesses. It is impossible for precognitive experiments to rule out the possibility of contamination by other forms of psychic interaction. The methodological difficulty in distinguishing different types of extra-sensory transmission and reception had led researchers to use the more general term psi. There is evidence to suggest that precognition actually does occur - with all of its ramifications regarding time and free will. Helmut Schmidt, a physicist now associated with the Mind Science Foundation in San Antonio, Texas. Helmut Schmidt 301 Subjects in his experiments were asked to predict the lighting of one of four lamps which was determined by theoretically unpredictable, radioactive decay. Schmidt gives us the following description of his apparatus: the target generator consists of a radioactive source (strontium 90), a Ceiger counter, and a four-step electronic switch controlling the four lamps [see illustration]. The strontium 90 delivers electrons randomly at the average rate of ten per second to the geiger counter. A high frequency pulse generator advances the switch rapidly through the four positions. When a gate between the-Geiger counter and the four-step switch is opened, the next electron that reaches the Geiger counter stops the switch in one of its four positions (whichever one it happens to be in when the electron registers) and illuminates the lamp corresponding to that position. A subject presses a button recording a guess on one of the automated testing devices developed by Helmut Schmidt. There is a probability of 1 in 4 that the subject will score correctly by chance alone. The results of these experiments were automatically recorded and the device was frequently subjected to tests of its true randomness. The instrument can also be modified for experiments in clairvoyance and psychokinesis. In all three modes of psi testing with the Schmidt device, significant results have consistently been obtained. There is no data to suggest that this methodological weakness actually contributed to artifactually inflated psi scores. There is also, unfortunately, no way in which such control tests can be designed to be immune from possible psychic influences! Ferrari reported a meta-analysis of forced-choice precognition experiments published in the English language between 1935 and 1987. Study outcomes were assessed in terms of overall level of statistical significance and effect size. Thirty percent of the studies (by 40 investigators) were statistically significant at the 5% level. A ratio of 46 unreported studies averaging null results would be required for each reported study in order to reduce the overall effect to non significance. No systematic relationship was found between study outcomes and eight indices of research 302 quality. Effect size has remained essentially constant over the survey period, while research quality has improved substantially. Four moderating variables were significantly associated with study outcome: (1) Studies using subjects selected on the basis of prior testing performance show significantly larger effects than studies involving unselected subjects. A nearly perfect replication rate is observed in the subset of studies using selected subjects, who are tested individually and receive trial-by-trial feedback. A study on a single individual, Malcolm Bessent, who has a history of success in laboratory precognitive tasks suggests that that the barriers to precognition may, indeed, be psychological. Bessent completed 1,000 trials in a computer-based experiment comparing precognition and real-time target modes. Target mode was randomly selected at the outset of each 10-trial run and was unknown to Bessent until the completion of each run. As is customary in psi research, various rival hypotheses including sensory cues, faulty randomization, data handling errors, data-selection bias, multiple analysis, and deception were assessed. The combined result is highly significant with a chance probability of less than one in a billion. An ingenious experiment, designed and conducted by Dean Radin, using himself as subject, attempted to explore the hypothesis that precognition entails the ability to see probability wave, to see probable rather than actual futures. Radin designed a computerized Random Event Generator that would, in effect, change the probabilities of the various targets with each trial. A conventional precognition hypothesis would suggest a greater than chance number of hits for the correct target (regardless of a priori probability). Radin suggested that if precognition involved probable futures, the incorrect responses might still match the targets which were given a high a priori probability of being selected by the computer on a given trial - even if they were not ultimately selected. One of the most rigorous and successful series of precognitive studies has been conducted by Brenda Dunne and colleagues at the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research program. The targets are real-life locations that are actually visited by an experimental agent acting something like a telepathic sender. The experimental subjects or percipients are asked to report any and all imagery which comes to them during the testing period. Then percipients are asked a series of thirty questions about the target which are to be answered "yes" or "no. A statistical analysis then compares the subjects responses both to the actual target and to the descriptor ratings for all the other targets in the target pool. The results are summarized: Effects are found to compound incrementally over a large number of experiments, rather than being dominated by a few outstanding efforts or a few exceptional participants. The yield is statistically insensitive to the mode of target selection, to the number of percipients addressing a given target, and, over the ranges tested, to the spatial separation of the percipient from the target and even to the temporal separation of the perception effort from the time of target visitation. A survey published in New Scientist, on January 25, 1973, indicate that 25% of scientists polled considered extrasensorimotor phenomena "an established fact. Price, who founded the National Laboratory of Psychical Research in London, was involved in exposing many fraudulent "psychics. Rhine and his associates borrowed a German term and designated their experimental work parapsychology. Betty Marwick, "The Soal-Goldney Experiments with Basil Shackleton: New Evidence of Manipulation," Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 56, 211. In the absence of experimental consistency and theoretical underpinnings, some psychic investigators feel it is premature to claim that even the best experiments support a psi hypothesis. Perhaps, in the future, researchers and critics working together will uncover conventional explanations for the existing data. Ramakrishna Rao & John Palmer, "The Anomaly Called Psi: Recent Research and Criticism," Behaviorial and Brain Sciences, 10, 1987, 539-551. Nash, "Plethysmograph Results Under Strict Conditions," Sixth Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association, New York, 1963. Tart, "Possible Physiological Correlates of Psi Cognition," International Journal of Parapsychology, 5, 1963, 375-386. Naturally these findings caused some scientists to echo the thought of Shakespeare that "we are the stuff that dreams are made of. Stanley Krippner, Charles Honorton & Montague Ullman, "An Experiment in Dream Telepathy with the Grateful Dead," Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine, 20(1), 1973. Charles Honorton, Significant Factors in Hypnotically-Induced Clairvoyant Dreams," Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 66(1), January 1972, 86-102.
The actual quote is from William James in Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research diabetes mellitus and exercise discount 0.5mg prandin overnight delivery, 28 blood glucose self monitoring generic prandin 1mg, pp diabetic diet plan to lose weight generic prandin 0.5mg free shipping. A researcher as well as a sensitive diabetes gene purchase 0.5mg prandin otc, Heywood was one of the grand ladies of psychical research managing diabetes during holidays discount 1mg prandin with visa. Jonathan Venn, "Hypnosis and the Reincarnation Hypothesis: A Critical Review and Intensive Case Study," Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, October 1986, 80(4), 409-426. Ian Stevenson, "Xenoglossy: A Review and Report of a Case," Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research, 31, February 1974. Some scholars - such as Stephen Braude, professor of philosophy at the University of Maryland - take such reports very seriously, claiming that no honest person can examine the case study reports and easily dismiss them. Professor Stephen Braude I have spent more than five years carefully studying the non-experimental evidence of parapsychology - in fact, just that portion of it which is most contemptuously and adamantly dismissed by those academics. I started with the expectation that the received wisdom would be supported, and that my belief in the relative worthlessness of the material would merely be better-informed. The more I learned about it, the weaker the traditional skeptical counter-hypotheses seemed, and the more clearly I realized to which extent skepticism may be fueled by ignorance. I was forced to confront the fact that I could find no decent reasons for doubting a great deal of strange testimony. It became clear to me that the primary source of my reluctance to embrace the evidence was my discomfort with it. I knew that I had to accept the evidence, or else admit that my avowed philosophical commitment to the truth was a sham. I am hardly comfortable about announcing to my academic colleagues that I believe, for example, that accordians can float in mid-air playing melodies, or that hands may materialize, move objects, and then dissolve or disappear. But I have reached my recent conclusions only after satisfying myself that no reasonsable options remain. Skeptics (as well as most psi researchers) adamantly insist that it is absurd to give any credence to such reports until they meet the highest scientific standards. Jung - who developed the concept of synchronicity as an acausal explanatory principle. In 1909, Jung visited his mentor Sigmund Freud in Vienna, and at one point asked him his opinion of psychic phenomena. Although Freud later changed his mind on the subject, at that time he dismissed the likelihood that such events could occur. Jung narrates an uncanny incident that occurred in the course of this conversation. It was as if my diaphragm was made of iron and becoming red-hot - a glowing vault. And at that moment there was such a loud report in the bookcase, which stood right next to us, that we both started up in alarm, fearing the thing was going to topple over us. I said to Freud: "There, that is an example of a so-called catalytic exteriorisation phenomenon. And to prove my point I now predict that in a moment there will be another loud report! In any case, this incident aroused his mistrust of me, and I had the feeling that I had done something against him. The theme of mistrust characterizes the entire history of macro-psychokinetic claims. It is probably fair to state that no one, since Jesus Christ, has ever made such claims and been trusted (and there are many who distrust the supposed miracles of Christ). Furthermore, although mistrust may well blind us against considering vital possibilities, it is clearly warrantged by the simple fact that numerous cases of fraud have been exposed in this area. Perhaps, at a deeper level, both the fraud and the mistrust which it justifiably produces are part of an underlying protective mechanism developed within the collective unconscious (to use a Jungian term) of humanity. For, given our present level of ethical development, what awesome horrors might be wreak upon ourselves if we were able to harness psychokinesis in a disciplined manner? As a result of personal experiences that I shall recount, I accept the possibility of large-scale psychokinesis. I am also convinced that our planetary culture must demonstrate a willingness to solve the obvious problems of hunger, pollution, political inequality and war before we will be capable of responsibly wielding the full power of our own minds. The following examples provide some hints as to what that full power might possibly entail. Home Perhaps the greatest ostensible physical medium who has ever lived was Daniel Dunglas Home. However, at an early age he went to New England to live with his aunt who adopted him. At the age of seventeen he had a vision of the death of his mother, which was soon verified. After that time the household was frequently disturbed with loud raps and moving furniture. Declaring that he had introduced the devil to the household, his aunt threw him out. Among those who were convinced of his abilities in this early period were Judge John Edmunds of the New York State Supreme Court and Robert Hare, an ameritus professor of chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania. He exhibited religious reverence for the powers and knowledge that manifested through him along with a scientific curiosity to seek rational explanations. He conducted seances with the kings of Bavaria and 210 Wurtemburg as well as William I of Germany and assorted nobility throughout Europe. He conducted a seance for the poets Elizabeth Barrett Browning and her husband Robert. Although his wife protested, Robert Browning insisted that Home was a fraud and wrote a long poem called "Mr. In fact, throughout his long career, Home was never caught in any verifiable deceptions - although there were some apparant close calls. In 1868, Home conducted experiments with Cromwell Varley, chief engineer of the Atlantic Cable Company and afterwards before members of the London Dialectical Society, who held fifty seances with him at which thirty persons were present. Their report, published in 1871, attested to the observation of sounds and vibrations, the movements of heavy objects not touched by any person, and well-executed pieces of music coming from instruments not manipulated by any visible agency, as well as the appearance of hands and faces that did not belong to any tangible human being, but that nevertheless seemed alive and mobile. Crookes conducted two very ingenious experiments with Home in which he tested alterations in the weight of objects and the playing of tunes upon musical instruments under conditions rendering human contact with the keys impossible. For the first experiment, Crookes developed a simple apparatus measuring the changes in weight of a mahogany board. One end of the board rested on a firm table, whilst the other end was supported by a spring balance hanging from a substantial tripod stand. The balance was fitted with a self-registering index, in such a manner that it would record the maximum weight indicated by the pointer. The apparatus was adjusted so that the mahogany board was horizontal, its foot resting flat on the support. In this position its weight was three pounds, as marked by the pointed of the balance. On some occasions, Home never even touched the board: he merely placed his hands three inches over it. In other experiments, Crookes used a recording device to make a permanent record of the fluctuations in the weight. This was done to confute the argument that he himself was a victim of hallucinations. In order to test the stories about music being played on the instrument, Crookes designed a cage in which to place an accordion he purchased specifically for these experiments (see illustration). The cage would just slip under a table, allowing Home to grasp the instrument on the end opposite the keys, between the thumb and the middle finger. Home, still holding the accordion in the usual manner in the cage, his feet being held by those next to him, and his other hand resting on the table, we heard distinct and separate notes sounded in succession, 211 and then a simple air was played. As such a result could only have been produced by the various keys of the instrument being acted upon in harmonious succession, this was considered by those present to be a crucial experiment. Home then removed his hand altogether from the accordion, taking it quite out of the cage, and placed it in the hand of the person next to him. The instrument then continued to play, no person touching it and no hand being near it. Crookes submitted his experimental papers to the Royal Society in order to encourage a large-scale investigation of the phenomena, which he felt were caused by a psychic force. However, the secretary of the society rejected his papers and refused to witness his experiments. In his book, Lights and Shadows of Spiritualism, written in 1878, he took an aggressive stance against phony mediums or even those who were unwilling to cooperate with scientists. Unlike most mediums, Home was always willing to be tested under well-lit and closely supervised conditions. In 1913, he was elected president of the Royal Society, but unfortunately he had by then long since abandoned his experimental work with mediums and found it wise not to discuss his work often in public. The phenomena that Crookes reported have been beyond the experience of almost all researchers before or since his time. Often his experimental reports were inadequate by contemporary standards since he simply assumed that his own word was sufficient to establish general acceptance of a phenomenon. We cannot hastily conclude that Crookes was deluded or duped, for he was at the height of his intellectual creativity at the time he conducted this research. In the words of his friend, Sir Oliver Lodge, "It is almost as difficult to resist the testimony as it is to accept the things testified. The most notable spirit to appear identified herself as Katie King, the daughter, in a former life, of the buccaneer Henry Morgan. The phenomena of spirit materialization had actually attracted public attention a few years earlier through a Mrs. Samuel Guppy, the protegee of Alfred Russell Wallace, a prominent spiritualist who was also noted as one of the discoverers with Charles Darwin of the theory of evolution. Guppy introduced into her work the use of a tightly sealed cabinet in which she was placed in order to build up sufficient "power" for the construction of a spirit form which could then stand the scrutiny of the light outside the cabinet. The cabinet also provided, of course, an ideal opportunity for subterfuge on the part of the medium, which was undoubtedly taken advantage of on many occasions, for rarely were any medium and her spirit seen together at the same time. Crookes attended seances with Florence Cook for a period of over three years and studied her intensively for several months in a laboratory in his own home. He also made numerous observations of Katie King and took more than forty photographs of her. On several occasions he had the opportunity of seeing both Florence and her spirit, Miss King, at the same time and even of photographing them together. Katie appeared quite solidly before the guests at the seance, sometimes staying and conversing with them for a s long as two hours. It is difficult to believe that an accomplice could have continued such an intimate masquerade, in Crookes own home, for several months without detection. He gives several reasons why he feels Florence Cook could not have committed fraud: During the last six months, Miss Cook has been a frequent visitor at my house, remaining sometimes a week at a time. She brings nothing with her but a little handbag, not locked; during the day she is constantly in the presence of Mrs. Crookes, myself, or some other member of my family, and, not sleeping by herself, there is absolutely no opportunity for any preparation.
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Above the age of standardized incidence rates for including cancers of the breast diabetic diet exchange chart best buy prandin, 60 years diabetes test no blood discount prandin 2mg line, prostate cancer and lung all cancers combined (exclud colorectum diabetes mellitus y embarazo pdf generic 2mg prandin mastercard, and prostate diabetes symptoms foot problems discount 1mg prandin free shipping, have a cancer in men become more com ing non-melanoma skin cancer) relatively good prognosis diabetes 504 plans buy discount prandin 2 mg on-line, whereas mon. In general, and with mon in low-income countries, have 165 000 (95 000 in boys and 70 000 some exceptions, the highest in a signifcantly poorer prognosis. In in girls), and in teenagers and young cidence rates are associated with general, therefore, relatively more adults (15?39 years), the estimate the high-income countries of North cancer deaths are seen for a given is just more than 1 million (380 000 America and western Europe (to number of incident cases in the less in men and 670 000 in women). For gether with Japan, the Republic economically developed countries, more information on the descriptive of Korea, Australia, and New and cancer mortality rates are not epidemiology of cancer in these Zealand). This is the case for both very different from those in more age groups, see Chapter 1. A B 24 Regional patterns of cancer Europe incident sites in men and women, A regional breakdown of the global In Europe, the incidence pattern is respectively, and lung cancer is cancer incidence and mortality bur dominated by prostate and breast the most common cause of cancer den by continental region is provid cancers, which are the most com death in both sexes 1. However, unlike in Europe, cidence burden occurs in Asia, and spectively, together with lung and lung cancer is also relatively more almost a half of this, or 22% of the colorectal cancers (Fig. A quarter of the incidence because of its poor survival, is the alongside bladder and kidney can burden occurs in Europe, and the most important cause of cancer cers, malignant melanoma, non remainder is divided between the death in men (Fig. Bladder, Hodgkin lymphoma, and leukaemia Americas and Africa (with 1% in stomach, and kidney cancers also contribute signifcantly to the can Oceania). The mortality proportion contribute signifcantly to the bur cer burden in men, with incidence al distribution shows an increase den in men, with incidence rates rates of more than 10 per 100 000 in the proportion of cancer-related of more than 10 per 100 000, (Fig. This is also evident for deaths occurring in Asia and Africa, whereas in women, cancers of the malignant melanoma, non-Hodgkin together with a decrease in the pro corpus uteri and cervix also have lymphoma, corpus uteri, and thy portions occurring in the economi incidence rates of more than 10 per roid cancers in women. The prevalence pattern in deaths by sex, together with histo North America North America is very similar to that grams showing the age-standard In North America, patterns of the in Europe, with prostate, breast, ized incidence and mortality rates four major cancers are very similar and colorectal cancers together by cancer site and a chart showing to those in Europe. Prostate and accounting for half of all the 5-year the major 5-year prevalent cancers. Estimated world cancer incidence and mortality proportions by major world regions, in both sexes combined, 2012. Among most common cause of cancer these are much higher than those men, prostate and liver cancers are death in men 1. Colorectal prevalence in Oceania, as the third much higher but mortality is much cancer is the next most common most prevalent type. The importance of liver can cancer in women, but breast cancer pattern of prevalence is similar to cer in this region should be empha is the only type for which the inci that in Europe and North America sized; it is the second most com dence or mortality rates (43. Prostate, blad sub-Saharan Africa, especially in most common incident sites in der, colorectal, and liver cancers men, should also be noted. Kaposi men and women, respectively are the next most common, all with sarcoma is the third most common (Fig. Breast cancer is the incidence rates of more than 10 cancer in men and represents 9. In this region, breast of all cancer diagnoses, with an death in women, whereas prostate cancer represents a quarter of incidence rate of 7. However, and tively less prevalent compared with ated cancer sequelae before the unlike the situation in the more eco other world regions, bladder and advent of highly active antiretroviral nomically developed regions, cervi thyroid cancers make important therapy . Cervical cancer and cal cancer makes a major contribu contributions to the overall pattern Kaposi sarcoma also make impor tion to the cancer burden in women, (Fig. Stomach is equivalent to breast cancer in taining 57% of the global popu cancer is also important, especially terms of incidence (each consti lation (19% in China and 18% in in men, where it is the fourth most tutes approximately a quarter of India). Among men, the most com common incident cancer (with lung the total burden) and is the most mon cancers and causes of cancer 26 death are cancers of the lung, corresponding rates for stomach a little different in the region, and stomach, liver, colorectum, and cancer (23. Due tant contributors to the pattern of stantively below those in Europe to the varying fatality rates of these prevalence (Fig. Estimated cancer mortality proportions by major sites, in both sexes combined, in men, and in women, 2012. Estimated cancer incidence proportions by major sites, in both sexes combined, in men, and in women, 2012. Estimated cancer 5-year prevalence proportions by major sites, in both sexes combined, 2012. Age-standardized (World) cancer incidence rates per 100 000 in selected cancer registry populations, for all per 100 000 in selected cancer registry populations, for all cancers combined (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) in cancers combined (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) in men, 2003?2007. Country-specifc patterns of the same countries are shown in For both sexes there is, within this cancer Figs 1. Cancer in group of countries, a gradation in the consideration of incidence and cidence and mortality information all-cancer incidence rates between mortality rates in specifc countries for the same set of countries is pre the extremes and, especially in selected to be representative of the sented in the site-specifc chapters men, the higher rates are in eco world regions provides a further de later in this Report. It should be not nomically more developed popu gree of focus on the international ed that cause-specifc death certif lations. Age-standardized (World) cancer mortality rates per 100 000 by year in selected countries, for all cancers combined 100 000 by year in selected countries, for all cancers combined (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) in men, 2003?2007. Data from the same populations (Black and White) and Australia is and low absolute levels of mortality. Changes in the prevalence of or earlier detection (including as a ty) for all cancers combined (exclud smoking and hence, after a suit consequence of screening). It able lag period, in the incidence Nearly all cancer types show is diffcult to discern any general of lung cancer and other smoking important variations between re consistent trends in incidence from associated cancers, will also be gions, subregions, and countries country to country, although, with important determinants of all-can in terms of both contemporary in few exceptions. The broad overview present registries), rates have tended to in detailed consideration of country ed in this chapter inevitably masks crease from the 1980s to the pres specifc patterns by type of cancer. Age-standardized (World) cancer incidence rates per 100 000 by year in selected populations, for all cancers per 100 000 by year in selected populations, for all cancers combined (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) in men, circa combined (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) in women, 1975?2012. Similarly, an important starting point for tality that affects populations in all the estimated European incidence cancer epidemiology . Likewise, in sub each type often having its own set tance of cervical cancer across dif Saharan Africa, the average inci of risk factors and giving rise to a ferent regions is one such example. Such Some of these differences relate to in men is 6 per 100 000, ranging variations have signifcant implica the level of economic development, from 25 per 100 000 in Uganda and tions for tailoring cancer control to for example the higher incidence of Malawi to less than 1 per 100 000 region or country-specifc priori cancers associated with infections in Guinea and Nigeria. This chapter has focused in less-developed economies , for the variation in this case is little primarily on the current overall bur and the associations with develop den of cancer globally and in ma ment are considered in more detail understood, which should act as a jor world regions and serves as a in Chapter 1. However, with approxi risk, such as for prostate cancer, is Monitoring geographical variation mately 14 million new cases and also recognized. It is impossi sometimes decades, after an inter often absent or under-resourced ble to develop such plans without vention. Likewise, registries throughout the world is vi and Mathieu Laversanne for their assistance the impact of any control mea tal  and needs to be supported in producing the fgures. Anttila A, Ronco G; Working Group on the Estimates of the worldwide frequency of (2012). Tobacco control campaign in Registration and Monitoring of Cervical twelve major cancers. Bull World Health Uruguay: a population-based trend analy Cancer Screening Programmes in the Organ, 62:163?182. National Center for Health Statistics, Cen able to infections in 2008: a review and 6. Available at smoking and benefts of cessation in the velopment in Low and Middle-Income. Worldwide increasing in lence for 27 sites in the adult population cidence of thyroid cancer: update on in 2008. The predicted global cancer globalizing world continue to have Summary burden is expected to exceed profound effects on the scale and 20 million new cancer cases profle of the cancer burden and the. From a global perspective, the annually by 2025, compared need for tailored and effective strat cancer burden for each coun with the estimated 14. Transitions to this chapter reviews the evolution sitions mean that by 2030, well over wards higher levels of human of the cancer burden worldwide 20 million new cancer cases will be development have the effect of in relation to transitions in human diagnosed every year. Societal, economic, est impact will unquestionably be in overall, and of specifc types. In India, an information technology business park stands where agricultural the major incident cancers in fields previously existed, indicative of the transition towards a higher Human countries with high or very high Development Index rating. As countries transition to higher levels of human development, the underlying populations tend to in creasingly adopt behavioural and lifestyle habits that have become conventional in prosperous and in dustrialized countries. A changing prevalence and distribution of sev eral reproductive, dietary, and hor monal risk factors has the effect of increasing the risk at the population level of certain cancers associated with affuence; these include female breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colorectal cancer in both sexes. Yet in compilations of these dual aspects of cancer transi fection? are superseded by degen global mortality by cause, the com tion using the Human Development erative and man-made diseases? as mon practice of distinguishing be Index, an indicator introduced the major causes of morbidity and tween neoplasms according to the through the United Nations Devel mortality. The combined demographic and mortality in many parts of the heart disease, stroke, lower respi and epidemiological impact of a world. The Human Development Index: a marker of growth and development Before studying cancer patterns and trends against socioeconomic markers, it is important to consider what constitutes human develop ment, how it may be measured, and how it is changing with time. There is no automatic link between eco nomic growth and human progress; thus, policy issues concern the ex act process through which growth translates, or fails to translate, into human development under differ ent developmental conditions. This component is calculated using a minimum value of 20 years and a maximum value of 83. Access to knowledge, the educational com ponent, is indicated by the average duration of schooling that has been provided to adults aged 25 years and the expected years of school dichotomy between a developed? high?, medium?, and low? levels ing for children of school-entry age. For exam are the most frequent cancers in well as an extremely poor prognosis ple, there are national or regional countries with high or very high for patients after diagnosis. The disease has a lesser is much less consistent for corre quarter due to infection a higher rank in terms of prevalence, how sponding mortality; the estimates of relative proportion than the one ffth ever, because of poor survival after 1. Evidence of cancer transitions: some temporal examples Colorectal cancer as a marker of development Fig. Cumulative risk of (A) female breast cancer, (B) prostate cancer, and Mozambique to about 0. This is in major public of the Congo, Niger, and cervical cancer, and relatively high Chapter 1. Certainly, the extent and modal ities of early detection and screening vary from country to country and be tween and within the two regions ex amined. Increasing levels of screen ing at the population level are linked to human development, and where precursor lesions are not the target of the intervention, such interven tions have the potential to artifcially increase the incidence burden of fe male breast cancer due to mammo graphic screening programmes and, particularly, prostate cancer due to prostate-specifc antigen testing of asymptomatic individuals. The extent to which cytological screening of the cervix has been introduced is partly linked to devel opment levels and national cancer control policies and will have had an impact on the rates of cervical cancer in some countries, while other factors may explain some of the variation, including rates of high-risk human papillomavirus in fection at the population level, as infuenced by religious and cultural practices in given countries. Generally, increasing life expectancy are hav there is a relative paucity of cancer incidence and mortality data in areas with low and ing a major impact on population medium Human Development Index. Incidence rates demographic and trend-based thus the greatest increases in the are infuenced by the diagnosis of predictions future cancer burden (Fig. As with breast cancer, differenc es within countries in the unknown determinants and the extensive de lay between developmental chang es and an increasing risk of pros tate cancer may help to illuminate the apparent paradoxes. The inher ent lack of high-quality registry data underpinning national incidence estimation, most notably in Africa, is likely to have hampered the infer ence attempted here. Demographic chang es are the key drivers of the unprec edented growth in the cancer bur den, but the profles of cancer are changing as populations increas ingly adopt behavioural and lifestyle habits that are common in affuent, industrialized countries. The extent opment by consuming scarce re the habit has been acquired rela of the projected increases in lung sources, increasing pressures on tively recently in women; in some cancer and other tobacco-related already weak health-care systems, countries, in a departure from this diseases is, however, inextricably and inhibiting national productivity.
Dean Sheils diabetes y sus consecuencias cheap 2mg prandin fast delivery, "A Cross-Cultural Study of Beliefs in Out-Of-The-Body Experiences diabetes type 2 new treatments buy prandin 1 mg low price, Waking and Sleeping diabetes untreated symptoms buy prandin no prescription," Journal of the Society for Psychical Research blood sugar solution diet 0.5 mg prandin fast delivery, 49(775) diabetes symptoms urine bubbles discount prandin american express, March 1978, 697-741. Scott Rogo, "Astral projection in Tibetan Buddhist literature," International Journal of Parapsychology, 10(3), August 1968, 277-284. Becker, "The Centrality of Near-Death Experiences in Chinese Pure Land Buddhism," Anabiosis: the Journal for Near-Death Studies, 1(2), December 1981, 154-171. Alvarado, "Research on Spontaneous Out-Of-Body Experiences: A Review of Modern Developments, 1960-1984," in Betty Shapin & Lisette Coly (eds. Schmeidler, "Interpreting Reports of Out-Of-Body Experiences," Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 52(794), June 1983, 102-104. Gordon Greene, "Multiple Mind/Body Perspectives and the Out-Of-Body Experience," Anabiosis: the Journal for Near-Death Studies, 3(1), June 1983, 39-62. Whiteman, "Whiteman Replies to Chari," Parapsychological Journal of South Africa, 4(2), December 1983, 144-149. Many of these traditions survive today in cultural contexts where scientific medicine is unavailable either because of distance or cost. These modes of healing have been examined throughout the world by Stanley Krippner, professor of psychology and director of the Center for Consciousness Studies at the Saybrook Institute in San Francisco. Krippner has coauthored (with Alberto Villoldo) Healing States and Realms of Healing. Stanley Krippner (courtesy Thinking Allowed Productions) In a Thinking Allowed interview, Dr. Krippner summarizes his understanding of shamanistic healing practices involving spiritualistic views: Some of the more sophisticated of the Brazilian practitioners have said, "You know, the worst black magic is the black magic we commit against ourselves. It is the sorcery that hurts ourselves when we think negative thoughts, or we hold onto a destructive self concept, or when we allow ourself to say negative, hostile things about ourselves and the people around us, and those sentences go over and over in our mind. It is no wonder, then, that people get stomach aches and backaches and headaches with those negative thought images going around. I then asked Krippner if he would extend his pragmatic point of view to situations where a healer is actually using out-and-out fraud, such as some of the cases of alleged psychic surgery, where fraud seems to be used and then people recover. He responded: the amazing thing is that there is a history of sleight of hand in shamanism, and sometimes the sleight of hand is used for very benign purposes. Healing Temples In the Egyptian temples of Imhotep an art of healing known as incubation was practiced. It is known that Imhotep is the architect who designed the first known pyramid for the Pharaoh Zosar around 2700 B. He developed a reputation as a magician and healer and some 2000 years later came to be regarded as a god. This tradition, which was 88 carried on in the Greek temples with the healing God Asclepios, implies at the very least a very practical understanding of hypnotic suggestion-if not actual spiritual healing. An Egyptian text dating from over 3,000 years ago, called the Bent-rosh Stela describes the sufferings a princess endured in a profound experience described as "possession by a spirit. However, an immediate cure was affected upon the arrival of a high priest of Thoth who brought with him a great stone statue of the healing moon-deity aspect of the god. These techniques were preserved by the priesthood and also passed through mystery cults associated with the pyramids and sphinx. Aesclepion healing temple on the Island of Kos where Hyppocrates was trained It is hard to appreciate the enormous influence of the healing temples which dotted the ancient world and served as both hospitals and centers of learning. Hippocrates, the father of western medicine, received his training at the temple of Asclepios on the Island of Kos. An Inner Healing Advisor I had an opportunity to explore a process very akin to that used in the ancient healing temples, during a videotaped InnerWork interview with Dr. Rossman, the "inner healing advisor" can take a wide variety of forms when the mind is prepared through deep relaxation and suggestion (or hypnosis). His key directive is that one must accept and attempt to learn from whatever imagery appears. During our session, while in a trance state, the image appeared of a stately Roman wearing a toga who identified himself as "Seneca. If my inner advisor was to be one of the ancients, I thought, I would rather have Demosthenes who, born with a speech impediment, rose to be one of the greatest Greek orators. Accepting the image at face value as my "inner healing advisor," I entered into a dialogue and asked Seneca how we could work together. I have subsequently spent a good deal of time studying the remarkable life of this ancient writer (and even arranged a visit to Cordoba, Spain, 89 where Seneca was born). He was not only a playwrite, but also a statesman, scholar and philosopher who wrote extensively on matters of health and healing. Statue of Seneca in Cordoba, Spain (courtesy Janelle Barlow) Although Seneca lived a productive life until the age of 69, he frequently suffered from asthma and other diseases. Based on the tradition of Stoicism, Seneca maintained a philosophical balance between an acceptance of fate and a continual search for virtuous self-improvement. He once offered this prescription to a friend who was suffering from illness: Call to mind things which you have done that have been upright or courageous; run over in your mind the finest parts that you have played. And cast your memory over the things you have most admired; this is a time for recollecting all those individuals of exceptional courage who have triumphed over pain. I regard the ostensible contact with Seneca as meaningful from a deep healing perspective - one in which healing, to the extent that it occurs, is a natural outcome of a balanced, philosophical. Such a perspective differs in scope and depth from those schools of thought that view healing as a consequence of particular techniques. Christian healing is, when practiced within the context of Christian principles as a way of life, another example of deep healing. Numerous examples of miraculous cures, in fact, are to be found within the spiritual traditions of all cultures. Mesmerism In the eighteenth century, the Age of Reason, techniques for healing through suggestion and consciousness alteration rose to the very forefront of public attention. Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815), a Viennese trained physician who held to the old astrological beliefs, initiated this new era of consciousness exploration. Mesmer, however, ventured beyond mere hypothesis into the realm of pseudoscience when he began treating patients for a variety of ailments by applying magnets to their bodies. Later he stopped using magnets and maintained that any curative influence emanated from the hands and nervous system of the healer. He believed this influence, which he named animal magnetism, could be transmitted to objects held in or stroked by the hand. In 1778 he moved to Paris and attracted great notoriety with many patients and pupils among the wealthy classes. In order to deal with the crowds of patients he attracted, he devised a wooden tub filled with water and iron filings, and containing many bottles of "magnetized water. In 1784, the French government appointed an official commission to investigate Mesmer. It was composed of several renowned scientists including Antoine Lavoisier, "the founder of modern chemistry" and Benjamin Franklin. They reported to the Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of Medicine that the "magnetic fluid" was a myth. Primarily their report stressed the immorality of the healer making magnetic passes over the bodies of his female patients. From his writings there is evidence that he was aware his treatments held a greater significance than simply curing patients. Patients in this state showed themselves unusually responsive to the suggestions of the mesmerist, and could be made not only to perform actions, but also to feel emotions or to entertain delusional beliefs. Ordinary senses might be heightened, and other psychic sensitivities seemed to be induced. Of this state, Mesmer writes: 91 the somnambulist may perceive the past and the future through an inner sense of his. Man is in contact through his inner sense with the whole of nature and can always perceive the concatenation of cause and effect. Some patients would diagnose and prescribe for their own ailments, and sometimes they would do this for others using clairvoyance. Puysegur emphasized the importance of the will of the therapist as the directing influence behind the mesmerizing process and claimed the ability to put people into a trance telepathically. Demand of him in the first place that he give himself up entirely, that he think of nothing, that he do not trouble himself by examining the effects that he experiences, that he banish all fear, and indulge hope, and that he be not disquieted or discouraged if the action of magnetism produces in him temporary pains. After you have brought yourself to a state of self-collectedness, take his thumbs between your two fingers, so that the inside of your thumbs may touch the inside of his. Remain in this situation five minutes, or until you perceive there is an equal degree of heat between your thumbs and his: that being done, you will withdraw your hands, removing them to the right and left, and waving them so that the interior surface be turned outwards, and raise them to his head; then place them upon his two shoulders, leaving them there about a minute; you will then draw them along the arm to the extremity of the fingers, touching lightly. You will repeat this pass five or six times, always turning your hands and sweeping them off a little, before reascending: you will then place your hands upon the head, hold them there a moment, and bring them down before the face, at the distance of one or two inches, as far as the pit of the stomach: there you will let them remain about two minutes, passing the thumb along the pit of the stomach, and the other fingers down the sides. Then descend slowly along the body as far as the knees, or farther; and, if you can conveniently, as far as the ends of the feet. You may sometimes draw nearer to the patient so as to place your hands behind his shoulders, descending slowly along the spine, thence to the hips, and along the thighs as far as the knees, or to the feet. After the first passes you may dispense with putting your hands upon the head, and make the succeeding passes along the arms beginning at the shoulder: or along the body commencing at the stomach. When you wish to put an end to the sitting, take care to draw towards the extremity of the hands, and towards the extremity of the feet, prolonging your passes beyond these extremities, and shaking your fingers each time. Finally, make several passes transversely before the face, and also before the breast, at the distance of three or four inches: these passes are made by presenting the two hands together and briskly drawing them from each other, as if to carry off the super-abundance of fluid with which the patient may be charged. You see that it is essential to magnetize, always descending from the head to the extremities, and never mounting from the extremities to the head. It is on this account that we turn the hands obliquely when they are raised again from the feet to the head. The descending passes are magnetic, that is, they are accompanied with the intention of magnetizing. This method, which is never injurious, is in certain cases advantageous, and for this reason it is good to get in the habit of doing it. Although you may have at the close of the sitting taken care to spread the fluid over all the surface of the body, it is proper, in finishing, to make several passes along the legs from the knees to the end of the feet. This manner of magnetizing by longitudinal passes, directing the fluid from the head to the extremities, without fixing upon any part in preference to others, is called magnetizing by the long pass. It is more or less proper in all cases, and it is requisite to employ it in the first sitting, when there is no special reason for 92 using any other. The fluid is thus distributed into all the organs, and it accumulates naturally in those which have need of it. Besides the passes made at a short distance, others are made, just before finishing, at the distance of two or three feet. There is one more process by which it is very advantageous to terminate the sitting. When the magnetizer acts upon the patient, they are said to be in communication, (rapport).